We attempt to examine the relationships between area characteristics and the changes of street-facing land uses by newly-constructed town houses. We, in particular, examine the issues of parking space mechanism in detail. The results can be summarized; 1) the differences in building morphology and street-facing land uses derive mainly from original city blocks and site conditions. 2) In the areas where the buildings do not have enough space in front of them, the street-facing spaces are becoming smaller by new town houses. 3) Town houses are changing the characteristics of terrace areas by replacing the street-facing green spaces with the piloti-parking spaces.
The aim of this study is to clarify the space organization of the shophouse and the block formation in Daun Penh area, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. We analyze the space formation of the house and the housing complex on fifty-five houses, and the formation of housing lots and alleys on the thirty blocks by the field survey. We clarify three types of the shopshouse. Considering on the formation, we conclude the multi-story living in one span which can be seen on French colonial shophouse is the original one. Transformation of the shophouse makes the role of back alley important. We can grasp two housing lots types and four types of the way of utilizing the alleys.
As the sequel of a series of the study, this paper analyzes the dwelling unit plan of the multistory apartment building in Taipei City. The main conclusions are as follows. 1. There is a rough tendency that the larger the dwelling unit scale is, the more the separation between the public room and the private room comes to stand out. 2. Securing of privacy in the dwelling unit has been aimed though a basic frame of the public/private room plan is kept. 3.It can be thought about the relation between the public and the private sector that the public sector intensively promotes the improvement of the living environment from 1970's to 1980's and the private sector advanced a rapid diversification in 1990's. 4.The transition of the building form also contributes to the environmental enhancement in the dwelling unit and the diversification of the unit plan.
In a formation process of residential preference, the effect of resident's values and residential history is analyzed. A web-based questionnaire survey of residential preference was conducted on 2000 people living in the Tokyo metropolitan area, who bought houses in recent years. By Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), a model that resident's values mediate between residential history and future residential preference is verified. The analysis shows that 'values-mediated' indirect relations can suitably explain a formation process of preference for natural environment of town rather than 'values non-mediated' direct relation. This result indicates necessity to include psychological factors in models of residential preference formation.
Architect Miyawaki Mayumi kept designing the detached house as calling the house designer. In addition, it took an active part as a writing person by attaching of the title of the essayist. The ideal way of the house and the family image that has continued the longtime question of such him to the society is worth paying attention. Then, it is assumed to be a purpose of this research to clarify the design ideas and the plan characteristics of his house work. The research method is the following three. (1)29 works that obtain a detailed drawing are analyzed. (2)Words that can be read from the plan is extracted from a lot of books and it arranges it. (3)It sets criterion by using the arranged words, and it analyzes it based on them. In conclusion, it has been understood that a lot of words of Miyawakimayumi are influenced by various elements. And, it was able to know the condition when each words was achieved.
This study aims to grasp the current situations and the spatial conditions of visits to nursing homes. For that purpose, visitors to nursing homes were asked to fill out a questionnaire on their behavior, meeting places, frequency and their attitudes toward the residents. The results are as follows: Resident's private rooms are expected to be a personal space in which intimate talks are possible. On the other hand, both visitors and residents tend to go out for a walk or for a change. On the visitors' part, this is because they are concerned about the residents' physical conditions. On the residents' part, this is because they are unwilling to show their private space to the visitors. Even when they choose to go out, they hope to have private space in which they do not have to worry about other residents. This kind of semi-private environment is found in living rooms, dining rooms, corridors, and other common spaces in which they can enjoy visits.
This paper aims to make clear the concept of daily life in nursing care environment for the elderly. Photographs taken by the staffs as they thought what were represented the concept "Home-like environment" and "Individuality" of residents in their daily life were observed. By collecting photos from group living for the elderly with dementia all over Japan and staffs of a nursing home, we analysed by interpreting the photographs. The followings were obtained. 1. In the images of "Home-like environment", many staffs shot the scene of homework by the residents themselves. 2. In the image of "Individuality" of residents, individuality was represented as they doing hobbys.
In this paper, we considered the conditions of the social support system and community environment for the independent elderly people by analyzing and understanding their social life in local community, based on the hearing investigation of 43 users of Ikigai Day Service Center in Tama city of Tokyo. As this study was focused on the independent elderly people, especially just before level of the elderly who becomes to need nursing care service, the result of this study will be useful for improving the social support system and community environment at the viewpoint of preventive approach in nursing care needs. It was found from the result that the independent elderly people's social life in local community is formed by interactions of various conditions, and there are several types in their social life in local community. Therefore, it is very important to improve the conditions of social support system and community environment and to provide independent elderly people with the suitable supporting environment through the well-consideration for the characteristics of each type.
This paper aims to clarify the effects and problems of introduction of small group unit to traditional nursing home by reform. We surveyed a reformed nursing home that had new small units and traditional large unit, immediately after the reform and one after year by means of mapping of activities of the residents/ care staffs, behavior observation and deep interviews. The findings are as follows: (1) Comparing small unit and large unit, care acts of the staffs were not so different, but frequency of communication of the staffs and the residents increased in small unit. (2) The residents' lifes in small unit were similar to those in large unit at first, but gradually changed. Person with low care-need level came to stay in the corridor independently. In contrast, person with high care-need level came to spend long time in their room idly. (3) Corridor spaces were able to play important role in the form of the residents' life not only as passage spaces but also as semi-private zone.
The paper aims at developing quantitative estimation method to evaluate the escape safety in buildings. This model is distinctive in that path reliability decreases according to escape distance, and it is unchangeable by adding new nodes. In this paper, reliability calculation is performed by the use of simple network model of the schematic building plan. The length of each network link is converted into link reliability respectively by exponential function, and reliability of the whole network link is synthesized. The result of this paper is expected to be used as an important index for escape safety in a building. It is also expected that this evaluation model will be adapted as an evaluation index of the escape safety of urban area and underground space.
There are only a few studies of space in a public lavatory booth. In this study, we researched on public lavatory booths. The purpose of this study is to get materials that are required in designing public lavatories. The experiments were conducted to see how different each evaluation of a booth would be when the floor space width and illuminance level were changed. The results of the experiments are summarized as follows; In the booth that is dealed with in this study, 1) The volume of booth we feel seems smaller than it actually is when it has 1800mm depth. 2) The difference in illuminance levels influences on the evaluation of space, but the difference in floor space doesn't influence on the evaluation of illuminance level. 3) The evaluation of space is low (method of magnitude estimation, and impression) in booths where the light is dimmed. 4) The evaluation of openness is higher in a booth which has high depth than in a square booth. The space volume, however, is evaluated low in a booth which has high depth. 5) It is evaluated that you feel more calm, satisfied, and comfortable in a booth which has high depth than in a square booth. 6) Making a booth more calm space leads to more satisfacion and comfort with the booth.
Most of the Residents of Boze island are changing their houses, 1〜2 times in their lives. The reasons of house changes are mostly related to the turning points their life stages. Such as marriage or children's growth could become the reason to build new house in new lot or move to remt a house. The vocant house could bocome a house for a retired couple or a house for a widow. This tendency is considered a kind of development of the traditional retirement costum of the island, related to the characteristic economic aid system in extended family.
Authors have been conducting the field research under the title 'Origin, Transformation, Alteration and Conservation of Urban Space of Colonial cities' since 1999. This paper discusses the characteristics of the Spanish Colonial cities created in the American Continent. In the period of the Spanish urbanism in America, approximately a thousand of colonial cities were established. This study on these cities has been accomplished based on the analysis of old maps corresponding to colonial Spanish period. As cartographic database, 7,152 images and maps from AGI(The Archive of the Indies in Seville-Archivo de Indias de Sevilla), are used for analysis. In the analysis of the city maps, we classify them into several types according to the criteria of urban items such as location, urban, plaza, blocks, streets, measures, plots etc. , which Law of Indies describes.
This study aims to obtain the basic data on supply planning of community facilities in planned communities. Differences of distributions and changes of community facilities are inspected among districts developed under different methods which located in Suma New Town, Kobe City. Fluctuation of the number of facilities in each district is surveyed from the early stage of the New Town development. On the other hand, opinions and attitudes of residents in each district toward their residential environments are obtained by means of questionnaires. As the results; the distribution of community facilities is still strongly influenced by the methods of development which planned over 40 years ago; most of residents moved in the early stage have been aged and composing the member of aging societies, although community facilities are not well sufficient for their daily livings; and residents tend to change their opinions to affirm mixed land use within the restriction of building types.
This paper aims to explain the risk of dwelling burglary with factors representing physical and socio-demographic context of neighbourhoods and make clear the relationship among them with SEM (structural equation modeling). The following are main information got in this paper, which enables evidence-based crime reduction. ・Higher density, larger family and larger daytime population reduce the risk, which probably provide high level of natural surveillance. ・There is higher risk in neighbourhoods with high rate of rented houses. ・There is higher risk in neighbourhoods with high building coverage ratio whereas there is lower risk in those with high floor area ratio. In conclusion, it is suggested that a holistic approach should be taken considering community safety as an aspect of quality of life.
We found that making community "notice" is the important thing for management of business and townscape with voluntary rules by the community at a shopping street. To make community "notice" the followings are important: ・setting two processes which are going simultaneously and influence each other:(1)process for building a voluntary rule, (2) process with experiments based on the "tentative" rule. ・accumulation of experiments which are some projects and events planned by the community at the shopping street. ・evaluation from diverse standpoints by storekeepers and users in the process.
This paper aims to develop a planning support tool for local governments to devise allocation plan of temporary houses immediately after a massive seismic damage, through applying an optimum resource allocation model. The paper, first, tried to develop a model which identifies the numbers of applicants to temporary houses among victims that have lost houses by an earthquake. Second, a model, which measures the different needs of victims toward temporary houses, was constructed, resulted in classification of the needs. Third, the paper developed an operational model for allocation planning with multiple objectives by applying the results of the classified needs to several social trends. In order to examine the validity of this method, a numerical experiment using data of Odawara City, was performed considering the possible variations of allocation policies considering residents' needs, the elderly and the disabled priority, community unit conservation, household balance, and so on. The result showed that the model substantiated reasonable solutions.
In this study, we discuss the distribution of geographical significance, which is caused by accumulated interaction of the activity at point in cities among traffic network. The geographical significance is derived under a recursive structure below; (1) the activity value at one point is calculated by considering the effects from other points of traffic network, (2) that point also affects other points through traffic network according to the activity value of that point. There is a study which considers such recursive structure of activity, that focuses on the eigenvector corresponding to the maximum eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix of graph. However, it is difficult to interpret the value at each point physically. To dissolve such logical weakness, we provides a logical basis to quantitative index of geographical significance by formulating activity distribution based on maximizing interaction between any two points of traffic network.
This paper looks at the changing context of women's home ownership in Japan as a homeowner society. The development of the home ownership based housing system in the post-war period has been organized around the 'standard family' or 'male bread winner' model in terms of household structure. In this paper, however, it is highlighted that married women have increasingly begun to own their own share of household assets in the form of residential property while single women are still excluded from the home ownership oriented society.
The busyness of the maintenance staffs of one day can be measured by the summation of the number of the newly occurring troubles and the troubles which continues from previous day. The time the restoration of the trouble takes is expressed by the average rate to the number of all troubles that maintenance staffs have to cope at the day, of the number of troubles that the restoration wasn't completed within the day. It analyzed the relation between the busyness of the maintenance staffs and this average rate, using the maintenance recorded data of a large-scale office building. By this result of analysis, the method of evaluating maintenance staffs number excess or deficiency is presented.
This paper proposes the cleanliness check system which is constructed by the evaluation of students for the purpose of efficient cleaning management. This system was applied to a certain university as a case study. First the viewpoints and judgment conditions on which the cleanliness of campus were evaluated were extracted by the hearing investigations to the students. Then, some items for the cleanliness check were decided based on these results. Furthermore, importance level to the check items and user satisfaction to the current conditions were investigated. As a result, the necessary knowledge to improve concretely the cleaning management was obtained.
In the Middle age, the Zen-style triple-brackets is generally used in Zen-style temple's architecture. In the Esoteric Buddhist Temple Architecture, the Zen-style triple-brackets is not found out in Main Hall, but it found out in Zushi Architecture in 14th century. The triple-brackets on Zushi Architecture seems to grow into the peculiar shape in modern age. Zen-style brackets have two different types in length of bracket arms. Pilling of bracket arms and tie bracket arms are shown the difference in the age.
The paper traces some links of the structure and the meaning of via the examples in the snowy district of Iiyama. "Tatenobose" means a post supporting a ridge directly from the earth. A small house with "Tatenobose" has a structure of no division between rahmen-frame and roof-truss. The structure is stronger against horizontal force caused by snow load and wind pressure than one with division between rahmen-frame and roof truss. In particular the structure is stronger against vertical force caused by snow load. It concludes that the structure with "Tatenobose" has survived in the heavily snowy district in Japan through centuries.
On the previous study report has reached to find out of real length of the construction measure, which is from analysis dimensional plan of Banteay Samre and Thommanon. Continually, clarify of construction measure of Prasat Suor Prat tower N1, which was restored by JSA (Japeanese government team for Safeguarding Angkor), is aimed with analysis result of previous study report. Total dismantle and reassemble works were done at Prasat Suor Prat tower when the restoration and conservation work. This remain is difficult to understand for target to analysis of dimensional plan because it has some incomplete parts. However, the detail measurement survey could be accomplished due to the restoration work, which is include dismantle work that has get original condition as same as construction time.Then the analysis of dimensional plan is conducted based squarely on study and analysis result that is before dismantle work by JSA. As a result, the construction measure: 412mm could be finding out, which is common with Banteay Samre and Thommanon.
We analyzed the store-front planning that is published in the book of store planning in the after Kanto daishinsai. The purposes of this research are three points of making a matter. The first is background of composing of the store-front planning, the second is transition of the store-front planning, the third is difference of understanding in another fields of study of the store-front planning in the after Kanto daishinsai. Another fields are architecture, commercial art, and business studies of a store. The results can be summarized; 1) The store-front planning with show window have three typical patterns. There is appeared by result of study for improvement of sales in store-front. Typical patterns are presented to architects and storekeepers in the textbook, the photographs and the drawing book by the fields of architecture, commercial art and business studies of a store. 2) As study in this field has proceeded, main of typical patterns modified to store-front planning regarded the approach space. That transition of typical pattern is showed between 1923-1935 in the photographs. Above all, "a store-front which combines Western and Japanese styles" is a unique pattern of store-front in the early years of Showa period. 3) The point of difference of another fields is understanding of the design policy in store-front planning. The field of architecture have design policy regarded the style in an architectural elevation, while the fields of commercial art and business studies of a store have design policy regarded the improvement of sales in store-front.
The examined features and meanings of the arrangement of Spolia in Sant'Agnese fuori le mura, based on the author's survey, are as follows: 1) The builders distinguished each Spolia and disposed them by its own details. 2) The arrangement of Spolia is different between two stories; at the ground floor it still has the classical tendency, whereas at the gallery it was made on the principle of "Priority of the South Colonnade' as well as "Aesthetic of Variety". 3) The difference of arrangement between two stories was programmed to show the different functions of two stories.
The intention of this paper is to make a thematic explication of Aldo van Eyck's architectural thought through inquiring into his methodological concept of "imagination." The analysis consists of two main chapters as follows: Chapter 2 explicates the structure of this concept with reference to his early treatises on modern arts in which he depicts the realm of "reality" as the world of "metamorphosis." Chapter 3 illustrates an architectural meaning of "imagination" by analyzing his unpublished manuscript whose title "the Child, the City and the Artist" represents the "three realities" in architecture-urbanism as man's creative activity, or art.
Recently, the global environment has many serious problems in the world. These problems are also serious in architectural field. In this research, in order to clarify attitude of students to the global environment, questionnaire was carried out. Contents of the questionnaire were mainly "consciousness", "action" and "knowledge". Subjects were university students majoring in architectural field, and their grade was both the first and third. As a result, subjects were aware that the global environment problems were serious, but they did not behave for the global environment so much. The higher their grade was, the more their knowledge was, however their consciousness and action hardly changed. Furthermore, the students scarcely knew that the change of global environment brought a great influence on creatures. It is important to inform the students of the current state of the global environment, and to train the dignity of the life.
This discussion raises a few questions on the way of understanding of the homeless policies in the UK. The period of the consideration for homeless policies is important, especially in the UK due to the radical change of housing policy by Thatcher regime.
The author thanks for raising some important questions as to the situation of homeless problem and policies in the UK. The author agrees with Mr. Okamoto that the population of the homeless is influenced by the economic, social and political context, including the change of administrations. After pointing out that the description in the author's paper does not deny the fact that the characteristics of the problem had changed, the author also argues that the analysis on the characteristics of the problem needs to be done with clear criteria on how the change of characteristics can be measured.