The goal of this study is to develop a simple model for predicting convective heat transfer in compartment fires. Asthe first step of this study, experiments using a small scale compartment have been conducted. The method for estimating the mass flow rate through opening using air temperature in compartment in case of uni-direction flow was considered. The rate of convective heat transfer is obtained by subtracting heat transfer rate through the opening of compartment from the heat release rate of fire source. Therefore, the convective heat transfer coefficient can be calculated from temperature difference between hot gas and wall surface and surface area of compartment. As a result of experiments and analysis, this method seems to be convenient. The convective heat transfer coefficient are found to be 0.018-0.040 kW/m^2/K and 0.007-0.013 kW/m^2/K before and after the fire is extinguished, respectively.
It has been demonstrated by previous experiments within a cavity space having no bottom opening that the temperature rise of plume at the height of the cavity opening is well scaled by a nondimensional temperature defined as Θ≡(<ΔT>^^^-/T_∞)/Q^<*2/3> where Q^^・^*≡Q^^・/ρ_∞C_PT_∞√<gDD^2>, and the temperature is successfully correlated asΘ=α(H/D)^β, where β=5/3, -1 and -1/3 for shallow, intermediate and deep cavity, respectively. In this study, the smoke behavior in cavity spaces is further investigated by small scale experiments for a cavity space which has an opening at the bottom. It is shown that as the area of the bottom opening becomes larger, the fire plume becomes more stable, but the temperature is still well correlated in the same manner as for a cavity having no bottom opening. The effects of a bottom opening on the temperature and the pressure difference produced in the cavity are also analyzed.
It is commonly believed that it is important for safe evacuation in a building fire to arrange for two or more escape routes in different directions. Various provisions are prescribed in building and fire codes of many countries to implement this concept in buildings. The requirement of two or more exits from a room is one of such provisions. However, the specification requiring two or more exits are significantly different from one country to another, and the level of safety assured by the provisions is not clear. In this paper, the meaning of the requirement of two or more exits is considered form the view point of the expected number of occupants unable to escape, and a criterion for the number of required exits is proposed as an alternative to the existing provisions. The proposed criterion is basically the same as existing provisions in terms of the average level of safety assured, but allows an assessment of the effect of the number of exits on safety more explicitly.
This paper proposes a technique that predict the characteristics of the vibration propagation in a building excited by train running. It is assumed that transformation at the excitation point is created by the bending wave in the slab with the impact of the train running. For estimation of the vibration power, the effective vibration presumption method was attempted focusing on the wave-length of the bending wave of the limited length slab. The scale-model and full-scale experiments, and computer model using FEM were carried out in order to verify this method. The method for predicting the vibration response in the building was examined using transmission-accelerance allowing the detection of the region influenced by the excitation. This method is based on the eaqual interval excitation model which represents multiple excitation points on the rail.
Velocity and temperature fields over the Kanto plane were predicted by the turbulence model for geophysical flow problems developed by Mellor and Yamada. Two cases of numerical predictions were carried out in order to examine the performance of turbulence model. Through these predictions, the effects of land-use conditions on the local climate were investigated. The diurnal variation of the flowfields was predicted imposing the typical meteorological conditions at the end of July as boundary conditions. The results of numerical predictions were compared with measured data.
Characteristics of indoor thermal environment and air-conditioning load in atriums with openings were studied using a simplified prediction model. Influence of draft airflow through openings was modeled using the result of CFD analysis, and the model was improved to investigate indoor thermal environment with natural ventilation. Difference of thermal distribution and air-conditioning load were studied under several conditions, and the most effective condition for energy conservation was investigated. Finally, a periodic control method of openings was suggested. In this method, outside air will be adaptively introduced according to the outside temperature and intensity of solar irradiance. As the result of thermal load prediction through a year, it was found that this method is effective to reduce thermal load or a long priod during spring to autumn, and more than 20 % of yearly air-conditioning energy will be reduced.
Convective heat transfer coefficient at outside building wall is one of the main factors to control thermal environment of urban canopy layer. However, its manner in an urban area still remains unknown, especially a relation to wind direction and effects of surrounding buildings or street geometry. In this paper, a newly contrived estimation method of convective mass transfer coefficient by the evaporation from a filter paper was adopted to real scale measurements at tall building window. Previously to the measurements, scale effects of filter paper in various wind conditions were also tested in wind tunnel experiments. Relation between convective mass transfer coefficient (k) and 30-minute means of wind speed at 15m above the roof depends on the direction of upper stream. On the contrary, (k) has a linear relation to wind in the vicinity of the window regardless of upper wind direction.
The experiment presented color slides of domestic and foreign river landscapes to the subjects was carried out with two stages. As the results of the first stage, the subject's evaluation of the whole and partial environment and the image were shown. At the second stage, the subjects were asked for the reasons of judgements in style of free description. From these sentences, subjects and predicates as the pair vocabulary of judgements were chosen. After the classification of these words, the pair vocabularies were analyzed with the Quantity Theory Cluster III, and the relationships between the frequency of each subject and the ratio of areas composed by each landscape element were shown.
This study is the quantitative analysis on the relationship between behaviors and places in the domestic spaces, based on time alocation survey. We analyzed the general differences in behavior between male and female, on weekday. The results are follows ; 1) By correspondence analysis and clustering by k-means algorithm, normal types are distinguished from abnormal types. 2) While waking on weekday at home, more than 70% of male spend mainly time on Basic Activities, such as meal, excretion, and bath. What behaviors others put emphasis on are largely influenced by the age. 3) In female's case, Basic Activities include doing household alone. Behavior patterns of female depend rather on an age of child or herself.
For stimulation on participation in society and getting the useful data of intellectual disabled person, we clarified the characteristics and classified on 3 kinds of welfare working facilities (cooperating work-shop, industrial training facilities, welfare factory). Classifications were able to grasp 5 points of view, as follows, located condition, the utility circle of commuters, the ratio of disabled ranks, indication of changing treatment, the stance of parents for rehabilitation. According to the classification, there are remarkable difference on each aspect. Located condition prescribes the utility circle, accessibility make opportunity to commute by them selves. The tendency of disabled seriously, high aged, remaining with facilities for a long time brings about troublesome condition for working. And made reference the characteristics of each kind of facilities.
Now, a lot of "culture halls" are still being constructed and planed in cities. Although there is some confidence that a newly-established culture hall would influence the situation of existing culture halls in the same city, there are few studies and little knowledge about this. The purpose of this paper is to grasp the change of the situation of culture hall utilization after a newly-established culture hall's opening. Sendai city was selected as a survey field. The results are summarized as follow; Since the newly-established concert hall opened, a large number of classical music concerts held in the city moved from existing multipurpose halls to the newly-established concert hall. Almost all of them were promoted by lesson classes or schools. As a result, some multipurpose halls changed their character to "lecture halls".
This study's aim is to clarify the paradigmatic characteristics of the exterior space of contemporary architecture in Japan. Firstly refined are two different levels of exterior space; ARRANGED EXTERIOR SPACE and ARTICULATED EXTERIOR SPACE. The former is the remaining space which is left by arranging buildings on a site, the latter is included space of buildings which is articulated by compositional elements. Each space is combination of these two different levels of exterior space. Secondly found are 17compositional types. Finally comparing the every type, three fundamental rhetorics are clarified; hierarchical connection of spaces, combination of public and private characters, open spaces. Another complex rhetorics are formed by the combination of these three fundamentals.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the relation of informational space and lost-behaviors on wayfinding behaviors which are the problem solving processes to move to a room getting information. The factors to repress and cause lost-behavior (selecting wrong route, and backtracking) are made clear by a discriminant analysis of experimental subjects' wayfinding behaviors in four types of informational space; corridor type without map-sign and directional signs, corridor type with map-sign and directional signs, hall type without map-sign, and hall type with map-sign,
In this research, actual data of shopping behavior were collected through questionnaire survey at Seishin, Suma, Senboku and Sayama New Town to clarify the adaptability of the competing destinations model proposed to improve the Huf model which has been used for forecasting shopping behavior, and for analyzing characteristics of this model at ordinary built-up areas to compare the both areas. As a result, it is clarified that the adaptability of competing destinations model to shopping behavior is better than that of Huff model and that the grocery store in New Town are not so attractive as those in ordinary built-up areas for their scales.
We operated experimentations on light transmitting screens under 5 different transmitting and reflecting fluorescent lights : transmitting back lights had similar brightness to cloudy sky. We used 15 kinds of material for the screen. 1) We used 18 architectural students as evaluating subjects and obtained 8 basic imageries representing the common element among several physical images of the light transmitting screens : I. thick-heavy ⇔ thin-light, II. brilliant-transparent ⇔dull-opaque,III. soft-warm ⇔ hard-cold, IV. even-smooth ⇔ roueh. 2) Subjects' evaluations of the basic imageries for the screens showed the followings : brillianttransparent was well connected with vividness or freshness, and soft-warm with charm or serenity. Both imageries were well connected with pleasantness or attractivity. 3) We classified the relations between images of each 15 screen and individual transmitting and reflecting light.
Feng-Shui is a wisdom on residential environment planning of the ancient Chinese. By analyzing the bases of its theory and by utilizing its idea as a method in the science of city planning, we can understand and use it to solve the nvironment problems we face today. Feng-Shui thought originated with Bu-Zhai, Xiang-Zhai and based on the idea and knowledge of Yin-Yang, Kan-Yu, Di-Li, Xing-Fa which were perceived in the classics of China before Han dynasty. We think that to clarify the meaning of those aliases of Feng-Shui is a proper way to understand the bases and features of Feng-Shui thought. The aim of this study is to investigate those aliases and to make clear the concept of Feng-Shui. The result is that we gave a definition of Feng-Shui as a reasonable theory of site planning in ancient China.
The purpose of this study is to consider the principles of space formation of houses, villages and the cities focusing on the cosmology that decide physical arrangement. We selected Cakranegara in Lombok island, Indonesia, as a case study. Lombok island attracts us from several view points. As is well known, there runs Wallace line between Lombok and Bali island. Lombok island is also interesting in terms of religion. Most of Balinese are Hindu though over 90 % of the population in Indonesia are Muslim. Islam is dominant in Lombok island, but we can see the strong influence of Bali Hindu in the western part of the island. The fact that Hindu and Muslim people coexist in a small island is worthy to be investigated. Cakranegara is the city we firstly discovered if allowed to exaggerate its importance in the history of Indonesian cities. Karangasem Kingdom in Ball built Cakranegara as a colonial city in 18th century. Though Cakranegara was in the far east of Indian civilization at that period. We guess Cakranegara was constructed ideally based on the ancient idea of Hindu City. It is very interesting that Nagara- Kertagama; the Lontar paper that describe the Jawa and Majapahit kingdom in the 14th century, was discovered within the Kraton (palace) of Cakranegara. This paper is the first paper of a series of study on Cakranegara. This paper defined the purpose of study on Cakranegara and clarifies street's pattern, land division as the first step of a series of study on Cakranegara.
Purpose of this paper is to clarify the real state of environmental improvement of historical core in local small cities. Around one third of whole autonomy in Japan are defined as local small cities and most of these have historical city core. Autonomy schemed HOPE (Housing of Proper Environment) plan are analyzed as samples of case study. Through this study, 3types are abstracted. Type1 is an active group both in socio-economic condition and environmental improvement. Type2 is opposite character to type1. TyPe3 is active in economic condition but negative in environmental improvement in historical core.
This paper aims to clarify the formation of Buddhist temples distrcts (TERAMACHI) after Meiji era and to investigate the present situation of them. Main conclusion are as follows: 1) The districts made after Meiji era were formed by move from the inside to the outside of 0ld 15 wards. The opportunities of the formation of districts were the City Reform Plan, the Earthqake Recovery Project and the Post War Recovery Project. The present distribution of the districts brought about by the Earthqake Recovery Project. 2) The structure of the distribution was established by the lack of sites for move of temples and by appearance of reduced cemeteries (TOKUSETSU-BOCHI). The authorities' policy of cemetery-move to the suburbs was not realized. 3) The formation of the districts was led by cemetery, in result. 4) Generally, the districts made after Meiji era are recognizable and that of in Edo era are not. 5) The present structure of the distribution will be continued fof the long time.
This study belongs to a basic study with a view to applying townscape simulation to community designing based on citizen participation. On this study, first, we made clear of the characteristics of valuation for townscape simulation by using a miniature CCD Camera and townscape Models. Secondly, we developed a simulation workshop that took notice of the characteristic of valuation and then practiced the workshop. Thirdly, we made clear of the effects of the workshop that by using a miniature CCD Camera and townscape Models and we verified the validity for consensus of the townscape images.
In Hokkaido, building construction in winter tends to be still kept at a distance. One of the reasons is that winter construction requires additional costs for winter cares. In the meantime, year-round construction activity is necessary to keep the building industry sound. Winter construction is thus unavoidable. One of problems to be solved to promote winter construction is to establish the adequate estimation method of additional costs. The estimation method is indispensable not only to estimate construction costs, but also to evaluate the economic efficiency of year-round construction.In this paper, an estimation system of additional costs of winter building construction is proposed.
This paper surveys cost estimating process of a multiple dwelling project in a design firm, as the first step for developing cost estimating system. The firm used CAD at the early stage of design. We clarified that decided specifications were not fully utilized. Then we showed that, if we utilized the decided specifications completely and also utilized default values given by the design firm, estimated costs of a structural work and finishing work are very effective for adjusting of construction cost. Based on those findings, we proposed a new method for adjusting and converging construction cost during design stages.
A new method to get optimum solution in labour resource levelling Problcms is presented. The method is effective for non-repetitive construction works, as well as repetitive ones, and uses genetic algorithm, where how to design phenotype and genotype influences effectiveness and efficiency very much. The phenotype contains the number of days by which the job is delayed to start from the earliest start time. The number is adjusted if the start time calculated using the number is later than the latest start time. Example problems are solved and it is shown that the method is effective and efficient.
This paper aims to clarify the characteristics of the detached 3 story houses in the urban densely inhabited area. Main conclusions are as follows ; (1) The detached 3 story houses could be classified into four types by the structural characteristics that is, (1) [concrete and wooden] (2) [steel and wooden] (3) [steel] (4) [wooden] (2) 86.2% of the house made for sale in 1993 are occupied by 3 storey house. (3) The typical type of the detached 3 story house for sale is 60-80 m^2 on floor space and 30-50 m^2 on house lot. And, the one for owned is less than 150 m^2 on floor space and less than 100 m^2 on house lot. That is, not only the detached 3 story house for sale, but also the one for owned is the creation of the narrow housing lots.
This paper thrashes out the differences between a house and a lot in Kyoto of the early Edo period. "le" was a house. "Yashiki" was a lot. "Ie-Yashiki" was premises with a house and a lot. The trade of "Ie-Yashiki" was regulated through the laws. When the words in the laws was not "Ie" but "Ie-Yashiki" or "Yashiki", the title to premises had to be proven outside the community to which they belonged. The paper concludes that the original form of "Ie-Yashiki" was the premises which consisted of houses and a lot that was not divided in strips.
The "Rasen-Tou (Spiral Tower)" is an unbuilt project, published in "Kenchiku Zasshi" by the Architectural Institute of Japan ("Kenchiku Gakkai") in 1902. The Tower was proposed by Kontarou Abe, was an associate member ("Tun-In") of this institute. We present an outline of the planning method of "Rasen-Tou (Spiral Tower)" and the career of Kontarou Abe, the proposer. The "Rasen-Tou", despite its unusual form, was planned in conformance with the principles of "Kiku-Jutsu", a traditional Japanese method of stereotomy based on wooden construction.
In 1884, the house which named Hoshigaoka-charyo was established, as space for the cha-no-yu (tea ceremony), at Kojimachi-park in Tokyo. The purpose of this study is an understanding of this house. Especially, in this paper, I observe development and management of park in Tokyo prefecture in the first term of Meiji era. And I clarify the construction circumstances of this house. As a result, this circumstances was concerned with the policy of the prefecture. And it was an important factor that this prefectural policy was influenced by Kaigisho which was made up of financiers in Tokyo.
A minority group Dai-Lu has wooden settled dwellings. Recent years their dwellings have several varieties of style, however it is possible to reconstruct the typical dwelling tentatively from the common building techniques seen in the modem dwellings. This supposed basic structural style is; 1) The 14 Main Pillars (Irigawa-bashira) make a rectangular area which is two bays by five. They receive 6 beams and 2 purlins. 2) Two ridge-bearing pillars (Munamochi-bashira, supporting a ridgepole directly) stand at the center of the rectangular interior. 3) The 14 pecimeter pillars (Gawa-bashira) surround the three sides of the rectangular area, and 8 thin poles (Kabe-tsuka, supporting outside-walls) stand along the rest of the side.
This paper studies the construction works division and carpenters at Yi-Dynasty of Korea, with the documents of construction works in the possession of Gyu-Jang-gak and Jang-Seo-gak. The result isas follows. At the first period of Yi-Dynasty, supposed from the titles of artisans head, construction works divided into wooden works and stone works. Into 17th century, the construction works division - 'So'- became clearly organized. This division is classified two forms. One of them is the division based on the contents of works. The other is the division based on every building. At the middle of 18th century, the construction works division - 'S0'- disappeared. But, supposed from the titles of carpenters, divisions of construction works took over the division in 17th century, and became more systematically.
This paper refers to a few observations on architectural features of rab'-s, or apartment houses combined with wakala-s, or urban caravansaries in Cairo, attending to a significance in the housing and urban context. Wakala-rab's were representative of collective living for the lower middle-class in the medieval and post-medieval Cairo. At least since the late 15th century, the dwelling unit of maisonette-type has acquired a rationally intensive manner conformable to urban needs caused by being located in the commercial centers.
The philosophical basis of Frank Lloyd Wright's concept of 'organic' architecture has generally been attributed primarily to the influence of his early employer Louis Sullivan. It is argued here, however, that there was in fact a fundamental difference between Sullivan and Wright in their conceptions of organic form. Evidence is presented that Wright consciously designed each phase of his work-from the plan through to the architectural rendering and decorative detail-to stand as an aesthetically pleasing organic whole in and of itself, quite apart from any practical function it might serve. It is suggested that this distinction - between general formal 'purposiveness' and specific functional adaptation-was an essential difference between Wright's organicism and that of his mentor.
This paper, by analyzing the content of the historical materials, the so-called "Thematibus" and the" Peri Paradromes", clarifies the aspect of the agglomerated living styles in the 10th century of the Byzantine Empire and, furthermore, by being compared with the other historical materials which were written in the 6th century and the 12th century, refers to the genealogy of the agglomerated living styles through the Byzantine period. In addition, in the "Thematibus", the μετροπολιζ, the πολιζ, the πολισματιον, the καστρον, the φρουριον, and the κωμοπολιζ are defined for the most part as the place for the everyday life, in contrast with the agglomerated living styles which are described in the "Peri Paradromes", the strategic manual in the 10th century.
The object of this study is to understand how the island inhabitants recognize their own living environment. The questionnaire was distributed on Osima Island in Fukuoka Prefecture. A Free Association Method questionnaire was used. This enabled the respondents to answer without being influenced by the researcher's intention. The descriptive words given in the survey sheets were analyzed using Quantification Method III and Cluster Analysis. As a result, we found the island inhabitants of Osima tend to have a good impression of their own living environment and consider the natural environment, especially the sea, as an important factor in their daily lives.