In the preceding paper the acoustic radiation characteristics of a stage floor in a concert hall by piano playing was studied by vibration measurements using the discrete calculation method. The present paper represents the results for violoncello playing and the comparison with piano playing. Distribution of the stage floor vibration in a low frequency range has a directional quality according to the direction of the boarding of stage floor and the sound radiation coefficient of the stage floor has a depression at about 125 Hz, in the both playing. Sound power level radiated from violoncello comes close to the value radiated from the stage floor in piano playing. Acoustic characteristic of sound radiated from the stage floor therefore affects on a hearing sense in the low frequency range. In particular, since the sound from the stage floor in the violoncello playing only slightly contains the effect of the vibrate playing technique, the sound quality becomes considerably poor. The thickness of the stage floor is then better to be sufficiently thick.
The influence of the sound radiation from the each surface was examined for the purpose of using the prediction of Structure-Borne Sound as a design technique. The level of Structure-Borne Sound due to the environmental ground vibration is decided in the Multiple Coherent Output Spectrum of the inputs. So, the theory that the Multiple Coherent Output Spectrum of the input was divided into each surface was examined. Then, how to think about sound pressure by the composition of the contribution of the room each surface was shown. The interior material by the plaster board was constructed in the laboratory, and an influence by the difference in the ground work was examined by using the Multiple Coherent Output Divided Spectrum. It is compared with the concrete base side with the Light Gage Steel method, and a vibration response becomes big. But, the amount of sound radiation reduces. When the influence of the other side declined, it was become clear that it had an influence greatly in the Gypsum Lining method. When the influence of the other side became small, it was obvious that an influence of Gypsum Lining method become big.
The effects of air flow on clothing insulation and on the dry heat transfer coefficients were evaluated for each part of the clothed and nude human body. This was done by measuring clothing surface temperature using an infrared imaging radiometer. The results showed that increasing wind speed causes a decrease in clothing insulation and an increase in the dry heat transfer coefficients. The effect of air penetration on dry heat transfer coefficients could be determined by comparing the heat transfer coefficients of the clothed manikin to those of the nude manikin. Lastly, by comparing clothing insulation results obtained by the conventional indirect method to those of the direct method in this study, one can demonstrate the limitation of the conventional method and the need for direct estimation.
A subject experiment was conducted to measure the transient response of a clothed human body during sweating and its evaporation. The result of the experiment was analyzed by a combined model, which consists of the two-node model for thermophysiological response of human body and the simultaneous heat and moisture transfer model for hygrothermal behavior of clothing. In that model, the heat and moisture transfer through the air layer between the skin and the clothing are expressed as heat and moisture conductances, respectively. The conductances along with the other parameters related to the heat andmoisture transfer in and a round the clothing were determined to show an agreement with the subject experiment.
During the course of the study, using an indoor airflow analysis model established for the housing unit, a computer simulation was conducted to investigate the indoor to outdoor and room to room ventilation performances in the multi-family housings. In the computer simulation, the actual measured ventilation performance data are utilized as the input variables for the airflow analysis program, COMIS, in which a network model that considered to be an active indoor airflow analysis method is employed. In this study, a prediction model was developed to evaluate the ventilation performance for the multi-family housings, based on the multiple regression analysis with the data obtained in the computer simulation.
This paper presents the results of field experiments and the CFD simulations on the ventilation efficiency in an underground car park where several high velocity fan-diffiiser units were installed. In this study the age of air and the local air change effectiveness were evaluated with the field experiments and the effect of the high velocity fan-diffuser unit on the ventilation efficiency was examined. Then the CFD simulation was carried out with the same condition as the field experiment and the simulated results were compared with the experimental one. In the CFD simulation, the residual lifetime of air and the residence time of air were also calculated to study the effect of the high velocity fan-diffuser units. The results of this paper are following; (1) There were no remarkable effects of the high velocity fan-diffuser unit on the age of air in the underground car park from both the experiments and the simulations. (2) The simulated results showed good agreement with the experimental one. (3) From the residual life time of air calculated with CFD simulation, it was found that the high velocity fan-diffuser unit was effective to activate the stagnant air in the parking area enclosed with the attached room and the wall, etc. (4) The improvement of the ventilation efficiency can be expected with the combined system of the piston-flow in the drive-through area and the high velocity fan-diffuser units in the parking area
This study is performed as a part of the research that examines the emission and diffusion characteristics of volatile organic compounds (henceforth VOCs etc.) from indoor building materials, such as the material of external diffusion like wet paint. In order to measure convective mass transfer from test building-materials, the authors develop a new type of Small Test Chamber in which precise control of airflow along the test materials can be done. The mass transfers coefficient for the surface of liquid decane is measured by the experiment. In the CFD simulation, liquid benzaldehyde, decane, ethyl benzene, toluene and methyl ethyl ketone are used for modeling the surface material of external diffusion like wet paint. The concentration of VOCs (saturated vapor phase concentration) is given at the material surface as the boundary condition. The emission rates and mass transfer coefficients from the surface of building materials in a Small Test Chamber are predicted on the basis of a low-Reynolds number k-e model (Abe-Nagano model). CFD results show good agreement with the experimental results.
Thermal characteristics of a thermal storage tank containing phase change material (PCM) and installed in an air distribution system were investigated. PCM in the form of a mixture of trimethylolethane and urea with a melting temperature of 13℃ was used in flat rectangular containers. Experiments were conducted in order to examine temperature responses in a charging (freezing) process and a discharging (melting) process. Due to sub-cooling, the charging temperature was found to necessarily be below 5℃. For the discharging process, temperature difference between the inlet and outlet was maintained at 2 - 4℃. On the basis of the experimental results, a proposed simulation model based on the enthalpy method was used to successfully simulate the sub-cooling phenomena.
Influence of old house renovation on environmental loads and costs were discussed based on 14 renovation cases. Conclusions are as follows : 1) ratio of loads from demolition work is large in CO_2(biomass related), waste emitted and waste landfilled, while ratio of loads from construction work is large in many other environmental loads; 2) area ratios of refurnished, improved and reconstructed, and reuse rates of roof tile and fundation, were proposed as indicators to express the features of renovations, and using these indicators, simplified estimation formulas on effectiveness of renovations on environmental load and cost reductions were developed; 3) according to these formulas, under demolition work, waste emitted and waste landfilled were influenced by the area ratio of refurnished and the reuse rate of roof tile, while, under construction work, timber was influenced by the area ratios of refurnished and improved, coal, limestone and aggregate by the reuse rates of roof tile and fundation, most of other environmental loads by the reuse rate of roof tile; 4) according to the formula, total cost was influenced by the area ratios of refurnished and improved and the reuse rate of fundation under construction work, in addition, the wood reuse rate of beyond 20% could be used as an indicator of cost reduction.
This paper shows the actual conditions of energy and water consumption of every dwelling unit and in public space in an environmentallysymbiotic apartment house through investigation, questionnaire and comparison with the results of the other type houses. At this house, solar thermal water heater, solar cells, light court, planting parking, utilization of rainwater, wind power generation,water-saving equipment are introduced. Energy and water consumption per month are investigated through reading a meter. Annual energy consumption per utensil and per useis calculated by adding up method. Electric consumption forms 61.5% of annual energy consumption per unit, 28630.9MJ/a And annual CO_2 emission per unit is 690.9kg-C/a.
Using limited extension effect summation method based on the 1985, 1990 and 1995 Input / Output Tables in Japan, the environmental loads (material consummations and carbon emissions) from construction activities are estimated. Total Japanese carbon emissions are 1,053 Mt-CO_2 in 1985, 1,251 Mt-CO_2 in 1990, and 1,363 Mt-CO_2 in 1995. The percentages occupied by construction related of Japanese carbon emission are 40.9%in 1985, 42.8% in 1990, and 42.8% in 1995. Regard to carbon emission per unit floor area, the carbon emission from construction materials production is decreased, but the carbon emissions from transportation and processing process are increased.
A building produces huge amount of environmental load during its life cycle, including building component manufacture stage, construction stage, occupation stage, and demolition stage. In the future, we have to decrease this total environmental load amount to realize the sustainable society. For Life Cycle Assessment of building, it is in common to do quantitative analysis (inventory analysis) of load against environment. Followed by inventory analysis, Life Cycle Impact Assessment will be carried out. In this study, we have carried out a survey with questionnaire to predict category-weighting factors that is needed at index integration stage of Life Cycle Impact Assessment for buildings. In addition, we have applied a proposed method making a streamlined Life Cycle Assessment of a reinforced concrete apartment house building.
The purpose of this study is to formulate the simplified method of estimating the environmental load of consisting component for detached house. In this paper, investigating the actual prefabricated houses in detail, analyzing the approximate 5,000 pieces of materials to convert into CO_2 emission amount, the relationship between CO_2 emission amount and houses' form/scale was examined. It was shown that the proposed formula could estimate the amount of emitted CO_2 easily at practical accuracy by using a total floor area.
This research is concerned with the sustainability of a community during the replanning and redevelopment of a large housing estate. Its aim was to make a deep and accurate investigation of elderly people's perception of their home and environment. Through participating in a series of presentations, they could relate experiences passed on from generation to generation. The method adopted was "Projection Images by Photography (PIP)". This made it possible to become acquainted with their every-day lives and their thoughts through revealing their "favoured features", "greatest concerns" and "most significant memories". In this way, it was possible to identify key issues for the future regeneration process. The research describes the principles of a "three-dimensional round circle" process - "situation", "relation", "intention" - that would achieve genuine sustainable community development.
We have investigated 169 samples of toilets in individual housing where people with disabilities have lived, built since 1995. Results indicate some features of toilets for use by persons who need care, about shape , area, space for assisting, and other uses of toilets. We devised plans of toilets for persons receiving care into nine types according to the ways of connection between toilet and other rooms. Half of the samples have only one entrance door to a corridor. In Japan, it's not usual that there is a toilet in the bedroom. But in this research there were 60 or more toilets connecting to the bedroom and to the bathroom etc. for their convenience. Especially, if they set a ceiling hoist for mobility, they made a connective toilet to the bathroom and bedroom.
The purpose of this study was to use the actigram and sleep diary and to clarify the relation among the sleep of elderly homecare clients, spending time and their housing environment. Data analysis showed as follows. 1. The clients with low body function had narrow range of activities depending on the living environmental condition, and were spending a lot of time in the bed. 2. It turned out the irregular sleep-wake rhythm of homecare clients compared with healthy elderly and tended to require a longer time in bed, low sleep efficiency and often having a middy nap. 3. Sleep situation of homecare clients made three patterns from the relation among the body function level, the living environment and spending time in recuperation. 4. It was suggested to invite a middy nap frequently and irregular sleep-wake rhythm because sleep was caused easily to those who spending a lot of time in the bed.
In Japan, the death rate of males is higher than that of females in respect of most kinds of daily accidents. Social factors such as gender roles influence the gender differences in the mortality rate. Through this research we try to evince the relation between social factors and the gender differences, based on a comparison of Japan with England and Wales. As a result, the gender differences of daily accidents in Japan are larger. On the other hand, social backgrounds are different in both countries. We believe that there is a strong relationship between the gender differences of casualties and gender roles.
The aim of this study is to clarify the conditions of architectural planning for high-rise housing where the aged keep living in. This is based on the results of two questionnaires - investigated in 1989 and 1999 - given to the aged who keep living in high-rise housing over 10 years. And then, we find changes of their attribute, intention of settlement and their housing preference to housing style where they live in. First, we can clarify changes of family-type and working which happen to half of them. And then, we find they are getting more intention of settlement. Finally, we were able to clarify the relation between changes of their housing preference and building types, dwelling floors.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristic of action by resident to the environment, and the formative process of the identity as assemble of it. From the study followings are summarized. 1. The motive and matter of the extension and remodeling has stages according to the life cycle and the times transition. The spatial connection among the houses and the neighboring relationship has influence as the promotion and restraint. 2. The identity formative gaining the mutual effects among the neighborhood under similar conditions. 3.The action by resident needs the continuous thoughts to the living environment, and it may be made him as one. And so that space and action assume the meaning.
In this paper, training rooms in the public gymnasiums, which are located in Tokyo, are studied. Transition, actual conditions and current trends of the public training rooms are discussed based on their year of establishment, scale, contents of facilities. From the view points of plan and elements of trainning rooms, they are divided into the following two types, studio and machine room type and machine only type. In addition, from the variety of exersise machine and program, they are divided into the following two types, health oriented type and sports oriented type. Characteristics of each zone for information, mat, machine for oxygen, machine for muscular strength, free weight, relaxation and studio in each type are mentioned.
Activities and space-use in today's Danish folkeskoler are reported following a brief review of the history of architectural planning offolkeskoler. On-site observations of learning situations in classrooms and common room locals were conducted in four schools of different plan types. Analyses of space use patterns, studying combinations between contents of activities and spatial settings, showed that there was much individual or group differentiated work which mostly took place in normal class teaching settings in contrast with Japanese open-schools where often any type of individual or group work takes place in non-classroom settings. The patterns suggest that space was used according to practical needs of the task in the Danish cases rather than the size of instructional groups as is often the case in Japanese schools. The paper is concluded by a discussion on spatiality, cultural patterns in relations with space, as a factor for the difference in space-use.
This study focused on effects of room-sharing on the space use of residents at the home for the elderly. Compared with nursing homes, their ADL levels are higher, dementia levels are milder, and effects of care conditions weigh less. Therefore, they are appropriate for the subject of investigation of the space use chosen by their own decisions. The results are as follows: 1. If one of roommates tends to stay at his or her room, another tends to stay at a public space. 2. The residents use only the half of their rooms, and make their own territory. 3. They have more frequent communications with residents in other rooms than roommates.
This study is referred to J.Grason's framework, which proposed a method for the computer-implemented solution of floor plan design problems. We improved Grason's method by introducing a new idea such as 4 way directed adjacency graph instead of 2 way directed graph used in his method. By using 4 way directed adjacency graph, a notation of floor layout problems becomes easier, then the computer program will become a sophisticated and compact one. In general, methods using adjacency graph will require lots of information about the adjacency between the rooms, because it has a technical constraint that an adjacency graph must be transformed into a circular graph. On the other hand, the method we propose here doesn't have such a constraint, so that a tree graph or a hybrid graph of tree graphs and circuit graphs can be treated. The feasibility of producing various floor plan will be much more expanded by using this method.
In this study, we clarified that there are differences in the perception of space, between SB-modeling CAD and sketches (hand drawing). Also we analyzed that there are differences in the perception of space, between students whose projects were higher evaluated (a higher group) and those whose projects were not (a middle and lower group). As a result, by using CAD instead of sketching, the students is better able to control spaces in imaginary spaces with various behavior settings. CAD is also an effective tool for perceiving space for a student who is a beginner in architectural design. In using CAD, differences occur in accordance with the degree of advancement of the student. Through CAD it is expected that we can give students practice in using visual operation early in the design process thereby achieving their more effective training.
The fabricated house imported from America privately in late Taisho Era by an artist GADOU KOTATOwho was from Tochigi was decided to remove and reconstruct in 1999.This paper collected documents and arranged them in order to contribute for restoration and practical use. Career of GADOU, details to completion, the social background and buiding system of this house are become clear. Itwas inspected that this house was the valuable building remnants of three generation lives of KOTATO family in the history of imported house of Utsunomiya City. At the present time the work for recon-struction is completed.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the patterns of complicated pedestrian flow with visible pedestrian territory model. The objects of observation are crossing flow in a concourse of JR station in morning rush hour and on a pedestrian crossing in town. The flow was vertically recorded by VCR camera from the ceiling and the movies are converted to each frame and transformed by computer. After that, the coordinates of all pedestrians at each frame is calculated. The pedestrian territory is defined as the 90cm circle from the coordinates of each pedestrian. The condition of unidirectional pedestrians which forms groups is similar to the distribution of electric field with Bezier Clipping method is user! to visualize the pedestrian territory.
The purpose is to identify some factors that influence for pedestrian's cognitive distance of a commuting route. We selected five routes which lead to the university campuses from nearby stations. The students were asked to estimate distances for segmented parts of the route which had different atmosphere. As a result, four factors were found to be influencing : 1) walking time; overestimation in routes taking longer time caused by obstacles as crowded pedestrians and bicycles. 2) energy load; overestimation in the up stairs. 3) information load; overestimation in stairs. 4) spaciousness; underestimation in wide and extensive place.
One of the objectives of this study is to find the characteristic features of natural language instructions showing a route from a start point to a certain point. The other objective is to find the cognitive structure of human that enable the sender to accurately communicate information intended to be conveyed to show a right way to the receiver. Syntactic analysis is employed to fulfill the objectives on the basis of the assumption that the syntactic structure of language has a strong relation to the cognitive structure. A syntactic structure behind the guidance is shown as well.
In this study, it was that it compared the life-style of "at present" with "before" in the case and examines the traditional house maintained to rural community in the Korea south, and traditional house spatial structure features of Korea south rural village was clarified, and people are correspondent to the change of agriculture style and family make-up in respectof dwelling space how, and the new problem which surfaces in the inside was clarified. That is to say, features of the mansion spatial structure are that the living space is made to intermingle with the agriculture space.
Private temporary housing (PTH) which were constructed after great Hanshin Earthquake need to transfer permanent housing, because they are not appropriate for long use. This study aims to grasp the problems which arise from the transition. So we investigate the PTH which had been constructed in 1995, and send out questionnaires to households whose PTH have already transfer permanent. The transition isn't smooth because it goes with various inconveniences. As one program of housing reconstruction, it seems to be useful that we provide new program makes use of PTH.
The Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake clarified the importance of preparedness of housing recovery and urban reconstruction. This is a basic study on the construction of methods for estimation of demands for the preparedness of shelter and housing recovery measures after the next earthquake disaster. The questionnaire survey was made at main cities in Shizuoka prefecture, where the Tokai Earthquake of M.8 shall occur in the near future. The purpose of this survey is to clear the demands of shelter and housing recovery for residents after the earthquake. The results are as follows; 1)the elderly and the people of low income need a shelter much more. 2)The renters of private houses, the elderly and people of low income need not only temporary houses but also temporary stay in the public houses after a sheltering. 3)The renters need the public houses very much for a permanent housing. The estimation methods will be able to be built through these analyses, which give the parameters for estimation models.
The purpose of this study is to construct a fundamental evaluation theory for the various functions of a road network in district scale from the city scale viewpoint. This theory is based on Percolation Theory because of some similarities between road blockade by houses collapse and the site process percolation model of Square lattice. The distinction of this theory is that the function of road network after an earthquake will be evaluated for any size district, if average probability of road blockade and road shortage in a district is given. In this paper, we explain the constructing process of this theory in detail and indicate an evaluation method of the road network function focusing on the fire fighting difficulty.
This paper describes the method of risk analysis, which should be made by a site manager in construction phase. This study started from the discussion with 40 site managers by brainstorming. In result, 650 risk causes in very concrete description, which are concerning risk results and project phases, are emerged. Then, 105 risk categories and 251 risk causes are classified in abstraction description based on the 650 risk causes. In the questionnaire survey, quantitative and qualitative data about 251 risk causes are collected in structurizing from 22 site managers in Kansai area of Japan. Finally, the data are analyzed from multiple views to search the mechanism of the project risk and to clarify the realities of the risk management in the current state of Japan.
The aim of this paper is to survey sharing or separating of bedrooms among elderly couples living in housings rented by UDC. The conclusion is as follows : 1 On the choice of bedrooms, the 43 couples share their bedrooms and the 47 don't share among the 90 elderly households. This choice of sleeping style is influenced not only by the size and number of bedrooms but also by the floor space of the housing units 2 The factors in making the choice include the availability of "Japanese style rooms" "rooms with Japanese style sliding door closet", "calmness", and so on. 3 The majority of the couples surveyed usually use Japanese style futon for sleeping, whereas western style beds are used more requently in larger housing units.
This paper focuses on Daigahara Town in Yamanashi Prefecture, where traditional town dwellings are still surviving along the Kinsei route of Koshu-Kaido. Daigahara was established as a medieval 'shuku' beforethe highway route was modified in the early 17th century. After the modification, Daigahara was moved to the present position, and during the Edo Period, the town progressed to a high prosperity. In this study, surveys were carried out on 8 town houses and on historical documents, for exam pie,scrolls of land-tenure registration. Among these town houses, there is Kitahara House built in 19th Century, on a large dwelling-lot after accumulation of land-tenure. This House has also preserved a number of historical documents and old site plans. The first procedure of this paper is to clarify historical stages of dwelling-lots, comparing with each stage, and to grasp transition of land-tenure. The second is to classify house types of dwellings after reconstructing original form of each house. Consequently, a tendency is inferred on the relationship between the historical stage of land-tenure and the chronological change of house types, which leads to a conclusion that in Daigahara traditional dwellings might be attributed to two different house types developed on each form of dwelling-lots.
The aim of this paper is to clarify architectural idea of Ninomiya Sontoku through development and maintenance of house and infrastructure in sakuramachi. Sontoku had included maintenance of infrastructure in the conditions that attain farm village revival. The similarity with the Mohan-mura at the Meiji era can be grasped here. That is, that the thought, which is already going to change a village synthetically in the end of a Edo era, was doing by Sontoku is the fact which is worthy of remark. When Sontoku maintained infrastructure in a farm village, the chief aim was in reinforcement of agricultural production. Although the architectural idea of Sontoku is not original by the residence itself, while control of building simply is added in case of construction of a residence, the way of thinking which is going to change a life of village people by offering a residence for various reasons has peculiarity.
Through a brief reconnaissance on the ancient quarry at Qurna in Egypt, some inscriptions with red lines still preserved on the walls and ceilings of the rock-cut galleries were found. Considering from many epigraphic evidences in the late New Kingdom period and suggestion by Petrie, these inscriptions and lines could be progress records of producing stone blocks on a daily output during the reign of Amenhotep III. To our knowledge, such records directly indicating industrial activity at a quarry site are quite rare. This information would open the way for a study on the origins of mankind's construction industry.
John Soane's (1753-1837) second publication, Plans, Elevations, and Sections of Buildings...(1789) consists of an introduction and drawings and comments of 22 works, most of which were executed. In his introduction Soane discusses architecture in many ways and his idea of planning houses and his practical viewpoint of building have already been established. On analysis of 6 houses on which Soane inserted only one sheme of planning, a manner of forming a plan of houses by combining a main axis and several sub axes was applied on 4 houses. These houses have already realized his idea of planning houses mentioned in his introduction.
The authors participated in the excavation of ancient Messene in Greece in the summers from 1997 to 1999 and surveyed the architectural remains of the Grave Monument III from the Hellenistic period. In this paper they make restoration of its original form through the analysis of the measurements and drawings of the remains. As the results, the monument was built in ca.4.5 m square, and consists of platform of 3 steps, wall of 3 courses and cornice, being crowned by curved concave roof which was outstandingly unique.
In the formative years of "De Stijl" clearly exist some artistic beliefs shared by its contributors. The present paper pays special attention to the idea of "samenwerking," one of whose possibilities might have been regarded as sharing. It then tries to clarify the significance of that idea in the creative activity. To solve the problem I make full use of the remarks that J.J.P.Oud and Theo van Doesburg made. Conclusively, it is identified that "samenwerking" was established through destroying the structure in which architecture dominates visual arts, and that "De Stijl" is positioned on the end of the 19th century's movement in the Netherlands.
This paper is an analysis of the architectural proportion of Villa Savoye, one of the most impressive and effective works of Le Corbusier, by the analysis method used by C.Rowe in "The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa", that is, comparing with the normative proportions of the supposed model architecture. One of the supposed is, as W. Curtis showed, the Parthenon, and the other, as we analysed and concluded here, the Pantheon: the normative proportion of Parthenon is (4 : 9), construed by Le Corbusier as (1/ Φ : 1 : Φ), and applied to the piano nobile and west/east elevations; that of Pantheon is the golden proportion (1 : Φ), discovered by Le Corbusier himself and applied to the plan of the ground floor of Villa Savoye.
The purpose of this study is to show the useful guidelines which enable us to apply to renovation work of Kyo- Machiyas, by investigating the actual spatial characteristics on some examples of divided use of Machiyas in the central area of Kyoto City. This study ascertained as follows: 1) On the occasion of divided use, it is important to consider arrangement form of divided space which is suitable to existing situation and types of use. 2) Divided use can sufficiently satisfy the present demands of users while their traditional space structures have been maintained, and it can be regarded as effective measures for renovation of traditional Kyo-Machiyas.
The purpose of this research is to grasp type marine scenery (type of KAIKEI-KANSHO), created through the unification of three elements: "man," "building structure," and the "sea." Regarding the method of research, we took up the Edo Era and analyzed "EDO-MEISHO-ZUE," in which the urban space at the time was faithfully depicted. As a result, we found 6 maritime scenery appreciation types, including the "type of creating a sense of openness," the "type of guiding the gaze," and the "type of stimulating appreciation."