The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relation between inhabitants 'satisfation and intention of moving out for the present condition of residential environment in townscape husbandry district of Kanazawa. The method of this study is to administer questionnaire with inhabitants in these districts about satisfation and intention of moving out, and to analyze the result using Fuzzy measuring. The findings are as follows. First, the satisfaction for neighboring road situation is directly related to inhabitants' intention of moving out. Second, the satisfaction for resevation of the parking lot outside a site, is not directly related to inhabitants ' intention of moving out, but indirectly related to the intention when that evaluation criterion is combined with the other criteria, and, what is more, the degree of relation to the intention is raised.
In this study, we have continued to search change of dwellings and the way of life of Dai Lue people. In this process we are interested in the spatial concepts. It is the subject of this paper to attempt to explain an order created by sensuous response to space by the Dai Lue people and search the framework which creates dwellings and their way of life. It is possible to find space concepts where dual things are opposed to each other such as higher rank and lower rank, internal part and external part, and being closed and open from the names of the recognized area, recognized vocabulary and the way of behavior, which represent recognition of the dwelling aspects by the people. There exists symbolism relating to these space concepts in dwellings of the Dai Lue people. It relates to religious faith to worship the guardian spirits of their families. Some poles symbolize the people's sensuous response to space. Such symbolism of dwellings has started to change in recent years in response to change in the way of behavior and the way of recognizing space by the people.
This paper aims to clarify the composition of the spatial units arrangements of the double-income couple from the view point of 'Individualization'. For this analysis,the planning method of dwellings by scenario approach was adopted to the 5 couples.This method consists of two processes,writing scenario of self-realization and making the figure of spatial units arrangements. The findings are as follows. 1) Except for the office-space, no private space is directly connected to the common corridor, and, if the couple admit another individual to use common-space, guest-space can not connect to the common corridor. 2) Most of the equipments are set up at the common-space. But, in the figure of spatial units arrangements 10 years later,some of the equipments are set up at the private-space.
The aim of this study is to provide some suggestions in the architectural planning and design of mursing homes for the elderly. Findings are as follows ; 1) The residents's daily living activities are closely influenced by the length of stay at one place,the sphere of activities and the contents of action. 2) The changes of daily living activities are uniqe at each resident.Many factors are participated in the changes and especially the relation between the residents is very important in those factors. 3) To not be influenced by the change of own skill of independence and the changes of others would be effective to maintain the uniqe daily living activities of a resident. After all,the suggestions of this report are ,1) To plan the living units wide open so that the residents would be able to move around between the living units and meet many people,2) To dispose the staff station at the right place so that the staff would be able to confirm the residents are safe when they are moving.
The establishing criterion of night nursery school was enacted just after the world war D and has been used as it was. It has a big gap to the resent living level. In this study we inspected the nursery room's function in night nursery school where is the living space almost equal to their house for the children stay long there. The lunch, supper also nap. night sleep were taken almost in the same classroom. Several acts overlapped in the classroom. This caused nurses" overloading and hurrying up children and space confusion. We cleared the separation of meal and sleep space and also enrichment of personal spaces as sanitaryroom and the relaxing homely space are needed.
A model to describe grammar consists in supervisory figures was attempted by applying predicate logic concept using genetic programming. In the model, "design world", which William J. Mitchell was proposed in "The Logic of Architecture", was made of "primitive" and "design operator", and the "design world" was translated to "critical language" made of predicate logic by using symbolic expressions. Two resultant descriptions had a same dominant transformation which represents 180-degree rotation, which described one of the feature of the supervisory figure, that is a "point symmetric feature". By the model, possibility of describing grammar of supervisory figures suitably to shape operation was verified.
This study considers PAO as a unit of spatial volume based on experiments of full-sized rooms from the viewpoint of spatial form . The results were summarized as follows : It was found that in the case of judging another larger spatial volume based on PAO , it would be more correct measure [rectangular prism] * than sphere .The relative volumes were judged 115-147% based on sphere, 83-100% based on cube, 96-122% based on rectangular prism. * The meaning of [rectangular prism] includes cube and rectangular prism.
An experiment was conducted to investigate types of path choice in a museum exhibition space. The experimental results revealed that based on the route traced, path choice types of all subjects can be classified into three groups: (1) "convex-space type" ; (2) "wall-hugging type"; and (3) "mixed type". Furthermore, based on the reasons given by subjects in the interview, spatial information used in path choice can be classified into several kinds, including "position information", "face information", "view information", "structure information", and "element information" and so on. Finally, the characteristics of the three types of path choice are as follows: (1) "convex space types" always decide their routes by position information; (2) "wall-hugging types" always decide their routes by "structure information"; and (3)"mixed types" are more attracted by "face information" and "view information" than other groups in deciding their routes. On the other hand, the investigation of spatial information at points of path divergence indicated that "view information" and "element information" have an effect on path choice.
This paper proposes a non-local distribution theory of time resource, which allows one to deal directly with the distributed time resource potentials, to incorporate its dynamic adjustment mechanism of parts and whole as well as uncertainty into the scheduling model. The collective potentials space will reproduces the standard time process, on which time resources are allocated with proper probabilities. This reconstruction scheme of scheduling makes it possible to incorporate an elastic model in the decision mechanism.
The aim of this paper is to clarify characteristics of contemporary Japanese urban exterior space in terms of their spatial composition with surrounding environments. Initially the spaces enclosed by building volumes are extracted as 'vacant lands' in the center district of Tokyo, and their spatial articulation are analyzed as 'closure pattern'. Secondly their accesses from streets are analyzed as 'street pattern', and thirdly their functional characteristics are analyzed. Finally 13 spatial types are clarified through the above-mentioned patterns and characteristics. By comparing those types, they are structured in relationship with 5 fundamental models which represent urban agglomeration of the contemporary Japanese city.
The purpose of this study is to research how the old people in some aging and depopulated districts are supported by there associations with other inhabitants, peculiar to rural or fishing villages, and to show that these districts still function effectively as communities where the members are connected by mutual support. Our research has made it clear that the old people in these districts enjoy various associations in spite of hard conditions of geography,distance or age, which support their life physically and psychologically. This study gives us some hints for supporting one another in our aging communities.
This paper clarified the characteristics of Ueda's landscape and townscape through the works filmed in Ueda area and aimed to extract basic data in consideration of townscape improvement and preservation for a city of film location. Ueda has 40 film location sites in 15 works as case studies and every view is divided into townscape, landscape, and view in site of single facility. Especially townscape is important as a background where many highlight scenes have been filmed. The screen composition of townscape can be divided into 9 types from the depth of a picture in the screen, the angle against a subject, and perspective drawing types. The screen composition and townscape contents filmed present original data and maps on townscape resources and policy.
Japanese population is predicted to start decreasing early this century. This inexperienced phenomenon will most drastically appear in local municipalities. In order to establish planning for such municipalities facing this new phase of development, more accurate demand estimation, that is totally different from the conventional empirical method, will become indispensable. Therefore we propose a numerical procedure using a multi-layered cellular automata with the cells of the layers interacting each other. The cell is a population set in the region. One layer is an age composition of the population. The basis of our procedure guesses the population fluctuation by the state transfer relations (local rules) between each cell. In order to verify the validity of the numerical procedure with the multi-layered cellular automata, we analyze Kagoshima City as a sample. Firstly, a function of state transfer is defined from the characteristic of the population fluctuation using equations with various computational parameters. The state transfer relation is decided from.the measurement geography. The computation results are evaluated by their chronological conformity in comparison with the statistics data. Finally, the parameters that showed the best conformity are used for the future estimation of the population in urban and regional planning with a charm project. Moreover, the tendency for the population fluctuation of the local municipalities is investigated by analyzing the value of the computation parameter.
This research deals with the economical advantage of condominium, which permit resources circulation for a better sustainable society. We set up a model of renewal cost, which can respond to user's life stages, and calculate the life cycle cost for 180 years using the present value method. The result of this study has convinced us that the resource circulation housing provides an economical advantage, e.g. while its cost is 20% higher than the conventional housing the real rate of interest is 2%, which will give an advantage of 20% over conventional housing. And that its inheritor has an economical advantage in the life span cost, to be 40% lower than the original builders.
In the construction industry, many individual trades have to work concurrently. This creates many potential difficulties on the construction site, primarily in relation to efficiency loss and construction period extension. To improve efficiency we have developed a new interior finishing method. Using this method, both interior finishing and building services parts and components are well combined. It is well known fact that the repetitive nature of construction produces a learning effect, which reduces both the overall working period and labor man-hour utilised. However there is little learning data available which specifically relates to interior works. Therefore, using our developed method, we conducted an observation study in order to collect learning data in an 11 story housing project. The analysis demonstrates that a typical learning effect was found in 11 recorded repetitions.
The purpose of this study is to clear the feature of each zone of Copenhagen area on housing condition of elderly people. On analysis of investigation into visitors of the senior activity centers, following results are summarized; (1) Large number of elderly people live in 'non-profit housing', for the reason of room and sanitary arrangements of this housing type are suitable to their lives. This housing type is located in 'suburban zone' at high ratio. (2) Dwellings of elderly people are usually contain 2 or 3 rooms. They are 1 bedroom plus 1 or 2 living and dining rooms. (3) Elderly people have a tendency to occupy floors of 5th and lower for their dwellings. This tendency is based on their physical conditions. (4) Some dwellings of 'cooperative housing' that are located in 'city zone' are not furnished with bath or elevator. Dwellings lacking these facilities do not fit to elderly people. This means necessity of renovation of this housing type.
The hatto of Shokokirji reconstructed by Hideyori in 1605 is of the utmost historical importance being the oldest and largest extant example of its type. Despite a shortage of lumber and various problems involving logistics,the building was completed in one year and became the exemplary model of subsequent hatto architecture. Its success as an architectural design lies in the fact that it was both large enough for the performance of religions rituals and rationally determined so that unnecessary elements were eliminated (i.e. it was both functional and economically efficient.)As a result, it came to represent a new kind of internal space.
The author, in this monograph, intends to give concrete explanation to the contents of contract for building Hiyamizu church by Yosuke Tetsukawa following Kirifuru church built in 1906. Five pocketbooks prepared by Yosuke Tetsukawa which were the basis of his "application for verification", clearly illustrate how it came about as to why Hiyamizu church was not a brick building, but a wooden one and details of contracted work, the names and job classification of workers, construction expenses and relation with missionaries.
The old Ministry of Justice building (1888〜1895) may have been designed by Edgar Giesenberg (1851〜1892), who worked at the architectural firm Ende & Bockmann in Berlin. His career is unknown in Japan and it is not exactly clear what he had to do with the planning of that building. At two other architectural firms in Berlin, he was engaged in the building of the opera house in Frankfurt a. M., the concert hall in Leipzig etc., and he adopted by preference the Neorenaissance style. The design of the old Ministry of Justice building was his last work and he took part in the all processes of the planning; the first design (European style), the second one (semi-European style), and most probably the last one (again in European style).
The purpose of this study is to clarify the specifications of foundations of masonry buildings in the Meiji era. Main results of this study are as follows. 1. Wood pile was used through the Meiji era, and concrete pile (compresol pile) was also in the last years. 2. There was no big difference in the broken stone foundation except for existence of timbers that tied the heads of piles. 3. Although stone was used under the footing in the early, concrete was generally used through the Meiji era. Lime concrete was used in the first half, and cement concrete was generally in the second half. In the last years, reinforced concrete was used with concrete pile.
There are front spans and eave's spaces between the outside and the interior space in Miao Tribe's rural houses of FENGHUANG XIAN. The front spans and eave's spaces are constructed from "TUNKOU", eave's spaces, and opening paths which only existed in old style rural houses. Even though these spaces aren't the spaces mainly used, they play an important part in function. Furthermore the spaces become a joint between the exterior and the interior spaces, which are valuable spaces of spatial construction. With the changing process of religious service places, the formation of the second floor, and the development of construction methods, the opening paths, which just existed in old style rural houses, were no longer arranged, "TUNKOU" changed from low and deep ones to high and shallow ones and the eaves became deeper in the new style rural houses. It is especially conceivable that "TUNKOU" and the eaves were changed relatively. On the one hand, with the changing process of the religious service place and the formation of the second floor, "TUNKOU" became shallow; on the other hand, the development of construction from beams extending straight out to beams extending out on a curved line was the technical guarantee, which made it possible for the eaves to become deeper.
The fountains' beauty is very important in Versailles gardens and many efforts were necessary to realize it Among a lot of essays, the Marly Machine pleased best Louis XIV. In this paper, the Machine's architecture, its technological sources and fruits, the Marly Machine's status on the history of mechanical technology are presented and examined. Several drainage arts in the Walloon mines were indeed applied to the Machine composed of fourteen wheels and approximately 250 pumps. It is pointed that its technique was not revolutionary and that the meaning of Marly Machine can not be clarified by the technological research.
This study aims to analyze the formation of the Agglomeration-character in the architecture of Germanisches Nationalmuseum. This museum was developed from a secularized monastery building in Nuremberg. Since 1866 under the new direction of August Essenwein, extension of this museum building was planned in order to correspond to the arrangement and enlargement of collections. Essenwein arranged diverse types of exhibition rooms as the new museum complex. Consequently, this museum obtained the remarkable character of Agglomeration (: to gather various buildings and exhibition rooms corresponding to diversity of collections), which influenced the later museum projects in Germany.
The Osaka Castle was burnt down at 1868, and the owner of the site was transferred to the Meiji new government from the Tokugawa feudal government. In the early years of Meiji, the state of the old site of the castle changed drastically. In that site, some modern buildings with the Western style were constructed and some new facilities were established by using old Japanese buildings. Their buildings and facilities were military, educational, and medical ones. Military use and civil use had coexisted side by side in the site at the beginning years of Meiji.
This study is to see visitors' activities urban waterfronts has changed as the environment changes by the backgrounds at the time or waterfront construction. 1. As for except a thing whereby activity in the city seaside part is decided by the environmental conditions, there were no big differences. 2. Even if you are similar activity, big change must have occurred in a use situation and consciousness.