Evacuation flow on the spectator stands of stadia and theaters which consist of complicated evacuation route, such as gangways and gate etc. are examined with the multi-agent evacuation simulator SimTread (MA model). Through those examinations, characteristics of evacuation flow are obtained which should be carefully considered when we make evacuation safety planning. Major results are as follows; 1) Evacuees tend to remain backward of the radial gangways. 2) Merging rate at the radial gangways, lateral gangways, and exit gates change according to the merging condition and with time. 3) The cause of characteristic observed in 1) is analyzed in mathematically. This characteristic is well approximated by multiplier effect of merging rate and adjusted calculation method is proposed. 4) Theatres of cinema complex which have pitched spectator's seats and have exits only lower area are needed careful consideration for the tendency that evacuees remain high place from the viewpoint of smoke exposure.
Walking environment for visually handicapped people has improved. However, the present condition of pedestrian spaces still causes difficulty for them. A good sample is a spiral ramp. In this study, we put yellow-colored braille blocks on a spiral ramp, and surveyed the spatial cognition of visually handicapped people to improve the ramp. To clarify the characteristics of spatial cognition and search behavior, experiments were performed using 32 different courses. Subjects were visually handicapped people and eye-masked people with ordinary vision. The search behavior of the two groups was compared and analyzed by walking locus and observation; and the spatial cognition, by interview and observation.
We study on the workshop held in basic design stage of public cultural facilities, and 3 main results are achieved as follows: 1. In order to push the workshop forward effectively, it is important to provide suggestions with a continuity of information on the whole process, and also to set a schedule to ensure the progress going after getting the directionality of argument. 2. In a particular project, the level of users' satisfaction would raise as the percentage of comment adopted increase. 3. The satisfaction distinctions between workshop participants and non-participant lies in information received since the planning stage.
This paper introduces a new architectural design method based on human movement as a design resource. It is designed to assess the emotional aspects of the shapes of products based on the movement of the body. A chair was designed based on the action of a mother holding a child in her arms; emotional evaluation was conducted by using the semantic differential technique. Finding includes, 1) most impressive adjective word is “flow”. 2) most effective factor in likes and dislikes is “comfort”. 3) the role of the designer is very important to enhance impressions of “comfort” in design process.
Due to the modernization strategy of rural areas in South Korea, which is called ‘Saemaul Movement’ (since 1970), economy of rural development projects by the government have shown a success, however, the regional characteristics are being lost. The main task is how to preserve the historical village landscape in the decreasing population. In this study, ‘the implementation of Landscape conservation’ of Nagan Eupsung from town planning view and ‘the evolution and characteristics of town planning’ by taking the cultural property protection as a case study, are clarified. The objectives are to analyze the ‘the application of policy and planning’ by the organization based on the relation between the cultural property protection and the town planning act.
This research clarified the development process of Tianjin's Original British Concession from 1860 until about 1900. It was designed by Charles George Gordon, and many commercial facilities were located there. The result of my research shows the roads in the area were built without any consideration of the existing roads. Many commercial facilities were created later, and the companies at that time made some wharfs and piers. A German called Detring, the chairman of the Council, built some public facilities. And many products of the Self-Strengthening Movement such as academies and a railway were constructed in the outskirts of the Original British Concession including the opposite bank of Pei Ho River depicted on the map of 1888. It is obvious that the Original British Concession and its surroundings became a place where Western technique and culture were accepted and even imitated by Chinese locals.
In order to explore the change of relationship between the white spirit industrial modernization and the city formation in Luzhou city, China, we examined the relationship of more than a century and divided them into 3 periods according to China's economic system: the infancy period of market economy, the planned economy period and the market economic period. In conclusion, we can say that the white spirit industry modernization shaped the scattered urban structure of Luzhou city nowadays.
The purpose of this research is to observe the multi-layered-mixture of commercial accumulation in Akihabara. This paper will focus particularly on mixture of various business types and will create a three dimensional floor map for analysis. The summarised result are as follows: 1) The inter-mixed relationship within each building is composed of not only various business types, but old-new stores inter-mixed within a building. 2) When focusing on the change of Akihabara's commercial structure, the city had become widely diverse where each building is configured of several business types. 3) In order to identify the changes in each business inter-mixture type within Akihabara, a hearing survey was carried out. Through inquiring the local merchant association and traditional shopkeepers, it has been identified that it is difficult for buildings being occupied by one store to continue its business due to the lack of flexibility to meet modern day market needs. On the other hand traditional businesses and modern subculture stores are more sustainable due to its small in scale operation.
This paper aims to show the necessity of the second urban improvement (Shikukaisei) in Gifu around the end of Meiji period (1910-1912), focusing on the operating bodies and organizations around them and their financial resources. The contents of this urban improvement was already known as the widening of the streets in Gifu City, funded by the Mino Electric Tramway. However, from a close analysis of the remaining primary sources, the conflicts between Gifu City and Kozuchi Town, and between the northern and southern districts in Gifu City were shown. This paper shows the process of the typical modern local city development before the application of the city planning through the grasp of background of the conflicts.
This study aims to clarify the particularity of Land Readjustment Project on the site of U.S. military in Okinawa by tracing the changes and discussions of Master Plan, Land readjustment Plan of the pre-returned area “Shintoshin”. “Shintoshin” is a newly and the biggest case in Okinawa. The methods are hearing to key persons and document analysis. The consequences are followings; 1) Because landowners had high demand of income from own real estate, the Total Floor Area Ratio was pushed up higher than usual, and the Land Use Plan had been converted its concept into a new center district with a big commercial zone. 2) Despite of high popularity in the real-estate market, the central area evaluated extremely low, it was around 70% lower than market price, by roadside land price assessment before Land Readjustment Project. To early success of land acquisition for public institution, the local government has to offer a reasonable price.
This paper aims to clarify relationship between festival space and street space by analysis of urban morphology in the case of Japan's three biggest float festivals. Findings are as follows: 1) streets along float routes are selected to wider one for safety, 2) in the festival space on float moving, space to watch and space to move are separeted clearly as widths of streets along float route broaden, 3) in the festival space on float dragged around, there are two way in which floats are dragged around, along the center of the road and along the edge of the road, 4) sometimes floats are dragged around by not only widths of streets but also positional relationship of floats and the shrine.
In Kyoto downtown district, the ‘Road Contact Failure’ of the traditional Alley space is considered as a big hazard, regarding the disaster prevention and evacuation. This paper has focused on the transformation process of the Road Contact Failure area, by clarifying the changes in the road contact conditions, the site form as well as the relationship between each other. Further discussion is given on the challenges point towards the rescue techniques applied in Road Contact Failure area by revealing the factor which caused the changes in the road contact condition and the site form, not only in a comprehensive city level, but also in a specific site level. To conclude, it is found that there is a mutual relation between the road contact conditions in the target site and the ones in the peripheral site. Moreover, regarding the application of the deregulation, it was pointed out that the existing road contact conditions in both the target site and the peripheral site should be considered.
This study aims to explore the semantic attributes of a dataset composed of 74 streetscape images collected in Algeria and Japan. Authors collected and evaluated human judgmental responses using SD method as a tool of Kansei engineering in order to provide information about human perception of the visual attributes of the collected images. The research process included: (1) Semantic selection of bipolar adjective pairs. (2) Psychological evaluation of the visual stimuli using a questionnaire of 40 adjectives presented in French and Japanese. (3) Semantic evaluation of the participants' rating using factor analysis, cluster analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results showed that: (1) The semantic space was described by three independent axes which explained 79.80% of the variability. (2) Low correlation between the impressions of Algerian and Japanese participants in both Algerian and Japanese streetscapes. (3) Differences in the distribution of responses among the 7-point scale and also in the number of axes. And (4) Gender differences showed small differences in the axis of activity that represent less than 0.74% of explained variance.
The purpose of this research is to clarify usefulness of Space Syntax (SS) measures quantifying street network in factor analysis for prosperity. 1. We focus Nagoya CBD between 1935 and 1965 that the city planning projects include war damage revival planning were executed, and analyze land price indicators by multiple regression analysis using the distance to streetcar stop, commercial and office use intensity, street width and SS measures in two times. 2. We compare the two estimated models focusing on change of the factor variables rank. As a result, we point out the implication concerning influence of city planning project.
Travel cost of residence and jobs is important issue of compact city, which we have to consider from the viewpoint of sustainable society. In this paper, we propose a new calculation method of travel cost in the urban city by using Reformulation-Linearization Techniques (RLT) and Quadratic Programming Problem. This method enable us to minimize travel cost in consideration of constrained optimization distribution of residence and jobs and to analyze the characters of the total number of people and the number of working trip. Furthermore, in the analysis, we describe the possibility how this method adapt to the actual urban cities.
The results of this research are as follows: 1) the situation of remodeling an existing housing has a close relationship with housings which consumers have considered to purchase. In particular, in the case that the customers examine a existing housing and new housing simultaneously and, then, buy the existing one, they tend to select the existing housing, without being remodeled and with shorter period after being built; 2) remodeled housings are purchased by people who have limited budget, yet pursue habitability as well as economic feasibility to some degree; 3) in the housing market, while there are always many people who like to purchase a new housing and buy it, one choice of remodeling a existing housing and living there — selected mainly by the Dankai juniors generation, — has been spread gradually.
This study aims to examine appropriate ways of managing vacant rented houses in traditional architecture preservation districts, where many of the structures are traditional wooden houses, in order to ensure continued use and explain how subsequent users should maintain such rented houses. We conducted interviews with the owner and present residents and neighboring residents of the subject house and performed an evaluation based on the degree of deterioration and the current temperature and humidity. As a result, we found that important factors to degradation include stagnant moisture under floors, wetting of columns around openings and infiltration of humidity into attic space due to rainfall. Countermeasures against moisture need to be put in place under floors and around earthen floor, and in attic space if roof leaks are of concern.
The priests' living quarters performed a variety of functions as a place of the religious and secular activity of the temple. To-ji Syoushibou was one of the medieval priests' living quarters, you can know about the use of. The use of To-ji Syoushibou was summarized in following three. The first was the meeting place such as education and researches or management of the temple, the second was the place of the religious activities to be related to an offering to the temple, and the last was the make the ancillary rituals in events such as Haido (ceremonious visit to To-ji Temple by Choja(head priest of To-ji Temple)) or the Kechien kanjo (Dharma transmission). In addition, the plan of To-ji Syoushibou, public service room, private room, cooking chamber in which are arranged, is characterized in that these various rooms have been aggregated into one building.
The aim of Sirai's essay, “The Jomon style”, was not to admire the Jomon culture, but to consider how to grab the inner potential of the object without being misled by its external form. His theory of tradition subsequently developed into the “theory of expansive tradition”. He objected to confining the argument over tradition to Japan and set out to consider the concept from a universal point of view. He gave shape to it and proposed a new concept, the “Eurasian style”.
The title of this book on a cover is written "THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE OF JAPAN 1891.", but formally "THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE IN JAPAN, 1891." should be adopt. As for the contents of this book, the contents repeat with the storytelling meeting held one month after the earthquake. Therefore it is thought that the preparations for publication had most at this time. 1,000 copies of first editions were printed, and this was sold \6. The dislocation part of the photograph of Neo valley in second edition second impression can identify the note of the arrow and "Fault" with white.
This article examines the official residence plan for governor general found in the Illustrated Plan for Keijō(Seoul) city. It also shows that not only the former Japanese colonial Korean Government-General Office but also the residence building were found to be built inside the Gyeonbokgung property site in its original plan. It further indicates that G. de Lalande was involved in the residence plan as shown in the detailed floor plans of then official residence for governor general and Gyeonbokgung site.
Francesco Borromini designed two courtyards in the Oratorian institution in Rome. In Borromini's opinion, the courtyards had so important functions, because the Oratorians could receive visitors politely in The First Courtyard, and renew their vitality in The Second Courtyard as a spacious garden. Moreover, they needed to have visual and psychological effects in the view. To comprehend Borromini's design method from the viewpoint of the perspective, the compositions of the section-perspectives of the courtyards in Opus architectonicum should be reconstructed. So, it is confirmed that the compositions are accurate, and the vanishing points are slightly lower than the top of the first arcade. They reflect the Borromini's idea of the view on the south terrace in The Second Courtyard. And it is recognized that the prospect from the Oratroy is so effective in The First Courtyard, and Borromini's niches are significant for the clear view. Borromini's image is represented by views and prospects in the courtyards in Opus.
This paper attempts to elucidate the coexistence of “the remaining ‘Heimat’ for children” and “‘Heimat’ defined by their ancestors and others” in the field of dwelling education by focusing on ideas on the term in E. Spranger's works. Spranger says that ‘Heimat’is characterized and linked to the soil where people live and experience on a daily basis. In short, it became clear that through the teacher's advice “third-person-defined ‘Heimat’” can exist next to the definition of ‘Heimat’children themselves have in their minds.
The aim of this study is to clarify the composition of “townhouse type” architecture by articulation and integration of depth. Townhouse type is defined as the house on the site with frontage narrower than depth. At first, we define “vertical void” as the atrium and garden that is what to bring wind and light into the interior space. The compositional forms of townhouse type are defined through the combination of position of vertical void, handling of lighting surface and staircase in the vertical void. As a result, it is revealed that the articulation and integration of depth in compositional form of townhouse is generated by four stage of differentiation, which are established in containment relationship of concentric.
This study aims to clarify architects' thoughts of “AÉRO-CLUB ROLAND-GARROS À BUC”, which is the relationship between features and building components. It is about the features such as floor planning, concept of space, structure type, facility planning and also about the building components such as the assembly system as well as the list of all parts. The composition of this study includes the analysis of the features of this building and the analysis of the technological aspect of the building components. Finally, we discuss what kind of relationship the two has.
This paper will discuss the construction and utilization of commercial buildings in the middle of the nineteenth century in Turnovo, Bulgaria. The company “Nikola Minchoolu & Evstati Selveli & Co.”, established by Bulgarian orthodox merchants, had its own large commercial building (khan) and storehouse (maaza) in the commercial quarter of Turnovo. The maaza was built for the company's own business while the rooms of the khan were rented by other people. The khan also functioned as a kind of market. It is concluded that these commercial facilities of the company provided the space of trade and craft chiefly for non-Muslims.
This paper explores the process by which the functions of riverbanks in the study area were reorganized and took on new modern urban functions from the Bakumatsu period (ca. 1853-1868) to the Meiji era (1868-1912) by investigating the formation and transformation of two “kashi” (common riverside spaces), Kagura-kashi and Ichibei-kashi. This paper successfully identifies two urban trends. First, land plots and renter trends in both kashi were determined by gradual enlargements of the partial-use states of the preceding Bakumatsu period. Second, adjacent towns and entities based in those towns strongly influenced kashi creation and development.
In this study, we focus on the triad of the process of Ideas Competition's guidelines, proposals and reviews. There is a rapid increase in the type of square plans at SHINKENCHIKU REDIDENTIAL DESIGN COMPETITION (1947-2010) as the guidelines change. The excellent works in SHINKENCHIKU REDIDENTIAL DESIGN COMPETITION 1972 actually is the beginning of the development of square plans.