Introduction Many previous studies have revealed characteristic of crowd flow due to a difference in spatial configuration by measuring the walking speed and density in public place. However, it is difficult to determine whether the cause of the change in the pedestrian behavior is bottleneck or local congestion. This is because the measured spatial conditions, walking situation is the fact that not described in detail. This paper focused on the specific flow where the path with bottleneck and merging or without of them using full scale experiment. Purpose The purpose of this study measures walking speed and the density from an experiment and clarifies the characteristic of crowd flow a change of the spatial conditions. In addition, it's considered about the influence on specific flow from the observed crowd flow. Methods By establishing the temporary compartment which is shaped like corridor within the facility, changing the shape, the width of the corridor, the width of neck and the density, the crowd walking experiment by 96 participants was performed. The experimental situation is photographed by the video camera installed on the ceiling part. In Case A, the walls were constructed on both sides and the corridor was straight. There were 3 kinds of the width of corridor. In Case B, in the center within the area of Case A1, there was a bottleneck, where there were 3 kinds of the width of corridor and 2 kinds of the width of bottlenecks. In case C, the merging occurs in the area of Case A. In Case D, the width of corridor was 6.0m, in the center of which there was a bottleneck. Under all the conditions, we attempted the experiment three times per each condition. In Case A4, the width of corridor was 6.0m, in the center of which there was a bottleneck. Under all the conditions, we attempted the experiment three times per each condition. Results The part of results of this study are as follows; - When focusing on the trajectory before neck through, the wedge-shaped trajectory of the participants was drawn from 2,400mm in front of the neck toward the bottleneck. In the Case B-5 which has the corridor with narrow width, the wedge shape of the trajectory became moderate and the participants moved substantially straight toward the neck - A pedestrian in the merging front of path walks while decelerating walking speed by occurrence of congestion by merging. - After passing through an opening, when it's wide space, a pedestrian maintains each own personal space and approaches free speed. Conclusion When the one direction crowd flow in path bottleneck and merging occurs, the specific flow in the path reduced response to width of the path and width of the bottleneck. When passing through the opening, the specific flow is changed in accordance with the crowd density of the previous bottleneck and forward spatial configuration.
It is difficult for firefighters to extinguish all fires in a large earthquake because multiple fires break out simultaneously in different places. For reducing the number of burnt-down buildings in densely built-up wooden residential areas, it is important to preferentially extinguish fires at burning buildings that are likely to spread widely. The damage of fire-spread depends on the fireproof performance of each building and the spatial characteristics of each town. However, the methods for quantifying fire-spread risk of a building have not been sufficiently discussed. In this paper, first, we construct a detailed simulation model that describes the spread of fire after a large earthquake. This model can take into account the fire-spread direction according to the difference of fire-prevention performance among buildings. Using this model, we propose two fire-spread indices (‘Fire-spread potential’ and ‘Burnt-down potential’) for each building based on the results of fire-spread simulation. Fire-spread potential is defined as the number of buildings destroyed by fire-spread from a building. This index can be used to clarify buildings with high-risk of fire-spread. Burnt-down potential is defined as the probability that a building is burnt down by fire-breakout from itself or by fire-spread from other buildings, and useful for discussing the safety of important places such as evacuation areas. Based on the Fire-spread potential under the assumption of Tokyo Inland Earthquake, there might be some regions with high-risk for destroying more than 300 buildings in average by a fire. Also, about a half of buildings in Tokyo Metropolitan area have the burnt-down probability 10 times higher than the fire-breakout probability of each building. Next, we attempt to evaluate the effects of extinguishing fires at buildings preferentially based on the Fire-spread potential under the condition when multiple fires break out simultaneously. In case that firefighters extinguish fires in order of the time reported by residents, in average more than 500 buildings might be burnt down in 61.0% of Tokyo Metropolitan area. By contrast, assuming that firefighters went to fires in descending priority order of the Fire-spread potential, the percentage of such areas could be reduced to 8.5%. These results suggest that the Fire-spread potential can be effective to identify high-risk buildings and decrease the number of burnt-down buildings. In the chaos immediately after an earthquake, information on the location of fires reported by residents may be sometimes imprecise. Such kind of information is likely to prevent firefighters from extinguishing fires at buildings with high fire-spread risk. Based on the simulation assuming that imprecise information on location of fires is randomly reported within 65 meters from the correct location, the number of buildings destroyed by fires increases to four times more than in the case correct information is reported. In order to reduce the influence of imprecise information on the location of fires, we propose that firefighters decide the priority of destinations not based on the Fire-spread potential of a reported building but on the average of the potential of a certain area around the building. In case the distance of a gap between the actual location of a fire and the reported location is 15 meters or more, the total number of burnt-down buildings can reduce by using the average Fire-spread potential of buildings within 75 meters of each reported building. However, in case the distance is less than 15 meters, it is more effective to use the Fire-spread potential of the reported building. These results suggest that it is important for firefighters to change the strategy for extinguishing fires based on the accuracy of the reported location.
Introduction The changes of territoriality in low-rise and high-rise housings were revealed by the research so far. However, these subjects of research are apartment buildings, the territoriality in existing residential area in which there are many types of resident is not cleared. So this study subject is the existing residential area which is mixed by traditional dwellings and new type of housings.
Purpose of research The purpose of this study is to examine relation between changed alley-space and psychology of dwellers. The boundary between inside and outside of dwellings in existing residential area is surveyed in particular. Furthermore, the relevance of territoriality and openness of housings space is cleared and good boundary of housings is presented.
Research method First of all, the extensions of commodity and the self-expression elements of different entrance and window formats were grasped. Then the dwellers were surveyed regarding their daily lives by the questionnaire. The questionnaire items were the usage of alley-space, relationship with neighbors, sense of safety, and evaluation about openness and so on. Finally the relevance of the physical settings in alley-space and psychology of dwellers was analyzed.
Conclusions The results are summarized as the following five points. (1) The self-expression elements in alley-space tend to be the most in the case of sliding door and window toward alley and in the main traffic line. (2) On the other hand the extensions of commodity tend to be the most in the case of hinged door and no window and in the sub traffic line. (3) The closer housings are toward alley, the less self-expression elements are. The less dwellers use the alley, the weaker neighbor relations become. Then necessities of neighbor community are lower as a result. (4) The sense of safety in existing residential area tends to be lower in comparison with low-rise and high-rise housings. This factor is deterioration of public order causes anxiety about opening entrance. (5) The residents moving recently evaluate affirmatively about openness of housing space. The neighborhood relation was valuable in cooperation, education, welfare, crime prevention and so on. In addition, it was reduction of the effects of a natural disaster. Therefore, it is necessary to open housing in the architectural planning stage at first and it will be possible to create a virtuous circle.
In-home childcare services are used by nuclear families that find it difficult to routinely call on grandparents for aid. Services are not used only when a parent present. In two-thirds of the usage, parents are absent. Services are usually performed in the living/dining room (LD), the center of family life. Among these, in many one-layer dwellings (apartment houses), a room connected to the LD is used as a bedroom, and this room is routinely used together with the LD as one large room. Therefore, during in-home childcare services, even the bedroom is often seen by the cooperators, a third party. The “withholding of information” is an important privacy factor during usage of in-home childcare services, and this point is supported by the details of spatial manipulation before services like dealing with futons, moving items, including valuables, and closing doors to rooms to be kept hidden, etc. Feelings of privacy being invaded can be classified into three types: manifest-type, latent-type, and relaxed-type. Manifest-type is characteristically often seen in two-layer dwellings (maisonette type apartment house and detached two-layer homes) and latent-type and relaxed-type are often seen in one-layer dwellings. Similarly, there is a tendency for the privacy demand to keep a location hidden to be more manifest in two-layer dwellings. Due to how the service is used, stronger screening of locations and spatial adjustments are observed when the helper cannot be monitored, such as when the parents are absent. In addition, in terms of feelings of privacy being invaded in one-layer dwellings, there are more cases of latent and relaxed types when parents are absent and when the service is used infrequently. Through the aforementioned, it was clarified that each of the three processes in the acquisition of privacy as indicated by Altman — demand, adjustment, and achievement — are influenced by social factors, such as the ways the childcare services are used, as well as the physical factors of the living space depending on whether it is one-layer or two-layer and by flow planning (figure 3). The noteworthy point is that the results are difficult to explain according to conventional functional differentiation. This is because the feeling of privacy being invaded is not necessarily reduced and even becomes more strongly manifest in two-layer dwellings in which functional differentiation has been achieved by placing the bedroom, which requires a high level of screening, on a different floor than the LD. On the other hand, in one-layer dwellings in which functional differentiation is difficult to achieve, timing due to straightening up and coping through one's mental attitude are considered, and as a result, in many cases, the feeling of privacy being invaded is alleviated or eliminated. In addition, as a new discovery, it was indicated that one's sense of privacy while in the dwelling is also affected by the design of the space around the dwelling. This is because there is a tendency for the feeling of privacy being invaded to become manifest when the spatial planning does not provide the options of either interacting with or blocking the vision of neighbors, even in two-layer dwellings in which functional differentiation has been achieved.
Introduction There are populations aging and deterioration of residential buildings in the new town developed as the purpose of favorable dwelling environment from 1950's, so it is necessary to renewal in various aspects. Many child-rearing households moved into new town at that time, so aging population, small-family household and single person will be increased in the future. The changes corresponding situation are required.
Purpose of research The district in an early stage of development in Tama New Town in which the rate of aging is the highest and vacant house will be increased is surveyed. The hopes moving to new places for the dwellers are investigated. In addition, the housing environmental evaluation and future intention for the child-rearing households are researched. This paper discusses regeneration methods of housing complex by analyzing demands of moving for dwellers and consciousness of child-rearing households.
Research method At first, the characteristics of dwellers and households were grasped. Then, the vacant houses and ratio of them in the rental housing complexes and condominiums were explored. The dwellers who live in housing complexes and condominiums were surveyed regarding their daily lives and future intentions by the questionnaire. The child-rearing households who bring up a child under 18 years old were interviewed, too.
Conclusions These results lead us to the conclusion following five points. (1)The older dwellers are, the stronger living intentions are. Households of only a couple and one-person households don't want to move to new places. As it is difficult to induce elderly one-person households to move, moving motivation is very important. (2)Although the dwellers who live in the condominium for a long time feel attachment, the dweller who lives in the rental housing complex don't feel so much. (3)The motives of moving into for child-rearing households are living near their parents, decent house rent and environment for raising children. Because child-rearing households moving into this district are persons grow up there and lived in their life, the households like these will be expected to do from now on. (4)But dwelling units and surrounding environments are good reputations, common-use spaces and management of housing complex are unfavorable criticisms. Therefore, repairing of residential buildings and improvement of management are required. (5)Since the neighborhood business street is negative image for child-rearing households, it will be necessary to utilize these places as whereabouts for them in the future.
Academic Library is defined the place to help students. Learning Commons(LC) is increasing by library improvement and a new establishment. By LC of the library it has been introduced, I will increasingly be extent of seat choice. And extent of seat choice diversity. This paper is user's awareness of the places, by LC of the library it has been introduced. And from the view point of group user and private user, to understand that whereabouts formation of the place, An object thereof is to clarify the hierarchical structure in the choice behavior of the place, Surveyed academic library is three academic library with the LC of Aichi Prefecture. Configuration of LC in three academic library so different. Survey way Question paper by visitors in library, and Plot patrol.
LC is specialized in the group user, but there were much private user. LC was used a lot as a place of the personal learning and revealed what it the place that can talk but also the space that I can learn quietly. In the academic library, personal use, and group use was seen in open stuck area and LC regardless of the number of user. In the open stuck, both the personal use, and the group use choose the quiet space around. In addition, the user chooses a seat while minding eyes of another person, and the group use knew that there was a type to choose the far space from the quiet space and a type to melt into the active space. So I think that I mind eyes in learning commons, and I secure anonymity in active environment. According to space choice, I think that I choose a space to a learning style each, when concentration level from the quiet space to the active space changes.
Example, quiet space from active space of easy from active space by step up floor. When I choose the learning environment that there was s oneself of the day from the conversation of the user and around the sound environment, I think that the choice of the space is hierarchy. In academic library with LC, the place to be choose by the learning activities, are organized into six by the sound environment and companion form. Factor of seat choice is the degree of the conversation of the learner, and sound environment of surrounding and density of people and space. This three stage, and it is classified among private user and the group user. After this, I need not only the active space such as LC, and it is necessary to maintain the quiet space. Next paper, I want to clarify it hierarchical structure from user's awareness and user's behavior in detail. And I want to calculate the number of seat.
This paper aims to verify the establishment effects of day care facilities for the elderly by social welfare organization “Syakaifukushi Jigyoudan” in Hagi city, where 1 old city merged with 6 old towns and villages during the mass mergers of the Heisei period. It' based on the construction process and use characteristics of day care facilities. The result are as follows. 1) The social welfare organization “syakaifukushi jigyoudan” is a corporation that prefectural and municipal government officials establish by 46 notification. And the social welfare organization is positioned as a professional organization that manages the facilities established by local government. The social welfare organization can carry out the business of social welfare freely by 2002 revision. 117 social welfare organizations are established now, and the many reason of establishment is that there is no corporation to entrust facility management. The number of disabled person welfare works is the most, because it is put as an important point from the beginning. 2) The social welfare organization “syakaifukushi jigyoudan” was established in Hagi city, because there was no private sector corporation in this area and a social welfare council isn't for only the aged person welfare work. The day care facilities are established in whole area by cooperating with local government. 3) The users can select the day care facility by keeping the characteristics in the facilities. 4) The use sphere of the social welfare organization “Syakaifukushi Jigyoudan” is small, because the social welfare organization covers the demand of city centers and the social welfare corporations cover the demand of old Sanmi and Oi villages. 5) The fulfillmentrate of facility demand increases over 3 times from 2000 to 2010 by establishment of the social welfare organization “Syakaifukushi Jigyoudan”, and the effect was confirmed. In addition, facility development is progressing by corporations for profit and medical corporation. It is thought that potential demand gave the opportunity of the entries of corporations for profit and medical corporation, because the fulfillmentrate of facility demand was low before these corporations entered. Therefore, it is thought that it is possible to progress facility development equally in whole area by the social welfare organization “Syakaifukushi Jigyoudan”. The social welfare organization has the advantage that it is easy to reflect the policy of the local government, so the social welfare organization can progress facility development with a social welfare corporation and a social welfare council. In particular, it is thought that cooperating with these corporations is easy in rural areas, because the number of entries of private sector corporations is small and the number of entries of social welfare corporations is large. About this point, I will verify and report in the next paper. In addition, managing a day care facility is difficult by nursing-care insurance revision in 2015. However, it is possible to continue stable management facility by developing multiple facilities centered on a nucleus facility. Moreover, it is possible to continue managing the facility that facility management is difficult by handing on to the social welfare organization. So, it is thought that the supply of day care facility can be stable.
It is necessary for local governments to evaluate the total number of public facilities in consideration of facility relocation. Owing to the aging of several public facilities and the change in future demographics, the financial situation is deteriorating. In 2014, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications officially announced “Formulate the request of the public facilities comprehensive management plan,” and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism published “PRE effective utilization guidelines for the town planning.” Based on this, it is urgently necessary to consider relocation of facilities for the management of public facilities. In this study, we categorized public facilities based on “building,” “function,” and “location” to create an evaluation method for public facilities based on previous research and evaluation methods. In the evaluation of buildings, we determined the degree of improvement that is required to improve earthquake resistance and the state of the outer walls, paint, and roof, of the building, as well as the associated equipment. In the evaluation of function, we determined whether the facility was operated at an appropriate cost and whether it provided sufficient public services. In the evaluation of location, we evaluated the convenience of the public facility in terms of traffic, and determined whether aggregation of facilities is valid at that location in the future. In addition, we developed a long-term utilization policy that considers utility after the completion of the useful life of the facility from these three evaluations. Further, we propose a maintenance method for a group of public facilities via facility relocation, based on previous research and evaluation methods. In order to consider facility relocation, we constructed a process to consider a stepwise manner, such as facility, region, and entire municipality. In addition, it is possible for each municipality to collect the necessary data for the management of public facilities. In order to verify the validity of the evaluation method and the constructed process, we conducted a case study on Machida-city. The working-age and youth populations of Machida-city are expected to decrease, whereas the elderly population is expected to increase. There are 342 public facilities here with a current total running cost of 17.4 billion yen. However, this cost is estimated to reach 16.3 billion yen by 2050. Further, in order to maintain the current number of public facilities, the actual cost, updated appropriately with maintenance costs, is 20.5 billion yen. Therefore, a shortage of 4.2 billion yen is expected in the future. The case study results are as follows. The gross area of public facilities was reduced by approximately 140, 000 m2. The facility costs can be expected to decrease to 18.3 billion yen. In other words, the reduction effect of the cost of public facilities can be called about 2.2 billion yen. In conclusion, we proposed a long-term utilization policy that considers utility at the end of the useful life of a facility. Additionally, the maintenance method and total optimization process of the facility via facility relocation, which was validated by verification with the target local government, is presented.
The present study aimed to analyse the hospital´s management system as performed by the hospital staff and the relationship between management and environmental improvement projects in common spaces. Today, hospitals are expected to provide patient-centred medical care and high quality environments in their health care spaces. New hospital construction incorporates large common space areas such as day rooms, waiting rooms, corridors, and lobbies. However, the hospital staff has the difficult task of improving and maintaining the spatial and environmental conditions, such installing adequate furniture or artworks. Thus, after the building is completed, the environments turn into untidy and gradually desolated spaces due to an unclear management and maintenance system. This study focused on exploring all common spaces in one hospital in Tsukuba city, Japan. It considered these spaces not only as complementary to medical care, but also areas in which the medical and home environments meet. As part of the research methodology, interviews with hospital staff were conducted to understand how they manage and care for the environmental elements found in common spaces. Section 2 introduces a description of each common space found in different areas of the hospital. First, the public access areas included waiting rooms for outpatients and exams, and areas outside the ward for connection purpose (i.e. corridors connecting two buildings). Second, the areas without public access included non-waiting rooms (corridors, corridors with waiting areas, lobbies) for outpatients and exams, and areas inside the ward for patients (corridor, day rooms). Section 3 identifies the maintenance management system as a particular environmental element for staff. As a result, there were two systems for the management of common spaces. The first system was the management of all environmental elements by specific staff that was exclusive to common space maintenance. In the second system, individual staff members were not responsible for maintaining spaces, which created disorder in common areas. The former involved areas without public access and the latter involved the public access areas. Therefore, both management systems for common spaces coexisted on the same floor and thus lack continuity. Section 4 describes the environmental improvement projects that have influenced the management system. Three spatial renovation projects were accomplished through a number of meetings and workshops with hospital staff to discuss the environmental problems and design concepts. Therefore, the hospital staff maintained order and cleanliness in the common spaces following the renovation. The signboard renovation project was launched to provide continuity in plural common spaces under different management systems. The staff did not participate in the process, hence they had no understanding of the new sign and colouring system concept. As such, the signboard renovation project had no influence on maintenance. Consequently, the hospital has problems in several areas with their hospital staff-driven management system. However, environmental improvement projects have influenced the hospital staff's perception and management to maintain order and cleanliness in the common space environments. Accordingly, there are three provisions for the management and improved environment of common spaces: 1) create the concept of each common space managed jointly with hospital staff; 2) remove problems in the management system; and 3) create a design rule to integrate several management systems and share with hospital staff.
The Chuandou System (pillars-and-transverse-tie-beams) wooden frame is wildly used in Miao people's houses in Qiandongnan region of Guizhou Province of China. The Chuandou System wooden frame is composed of vertical pillars and horizontal beams called "Fang". In this area, the house building is following a traditional production organization that the local carpenters design the house and process wooden components and the setting-up of the frame that is completed by joint work of villagers. By investigating the construction process of G house in Gongna Village, Qiandongnan region, this study has clarified that five types of the mortise and tenon joints are used in Chuandou-systerm wooden. The dimension characters of horizontal beams (Fang) were also clarified. In addition, the relationship between types of mortise and tenon joints, the dimension characters of horizontal beams (Fang), and the production organization of house building would be discussed in this study. In G house, the wooden frame could be separated into roof truss and framework. There are two types of mortise and tenon joints in roof trusses.. One of the joints that carpenters cult into a cavity in bottom of short pillar, and the cavity could be used as a mortise to put the short pillar on horizontal beam. Another type of the joints could be considered as a "haunched stob tenon joint", which is used to put horizontal beams(Fang) into short pillars. Also, there are three types of mortise and tenon joints in the frameworks. One type could be considered as a "pegged tenon joint". A haunched stob form tenon on the end of the beam inserts into the mortise. For strengthening the mortise and tenon, a peg is drived into one hole both through mortise and tenon. In another type of joints, tenon is in the middle of the horizontal beam (Fang) that could be passed across mortise and a key could be drived into horizontal beam (Fang) close to the pillar. The last type of mortise and tenon joints also could be considered as a "pegged tenon joint". Pair of horizontal symmetry beams come from two sides of the pillar, and two tenons on the end of beams are joint in one mortise. A peg also has been drvied into two tenons and one mortise to fix them. After the processing of wooden components, local villagers have to set up the Chuandou system frame by a very simple way in two days. They move horizontal beams (Fang) or vertical pillars to join mortises and tenons, and use wooden hammers to hit the beams to strengthen the connection of mortise and tenons. To provide an effectively setting-up construction, the local carpenters should devise the combination of mortise and tenon joints, and also process the horizontal beams (Fang) by different heights and widths in different positions even in the same beam as the shorter area can ensure the beams insert mortise smoothly. Therefore, relatively complicated process skill as well as a simple setting-up frame is developed in this region.
This study, targeting private library, has made clear the role of the social capital which help establish the activities of the private library. Private library aims to increase the communication and gradually contributes to regional vitalization by turning vacant stores and space into libraries. Spreads of the activity is seen originally from the city of Funabashi, based on the support of the local residents and volunteers. This study focuses on the current conditions of the private library and the details of motivations since its early establishment stage, followed by the examinations of possible social capital that leads to the expansion of the private library. This research covers the outlines of 29 private libraries, including the year in which the library was opened, the function and the address. It also looks into the motivation and the process of how the private library was opened as well as the media who have had acknowledge of private library. The research is then followed by an analysis on the characteristics of each library and the relationship between each other chronologically. As a result, (1)private library has expanded gradually with the support of those who have sympathy to the activity. (2)Moreover, in terms of the motivations, some private library is opened because of the physical circumstances such as increasing demands for a place to stalk endless books as well as for the solutions to hazards coming along with the vacant stores. While in other private library such as some complex that accommodates both library and store inside, the motivation is seen to have responded to the community revitalization, the latency time for little kids while their parents are having a long conversation and the increasing number of the visiting guests. It can thus be assumed that those motivations are closely related to the function of the annex facilities. (3)On the other hand, in terms of the media which have acknowledge of the private libraries, the contents of it has been shifted from newspapers and lectures to introductions and hearsays via neighboring acquaintance and other real time experience. Thus Through the expansion of the sympathy and the spontaneous involvement, private library has become a center that forms the social capital as well as that contributes to the community revitalization
Nagaya-mon Gate is a mixture of gate and house, which is thought to have been formed and refined in the last period of 16th century. Through various changes of economic and social developing, the gate had been sequentially succeeded to later generation mainly by farmhouse in rural area. Nagaya-mon Gate contributes to local landscape and can be considered as cultural property, embodying local history and culture. The study aims to clarify actual conditions of the gate focusing on utilization and its owner's intension to maintain, in order to obtain clue of preserving Nagaya-mon Gate. Utsunomiya city and Takanezawa town, Tochigi prefecture, were chosen for investigation because many Nagaya-mon Gates of rural type now exist in the area and these two local governments have both launched local landscape plan referred to the gate. Observation survey as well as hearing and questionnaires to the owner have been put into practice several times from 2008 to 2014. The conclusions can be summarized as follows: 1) the greater part of Nagaya-mon Gate was built after the Meiji Restoration, while a few built during Edo period is seen; 2) general use of Nagaya-mon Gate at the present are such as storage for materials and equipment of agriculture, storehouse for foods and farm products, while a few examples such as living space, workspace and office are observed; 3) the transformation of Nagaya-mon Gate use is generally described from storage of rice paid for rent, living space for tenant farmer or war damage evacuee to storage for materials and equipment of agriculture, storehouse for foods and farm products; 4) many Nagaya-mon gates have been repaired mainly during the period of high economic growth and appearance of Nagaya-mon Gate has been drastically changed, such as roofs changed from reed roofing or stone roofing to clay tile roofing or metal sheet roofing, wall finishing also mildly changed from boarding to stone pitching; 5) owners of Nagaya-mon Gate point out that the reason of maintaining the gate is inheritance over several generations, while importance for premises and its contribution to local landscape are also heard; 6) owner of Nagaya-mon Gate complains of taxes and burden for repairing and managing on one hand and inconvenience for passing on the other; 7) in spite of the previous problems, the owners' attachment and pride of the Nagaya-mon Gate is still observed, as they conceive that Nagaya-mon Gate is the symbol of their family's history. It can be said that Nagaya-mon Gate would be maintained for the future, because facing damages by the Great East Japan Earthquake, majority of the injured gate were repaired.
In order to understand the differences between company towns, this paper focused on the relationship between a brewing company and a city. Three kind of data, the ratio of the company's profit in Yibin's GDP, the company's employees in Yibin's total population, and the company's lands in Yibin's area, were used as evaluating indexes to analyze the relationship between the enterprise and the city from the economy, population and urban space aspects.
Specialized brewing studios showed up in the Ming Dynasty in Yibin. After the establishment of the People's Chinese Republic of China, these studios were combined to one national company, and a rapid industrial expansion was realized after the Reform and Open Up. In the 1990s, the company went public and purchased some related companies with a large sum of capital. As a result, a production chain has been fully established.
If looking at the urban space, it will be found that the factories were mainly constructed in the countryside, along the northern riverbank before the 1980s. After 1990, as the number of the employees increased to 17,832, a city-sized factory housing complex was built. In addition, in order to create a convenient transportation system for the products, the company also paved some main roads connected to the city center.
Comparing with Luzhou, Yibin has a similar general flow of the industrial modernization. The difference is that in Yibin, the company caught the chance of the system reform in the 1990s. It purchased some related enterprises within the city, by raising a large sum of funds independently before the rapid urban expansion. This is the biggest reason for evaluating the relationship of the enterprise and the city as moderate.
As a conclusion, in Yibin, the enterprise constructed housing complexes, city infrastructures, and has formed a separated urban space within the city, therefore, it can be classified as “A City Within A City” company town. This structure has been formed due to the balance of the enterprise and the city government, the national polices and so on.
This research aims to explore the nature of the local city which is revealed by the dwelling-place selection trend of Nara’s younger generation. Therefore, this research analyses the tendency and the stated reasons of the younger generation's for relocating. From 2007, the population of Nara － which is the subject of our research － began to decrease, and it continues to decline to this day. Although the percentage of the whole population comprised by the younger generation was 33.1% in 1980, it has since decreased to 23.2% in 2012. Our chosen research method was to use a questionnaire. We distributed 2,000 questionnaires to people moving away from Nara (referred to hereinafter as ‘movers’) and received 467 completed questionnaires. Furthermore, we distributed 3,000 questionnaires to people relocating to Nara (referred to hereinafter as ‘transferers’) and received 850 completed questionnaires. Of the stated reasons for relocating, the four highest ranked are: ‘marriage’, ‘employment’, ‘purchase of a dwelling’, and ‘living with parents, or the neighbourhood ’. These four reasons account for 70 percent or more of the total number of relocations. In this research, we analysed the trend, focusing particularly on these four reasons. Concerning relocations due to marriage, people who lived in Nara up to the age of 30 years relocated due to marriage, and live in privately rented homes in which the rent is comparatively high for a married couple despite their double income. Conversely, for transferers, people lived in their first home up to the age of 30, then moved into Nara for reasons of marriage, with their wife performing the role of a housewife and the couple living in a privately rented house. For relocations caused by employment, unmarried people up to 30 years old moved to homes where the commuting distance was short. For transferers living in privately rented houses, both unmarried people aged 35 and over and married couples thought construction years , the distance of their commute, etc. to be important. For movers relocating due to purchase of a dwelling house, the important factors for people living in a privately-owned house in which the family household is aged 35 and over comprise price, public peace and order , and the aesthetic qualities of the property. In the case of transference, people living in privately owned houses in which the family (including a wife who is a housewife) is aged 35 and over consider construction years, price, and public peace and order to be important. Families aged 35 and over consider proximity to their parents' dwellings to be important, and living together with parents or moving to live close to them may justify moving. Movers tend to live near their parents, while transferers tend to become parents and live together. Movers and transferers actively pursue relocation between neighbouring municipalities. All the respondents were conscious about the importance of purchase price, rental price, and the distance to their workplace (for convenience).Subsequently, the environment in which housing is located (including the beauty of rows of houses, the quality of a landscape, and public peace and order) is considered to be important. By focusing on strengthening the factors considered by people to be important when selecting their dwelling-place, local authorities can increase the attractive power which draws residents to an area. We consider that Nara must improve ‘the distance from a station and a bus stop’ and ‘the beauty of rows of houses and good quality of a landscape’, since these are factors which movers were found to consider as important.
The Landscape Act of 2004 was established with its purpose of developing good landscapes in not only urban areas but also rural areas. The basic philosophy of this Act is to build a beautiful land in order to contribute to the growth of the national economy. Therefore, the government aims to be a good balance between creating landscape and industrial promotion. Considering these facts, this paper reveals the characteristics and problems of the landscapes created by the food industry. This study was conducted in Obihiro Urban Area such as Obihiro, Otofuke, Makubetsu and Memuro. This paper examines methods of improving the local industrial landscapes by using landscape measures. This paper is based on bibliographic survey, field survey, interview and questionnaire survey to agricultural cooperative and private company, and consists of following eight chapters, an introduction (Chapter 1), a body (Chapter 2 to 7), and a conclusion (Chapter 8). In chapter 2 and 3, this paper reveals the transitions and actual situations of industrial policy and landscape measures. Through this analysis, this paper clarifies that the characteristics of industrial policy vary depending on the phase, and the effects of landscape measures are differs depending on the industry type. In chapter 4 and 5, this paper clarifies the trends of factory location and facility scale by focusing food industry facilities in Obihiro urban area. Through this survey, this paper reveals that there are three differences between Agricultural Cooperative and private company; the tendencies of factory location, the reason for selection of factory locations and the scale of architecture. In chapter 6 and 7, this paper clarifies the actual situation of food industrial facilities. Through this study, there are three factors that causing adverse effects on the local industrial landscape. First, regulatory contents of district plan are relaxed in comparison with the initial conditions of the industrial park. Second, the factory that making use of the subsidy system is restricted to demolish. Third, non-manufacturing industries are exempt from the legal methods for making green areas. The following four points were clarified as the conclusion in Chapter 8. 1. Characteristics of industrial policy vary depending on the phase. 2. The characteristics of local industrial landscape differ depending on the location of the factory. 3. Manufacturing industries have larger green space than non-manufacturing industries because of measures. 4. Factories that limiting demolish by a subsidy system become deteriorated.
This paper analyzed characteristics of deliberation process draft of land law and amendment of urban planning law made by War Damage Reconstruction Institute after the World War II. In the immediate postwar period, engineering officers recognized necessity of the law about land in the city. They have begun to consider land law while studying related laws and regulations. This land law was considered from 2 ways of thinking one of the meaning as the method of multidiscipline urban planning including urban planning law and land readjustment act and the other meaning as the expansion type of the land readjustment act. As a result of examination, engineering officers made land law and bill to amend the urban planning law set up the new zoning for deliberate development and strengthened compelling force for the land rearrangement. After completion draft of land law and amendment of urban planning law, Ryoichiro Tsurumi examined proposals for changes. This draft was considered the land use planning divided in time.
This research investigates on the "burden rate" of elderly pedestrians in street environments. We have focused and studied up on the presence of the rollator in conducting this research. The follow-up survey was done to clarify the specific obstacles and conditions that elderly pedestrians encounter as they walk in the streets using their rollator. As the result, following conditions were found. [Viewing angle narrows down as they lean forward to balance one self.] [Hands are unavailable as they walk] [Walking speed decelerates at an upward slope.] [They must lift the front wheels to pass through a low step.] [They must carry the rollator at a high step.] Accordingly, we have extracted [Upward step] [Downward step] [Upward slope][Downward slope] [Crossing slope][Obstacle] [Roughness on the ground] as the obstacles of elderly pedestrians who use rollators. The walk experiment and questionnaire results have allowed us to perceive each obstacles' feature based on the relation among speed rate, pulse rate and the utterance during the questionnaire. The results has proven that the rollator has caused higher "burden rate" than walking without it. Moreover, obstacles has also distracted the participants to balance at the crossings, slopes and steps. However, it is undeniable that the results were affected by the experimental conditions such as the fact that all research participants were to use the rollator for the first time. The walk experiment and questionnaire results show that the steps has made the research participants feel concerned as the rollator gets caught by steps and force the participants to carry the rollator in the air. In the slopes, burden rate becomes much higher. Moreover, the participants felt “danger” and “fear” as they walk on crossing slope, upward slope and downward slope. We made it clear from multivariate logistic regression that the burden of walking without rollator is caused by surrounding environment, such as street type and traffic volume. On the other hand, the burden caused by walking using the rollator are mostly obstacles, such as downward slope, crossing slope and step and surrounding environment. We made it clear the physical condition of a person and the burden rate are interrelated. Research has also proven that the rollator functions effectively for the person who has low physical level. However, the lower their physical level, the more they feel the burden by obstacles.
In recent years, aging infrastructure has become a serious problem in Japan. Local governments facing depopulation have urgent issue to secure the financial resources for maintenance of infrastructure. However, support from residents is indispensable to secure the financial resources. This paper aims to clarify the residents' evaluation of road maintenance and effects of information disclosure about road maintenance on the evaluation. We surveyed in two cities which has different road maintenance levels, and applied contingent valuation method. As a result, the following became clear. First, it is revealed that the residents in the target cities have high evaluation to a certain degree. Second, it is revealed that the residents in the city which has lower level of road maintenance tend to show lower Willingness-to-Pay than the other citizen. Therefore, it is suggested the necessity of well-chosen information in case a city government intend to improve the residents' evaluation of road maintenance by information disclosure Third, it is revealed that reliability to administration and evaluation of landscape of the road effect financial evaluation of road maintenance. Therefore, it is important for local governments to win the residents' confidence. In addition, this study clarified that it is significant to care roads warmly everyday.
The city of Yinchuan, located in western China, is experiencing unprecedented housing boom in recent years that imposes great challenges on the sustainable housing development. Based on the analysis of housing supply in the city, this study aims to examine the effects of city's public programs on the housing development in the market-oriented context by comparing housing expansion with planning intentions. The main findings are: 1. large public housing projects and key facilities are main government's programs in promoting private housing development; 2. the distribution of some public projects was not consistent with planning intentions, thus might contribute to undesirable housing development that seen in the imbalance between the east and west. In order to efficiently manage the housing pattern, we suggest promotion of public developments in the west for improving the private housing investment.
Previous study has proved that a targeted removal approach for fire spreading buildings is effective in preventing wide-spread fire generated by an intense earthquake in areas densely crowded with wooden buildings, and that a building cooperative system can effectively function for the purpose of consolidating small and irregular plots of land without road access and meeting the financial requirement of landowners. A separate issue is how to design a mechanism that allows agents for cooperatives to work autonomously. The principal-agent theory provides a substantial framework for the issue, such as asymmetric information, risk, conflicts of interests, moral hazards, observability, and incentives. According to the theory, we make a realistic model of agent behavior that reduces project risks for building cooperatives by acquired information. The model analyses quantitative effects on agent effort levels by factors, i.e. allowance of dual employment, observability, and terms of payment. Analysis indicates unexpected synergistic effects. Although one factor alone has little influence on the agent effort level, multiple factors significantly lower the effort level. This suggests that regulations on agencies should require that operating contracts prohibit subsidiary work, deliverables, and payments by results other than by banning conflicts of interests. other than avoiding conflict of interest if agents are not well disciplined as professionals. This quantitative analysis on a realistic contract theory model could be an example to consider for an effective regulation structure that contains synergistic effects.
On visiting real-estate agents or real-estate information websites, we can easily get information on houses or rooms, but it is difficult to know more about the city or area in which the houses or rooms are located. Particularly, it is difficult to determine the atmosphere and comfortability of the area. On the other hand, cities and areas are to be strictly chosen as population decreases. It is necessary to understand how cities and areas are evaluated and how they change in the future for planning them. This paper aims to determine the tendency of residential location choice and evaluation indexes of the choice including atmosphere and comfortability using a questionnaire survey. This paper applied modal theory for the analysis. We defined the concept of "modality" as "total mode of being." This theory enables us to analyze residential location choice from comprehensive viewpoints, treating both quantitative information like transportation or facility location and vague information like atmosphere or comfortability as equal evaluation indexes. Moreover, we assumed a process model of residential location choice based on the modal theory: a person grasps modality in his/her daily life, and takes background into consideration like his/her own property, memory, conditions of seeking houses or rooms, preference and so on, then chooses a concrete residential location. The survey items included "property" of the residents, "housing conditions" like family structure and transportation, "residential location" shown as urban scale and area type, and "evaluation indexes" for the location. The housing conditions and residential location were asked for both the present and future expected residence in order to analyze the process of making choices and the future trend. As for evaluation indexes, we selected 53 indexes that involved both convenience and facility location, and atmosphere and comfortability. The survey was conducted in June 2016, and 1,244 samples were collected through the survey. Chapter 3 analyzed "evaluation indexes." We found that not only existing indexes like convenience and facility location but also those like atmosphere and comfortability were highly valued in choosing a residential location. Additionally, we made clear that some indexes are important because most residents put weight on them but other indexes are also important as they make significant differences between residents. In Chapter 4, we added "property" and "housing conditions" into our analysis. The main analysis methods included extracting highly evaluated indexes based on property and residential conditions, and visualizing the change of residential conditions from the present to future. The analysis made clear that males tend to prefer urbanized areas with good public image and females like safe and convenient areas. Families with children preferred to live in detached houses in suburban areas that have good education level. Single households had an opposite tendency toward child-raising families. Chapter 5 analyzed "residential location" using the same methods as in the previous chapter. We found that the population tends to move to bigger cities in the future, but cities with 0.5-1 million people can be a good size with a fascination for both urban and suburban areas. As for area type, urban cores, small shopping districts, and areas with middle-size apartment buildings will become more popular. On the other hand, residential areas without gardens and mixed areas of houses and factories are lowly evaluated as a living environment. These results are valid as information for house hunters and future urban planning. We plan to develop this study by introducing financial conditions and actual area for concrete analysis.
There are a number of international building construction projects operated by Chinese and Japanese stakeholders in China as many of Japanese contractors and developers come to Chinese market in recent years. Quality assurance is an important issue for both Chinese and Japanese construction projects. In China, many accidents have taken place concerning construction projects. As for Japan, though it is assumed to be the highest level in quality assurance, still some severe faults have been found because of its system fatigue. In this paper, the authors compared the quality assurance systems between China and Japan by analysis of three large scale building projects operated by Chinese and Japanese stakeholders and located in China and Japan. Organization, procurement, contract, and communication management in the three projects are benchmarked one another. As a result, the characteristics of the quality assurance system in China and Japan are explained through design document, supervision, nominated subcontracts and relationship between general contractors and subcontractors. The quality assurance systems in Japan: 1. In building construction project in Japan, the parties trust each other by long-term working relationships. 2. The ability of general contractors is excellent. Moreover, the cooperation associations of general contractors, which are thought as peculiar organizations in Japan, have improved the ability of general contractors. 3. The site conference system makes employees have better communication, which improves the ability of the employees. 4. Long-term employment system, which cultivated the quality assurance system. The quality assurance system in China: 1. In China, the parties cannot trust each other unlike in Japan. So the clients have to participate in the project as much as possible. 2. The authorities and the responsibilities of Chinese supervisors and clients are not classified definitely. Therefore, the Chinese supervisors cannot show their ability clearly. 3. The site conference system cannot make employees have better communication. 4. There is no long-term employment system in China, which makes the quality assurance system instability. In the future study, the authors will carry out some analysis on which elements can influence the quality assurance system from construction management.
Chapter 1: The purpose of this study is to identify the principles of spatial structures and regional characteristics of okura-sho owned by the kaga domain, which had territories across three different provinces. Chapter 2: Previous researches and the procedure of this study are shown. The author has studied okura-sho owned the kaga domain in each Province and identified 7 different types. This paper focuses on regularity seen in the extension of okura for the domain and storehouses for the people. To extend a site, three different methods can be thought of. So the author decided to proceed with this study in the following procedures. First, illustrate the extension process of each okura-sho to see any trend (regularity) in the extension method from three viewpoints. Then, consider any influence that the extension of storehouses for the people had on the type formation. Next, discuss the meaning of the aforementioned regularity, the principles of spatial structures and regional characteristics of okura-sho owned by the kaga domain. Chapter 3: The following regularity is clarified. Firstly, extension methods case 1 and 2 are adopted in most cases. This is evident in a type forming process. Secondly, the case 3, the outward extension method, is notable in a type developing process, which is often seen “parallel A” of Etchu Province in particular. Thirdly, the inward extension method is also seen in a type developing process, but almost all the cases happened in Noto Province. Fourth, storehouses for the people will be an enclosure type when it is expanded in a type forming process. Chapter 4: As it is clarified in the previous chapter that different regularity is seen between a type forming process and a developing process, the meaning of the regularity in each process is studied for each type. As a result, the following principles of spatial structures and regional characteristics are identified. Principles of spatial structures: It becomes clear that the parallel type and garden-detached type adopted the extension method to form the type until the type has been established and were developed in a different method after that, while L type and enclosure type were formed and developed by the same extension method (case 1 and 2) consistently. The L type, however, made okura very large including case 3, while the enclosure type just added a building by expanding the site after the type was established. Therefore, the spatial structures were significantly different between the two, although they were based on the same principles. Regional characteristics: The ”parallel A” of Etchu Province and garden-detached type of Kaga Province were developed with case 3 extension method after the type was established. The L type of Etchu Province had structures suited to be made large scale. As shown here, while Etchu Province and Kaga Province adopted an outward extension method, which expanded the area of buildings outward, it was notable that Noto Province expanded the area inward within the affected range of the existing facilities. Chapter 5: The discussions made above are summarized. It concludes that okura-sho owned by the kaga domain had 2 principles of spatial structures and different regional characteristics between Noto Province and the other two.
I considered the photography schedule for Burton photographed of collection of photographs in “THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE IN JAPAN, 1891.”, about the Nobi earthquake, and it is following many points that become clear. Burton got on the train from Shimbashi 21:50 on October 28, 1891 when the Nobi earthquake was generated. And he stayed at Nagoya on night of 29th, the following day as it was listed in PLATE I. of “THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE IN JAPAN, 1891.”. He left for Biwajima to photograph on 30th, the following day written down in the photograph explanation of “THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE IN JAPAN, 1891.”, but he photographed for some days there because weather was bad. Afterwards, he photographed the Owari Cotton Mill in Atsuta and others. He moved from Nagoya to Gifu via Kasamatsu on November 3. On the journey, photographed a temporary hospital by the Empire University in Kuroda and the stricken area of Kasamatsu. He went to Neo-valley in November 4-6, and advanced to Midori of Neo-valley and returned from there. In addition, he identified Neo-valley fault at Midori. He moved from Gifu to Ogaki in November 7-8, and he photographed damaged the Nagara-gawa iron bridge on the way. Burton got on the Yamashiro-maru from Kobe on November 9, returned to Yokohama the next day.
The subject of this research is making Shē county that is the center of politics, economic and culture of Huīzhōu Area to be the target. And the object is elaborate Ritual Archtecture classification, change by history, distribution by region and develop from records of Ritual Archtecture on local records from Sòng Dynasty untill Qīng Dynasty.
1. Classify by worship mode:"Regional Temple" from local beliefs, "Mausoleum" (Grave-worship) and "Ancestral Hall" (Templeworship) for Ancestor Worship.
2. Analysis Ritual Archtecture＆apos;s distribution and feature, and research Ritual Archtecture＆apos;s distribution by commerce develop and the Lineage Settlements (villages) develop in Huīzhōu by mark out every Ritual Archtecture＆apos;s location on map.
3. Discuss Ritual Archtecture＆apos;s brench and development.
The Collegiate Gothic movement in America that emerged from the early 1890＆apos;s marked the last phase of the inclusive Gothic Revival
movement in the country and became a part of the movement for college planning known as "College Beautiful". The extensive
development of colleges was made necessary and possible by the combination of demand and wealth created by the Gilded Age, as
well as by architectural strategies introduced through the Chicago Columbian Exposition of 1893.
The Collegiate Gothic brigade, while searching for its main reference points in the English collegiate tradition of Tudor Gothic as
opposed to Victorian Gothic, ended up mingling the Oxford-Cambridge building system of quadrilateral plan with the Beaux-Arts
system of extensive landscape planning with axis and symmetry, within the American setting of broad college campuses.
The history of bank buildings in Japan commenced with the establishment of the First National Bank in 1872. To date, only minimal research on the historical changes in the bank buildings constructed between 1872 and present day has been conducted. Focusing on building exteriors, this study aims to examine the common architectural elements in the bank buildings constructed between 1890 and 1929. This study serves as an introductory account of the historical changes in the bank buildings constructed between 1872 and present day. The Western European-style architecture introduced by the Meiji-period policy belonged to the 19th-century European eclecticism. Therefore, no building in that period was constructed in a unified architectural style. This eclectic architectural style was possibly not appreciated by the Meiji-period society. It can be presumed that people who looked at bank buildings did not look at the architectural style but rather appreciated distinct parts of the buildings' exterior. Therefore, this study extrapolates the architectural elements of the exteriors of the buildings constructed in the classical style and contrasts these elements with examples of such bank buildings. Thereafter, on the basis of the results, this study discusses the common architectural elements in the bank buildings constructed between 1890 and 1929. The buildings of the five major banks in Japan (Mitsui, Mitsubishi, Sumitomo, Yasuda, and Daiichi) constitute the research subjects of this study. The period chosen ranges from 1890 (when commercial banking started) to 1929 (after the Order for Enforcement of the Banking Act). Herein, 20 different architectural elements related to the exteriors of 121 individual buildings were examined and the architectural elements common in the exteriors of various buildings were analyzed. The results reveal that corner lots, window grilles and railings, exterior stone, basements, perrons, architectural orders, cornices, reliefs, and flat roofs are found in over 60% of the buildings. Considering the understanding of historical design and trends that it offers, this study can serve as a guideline for the construction of future bank buildings with new, creative designs.
The theme of this paper is evaluation in the formation process of landscape by planting in the Kyoto urban area and its suburb, Arashiyama mountain area in the postwar. In this paper, we analyze the actual condition of evaluation of landscape, use cherry trees, pine trees and maples for an example as constitution trees of the landscape and clarify the mechanism of the landscape formation. Then we elucidate the constitution of people participating in the subject, landscape that they aspire, and the context of the times. In the urban area, we have already discovered that the common keyword “scenic” often appears as the intent of planting from the 1880s to the 1930s. However, the purpose and context of the word “scenic” had various meanings and contexts since “scenic” had different purposes depending on the intention of each planting. In the postwar Kyoto urban area, cherry trees have been planted based on specific concepts in each era. From the 1940s through the 1960s, the city of Kyoto planted Someiyoshino based on the keyword “sightseeing”. Then, they used cherry trees in order to express the Kyoto likeness. In the 1970s, Satozakura came into use as part of environmental measures and tree-planting campaigns. After the 1980s, rows of cherry trees were established as part of high-quality spaces for water-lovers and the scene which symbolizes Heiankyo. On the other hand, Arashiyama first began to attract attention as a scenic spot in the 9th century due to the attractions of its autumn leaves. In the late 13th century, cherry trees which grew in Yoshino first have been implanted in Arashiyama. From that time, Arashiyama was planting of cherry and pine trees. However, in 1871, Arashiyama came under the jurisdiction of the Osaka Regional Forestry Office as a national forest, and the prohibition on felling trees was lifted. Setsuko Nakajima analyzes that the movement of the forest scene maintenance is produced in new forest regime after this 1971 and the idea of landscape conservation is developed in the early years of the Showa era. And then, the office created an Arashiyama Scenic Forest Management Plan in 1933. The plan was to finish the area into a beautiful mountain view, by developing a forest based mainly on Akamatsu and Yamazakura. The Osaka Regional Forestry Office changed its handling of Arashiyama in the 1960s as planting of trees in urban areas progressed. A management plan for sightseeing was drafted, and as a result, it was decided that the agency would protect the area going forward as a noted site for viewing autumn leaves. There were two reasons for this switch in handling. First, the urban area was full of cherry trees. The second reason was the characteristics of maple trees. Due to management in the 1960s, Arashiyama in about 1980 was overgrown with maples, and there was a reduction in pine and cherry trees. The Kyoto Regional Forestry Office was facing two problems—changes in the forest appearance and disaster risk—and they began formulating a policy for general management to achieve disaster prevention and landscape protection. In this management plan, there was a need to restore the landscape of cherry and pine trees which had been maintained by generations of managers since cherry trees were planted in the late 13th century. As stated above, people participating in the subject assume the landscape aspiring, and the landscape is formed on the basis of it.
This research aims to clarify the history of the Amahou Line and the reality of land readjustment along the line. The Amahou Line was originally planned as a line of the Takarazuka Amagasaki Electric Railway Co., Ltd., but the idea to make it an elevated railway was abandoned because of a city planning problem. Accordingly, it was reconstructed as a limited highway, and it became the first limited highway in the Kansai region. Land readjustments along limited highways were planned and decided during wartime. The linear land readjustment along a limited highway in Kyoto is well known as a precedent among those carried out by the six major cities in Japan, and it is positioned as a rare case of land readjustment that covers a wide area of a region. Because the Amahou Line covered the three municipalities of Amagasaki, Itami, and Kohama, it was planned for land readjustment by a public organization under the initiative of the Hyogo Prefecture. Judging from the arrangement of pedestrian paths, the Amahou land readjustment project is supposed to have close relations with the city planning of green spaces in Nishimuko; the readjustment project was supposedly planned as part of air defense city planning during the wartime. Specifically, the project was planned and formulated to begin with the south side of the Amahou Line close to the restricted industrial district, but only part of the facilities was constructed before the end of the war. Discussions were held on how to deal with the project, and decreasing the size of the project was discussed in accordance with the guidelines drawn for the postwar policy of boom cities, as observed in Hirohata and Takasago where an industrial city plan was formulated during wartime. Eventually, however, the project did not materialize, and the Amahou Line was extended as part of another road project after the war. As stated above, the Amahou Line was the first limited highway in the Kansai region that was converted as part of the project to construct a railway line. An extensive land readjustment by a public organization was planned along the Amahou Line positioned as a special case during wartime. The plan had contents that were affected by air defense city planning during wartime, and it was formulated in combination with city-planned green spaces. It was also positioned as a typical land readjustment by a public organization from the wartime period to the postwar period because the same measure implemented for new industrial city planning was taken to conclude the project after the war.