Fire spread to upper floor is mostly incurred by external window flames, which depends on the generation rate of fuel volatiles from combustible products in the fire room. The generation rate of the volatiles is thought to be strongly influenced by the area of the combustible exposed to the fire environment. In order to assess the risk of fire spread to upper floor in high-rise buildings, it is important to know the surface area of combustibles contained in building spaces in actual use. Therefore, the fire loads and surface areas of the combustibles in office, hotel room, and apartment, which are considered to be dominant use of high-rise buildings, are investigated. The correlation between the fire load density and the surface area factor, of live fire load in actual use, was obtained for each of the occupancies.
We conducted various experimental research dealing with physical characteristics and sensation in order to be able to quantitatively express appropriate hardness in terms of comfortability in residential floors. From among these, we indicated in this paper the results of studies and the production of a prototype impact source involving the impact force of the heel, which is a representative impact force generated by footsteps. Then using the impact source to measure the amount of dynamic displacement in wooden floors of old construction and in the direct-pasted wood flooring commonly used in recent multi-family housing, we quantitatively determined the dynamic spring coefficient of traditional wood-construction floor structure, which had never before been clarified, and found that, among the displacement characteristics of floor construction, there are those that depend on bending deformation, those that depend on local compression deformation, those that have both, suggesting that those displacement characteristics may have a strong effect on the intensity of footstep sensation.
The author shows the relation between construction factors of unit block and the average sky factor of exterior wall surface. The results are as follows. (1) The average sky factor of exterior wall surface is the function of diagonal ratio. (2) The average daylight factor of both exterior wall surface and window surface are compared between following two cases. The case A is in an urban area with a road grid, and the case B is in a straight street. The result of this comparison is that the case A is greater than the case B on either surface.
Assuming that influences of the land use on the temperature distribution characteristics in the district is significant, six kinds of isothermal graphs covering Tokyo metropolitan area were presented, using detailed numerical geographical information. By statistical analysis, multiple regression equations for design outdoor air temperature derived AMeDAS data against land use frequency, altitude and distance from seashore, were obtained. Validity of the proposed isothermal graphs was confirmed comparing with six kinds of isothermal graphs covering the 100km Tokyo district proposed in authors' recent study. Regarding isothermal graphs in this study, high accuracy near seashore was supposed and any singular distributions were not recognized.
From the viewpoint of reduction of summer heat-gain and winter heat-loss, sixteen kinds of glazing are compared for houses of Sapporo and four mild climate regions. The analysis is carried out on the basis of heat-flow elements of direct and diffuse solar transmittance, convection and radiation, which are calculated by heat equilibrium equations between glass surface and surroundings. Double glazing units consisted of Low-E glass and any other glass panes give enough reduction of solar transmittance elements compared to those of ordinary clear glass panes. In the region IV, V and Vl falling under Energy Conservation Standards in Residential Building, the heat-gain in summer is suppressed to 35〜55% of clear glass pane single glazing.
The first report of this study is to find out that airflow within buildings caused by stack effect is different form in six atrium types. In this report, the relation between the factors of the stack effect and the characteristics of infiltration is discussed. The following results were obtained. Entrance doors opened frequently cause to extremely large outdoor air income into the atrium, and revolving entorance doors and airtight building envelope decrease the difference of infiltration rate in atrium types. The temperatures of atriums and shafts effect on the main airflow root of stack effect in the building.
It is well known that coarse particles are important because of the characteristics of indoor surface contamination and their deposition to the upper brouchi. Since the raised floor HVAC system (RF system) has been introduced in office buildings, the characterization of redispersion of settled particulates by walking become an important matter of indoor air quality as the outlet is placed on the floor. This paper reports the results mainly obtained from the experiments which determine the amount of redispersive particles, and compare the measured concentration of suspended particles caused by redispersion to the estimated concentration calculated from the settling rate and mixing factor in the space between RF system and conventional ceiling diffuser system (CC system). The main results are shown as follows. (1) The amount of redispersive particles found on the tile carpet was 20 times more than that on the synthetic resin sheet. (2) The vane angle of floor outlet would contribute to the air distribution in indoor environment. With the normal floor outlet, the indoor air distribution was similar to CC system. (3) We can apply the model included settling rate and mixing factor to evaluate the concentration of suspended particles caused by redispersion both into the space with RF system (normal floor outlet) and CC system. The settling rates are 1.0(h^<-1>) for 2 to 5 μm and 2.9(h^<-1>) for larger than 5 μm particles under the condition that mixing factors are 0.84 for RF (normal outlet) and 0.70 for CC system, respectively.
Streetscape evaluation sometimes varies from person to person. The authors have attempted to identify the aspects of the evaluation structure from which this individual variation in evaluation arise, and to ascertain what kind of conditions must be satisfied in order to express the structure of streetscape evaluation in a way that accounts for individual variation. Based on the data assessed by the leslees, the authors determined the primary cause of individual difference in streetscape evaluation to be not differences the conventional "attributes of people" or "weighting of assessment parameters", but rather differences in the elements perceived in streetscape, that is, differences in assessment parameters. This fact has lead the authors to conclude that while it is necessary to incorporate individual variation into the relationship between streetscape characteristics and assessment parameters, it is sufficient to incorporate the relationship between assessment parameters and streetscape assessment using elements that are universal to a certain extent.
Various kind of atrium buildings have been constructed in Japan since 1982. Recently, there have been some measured data on thermal environment of atriums. This paper firstly describes the trends in the design and construction of atrium buildings, based on the design magazines. Secondly, the design methods of thermal environmental control of 21 atriums are classified, and measured data on vertical temperature profiles in the atrium are compared, referred to the technical papers. In summer, there is high temperature rise such as 60℃ in the top of the atrium. The temperature profiles except below-roof area can be divided into three groups, as follows : 1) Little temperature gradient in case of the courtyard type with high ceiling. 2) High temperature gradient in cases of the greenhouse type with large glass area. 3) Moderate temperature gradient in other cases. In winter, there is little temperature for whole enclosure in all cases. But in many cases, the temperature decrease in the floor level area appears due to stack effect.
Components of water budget for lawn-planting are considered to be the amount of precipitation, drain-off, water storage, evaportranspiration and condensation. We made two types mock-up for measure of the above items. Measured datas were analyzed from the following view points. 1. Diurnal and annual change of each components of water budget. 2. Relationships between precipitation and draining from lawn-planting befor and after at rain fall. 3. Relationships between weather parameters and evaportranspiration or condensation.
The remarkable increase of intelligent office buildings has changed the many building elements and installation cost which are mutually interrelated. This report demonstrates the results of analysis with the input/output calculation method to the installation costs for building services using estimate sheets of six typical office buildings. The aim of this report is to evaluate the final building construction cost including the various influencing costs when a building service equipment is installed. The influencing costs caused by installation of outlet circuit, lighting fittings, air-conditioner and sanitary fixture are shown as the results of the input/output analysis.
The purpose of this paper is to develop a method for showing explicitly how electric lighting systems work applying the concepts of entropy and exergy. The proposed method has been tested for a room which is enclosed by the surfaces having medium or high reflectance and Illuminated by an electric lighting system with fluorescent lamps. The result shows that changing merely the reflectance of interior wall surfaces brings about a large reduction in the input exergy, namely the reduction of entropy generation. This confirms that it is essential to design an exergy-efficient room space for providing enough brightness in addition to manufacturing and using exergy-efficient fluorescent tubes and fixtures.
A large variety of low-income housing to meet the demands of the urban poor can be seen in large cities, especially in developing countries. This paper reports a study of employer provided housing for itinerant construction workers in Bangkok. The study investigated the locational differences of temporary settlements, residents' opinions and provider's opinions, which are essential for basic area planning for the urban poor. At temporary settlements placed outside building under construction, common water tanks, shops, common space where residents put tables and benches, function to facilitate social interactions among residents. As a planning issue, temporary settlements should be placed outside buildings. Safety concerns, circular medical services and child care become issues for improvements. Even settlements are temporary, children and families live together and there are devices and systems of living together.
In this paper, we described some trials in the idea of planning method, that was shown us by many books in Japan in Meiji 30's and 40's period. The point of the trials for arranging the dwelling rooms for family use to face on the south is presented as follows; the first trial was to arrange a Japanese-style drawing room and so on to face on the north, and the second trial was to arrange subordinately a Japanese-style drawing room, and both trials formed a new fundamental thought of planning.
This paper discusses hospitals as a "geographical environment", a total environment including not only function but also patients' consciousness and activities. Continual observations of patients' activities and interviews were conducted to analyze the process of organizing space in their minds and using them. The spaces wes used accordingly, to both their "behaviors as a patient" and meanings patients give to spaces which develop over time, different from the single usage or program given by the planner, to construct an environment for daily life.
On the basis of research, the study is to find the use of space in manufacturing plant of reinforcing bar. The main results derived from analysis on these investigations as follows: (1) The optimal capacity of the plant is derived from the stocking and manufacturing quantity of steel bar. (2) The scales of the manufacturing area and the steel bar's stock yard are estimated by applying to function derived from correlation. (3) The numbers of the crane, manufacturing machine and workers are estimated by applying to function derived from correlation.
The Aichi Art Theater is the first facility in Japan that was specifically designed to present full-scale operas. A purpose of this study is to extend our knowledge which is useful to plan similar theaters hereafter by analyzing the way of usages of the theater. In this paper we put emphasis on the usages of the stage. We clarify that an arrangement of the theater is effective and we find factors which prescribe usages of the stage.
When we design or construct buildings, it is not clear how to select hardwares for doors and windows according to the conditions of them. The selection has been judged by craftmen based on their experiences. The purpose of this study is to classify pivot hinges into some ranks by some attributes and to grasp the present standards for selection of them. We collected data from specifications and makers' catalogues. After we classified products into some ranks, we compared and examined data about selection. And we suggested a standard for selection of pivot hinges according to conditions of doors and windows.
Through on-site studies about the construction characteristics of door frame parts existing in partitions of apartments and data analysis after that, the following facts are found: The amount of door frame parts' construction is more than 40% of the whole partition's; The constructional efficiency of door frame part is lower than that of the wall part; The pipes and wires play less role in constructability within door frame parts than in the wall parts. Finally, on the basis of analyses, the complicacy of using construction methods of different industrial level is discussed as well.
We set up free address office layout through two phases: the first one was physical quality increasing layout and the second one was free address layout. As the result of a survey on these two layouts, we found user satisfactions increased not only through physical quality increase but also free address system itself. Through resetting free address layout to assigned desk layout and comparing user evaluations on these two layouts, we could find that under free address system user satisfactions of common space and teamwork was higher than those of individual workspace and individual work.
The purpose of this study is to explain the meaning of parts of traditional dwellings of Dai Lu People in Xishuangbanna from the point of view of the meaning of the housing language and to find out the traditional spacial structure of Dai Lu People's dwellings. The traditional spacial structure of Dai Lu People's dwellings is explained as follows. In a dwelling there is a distinctive division between indoor spaces and outdoor spaces. Indoor spaces are composed of one bedroom and one hall which consists of a living space and a dining space and a kichen space. In a corner of a bedroom people worship the god of a house. Its space is the highest rank in indoor spaces. And a kichen space which is a corner of a hall is the lowest rank in indoor spaces. That is to say in Dai Lu People's dwellings there is the spacial order which is similar to Uchi-Soto and Oku-Mae of the Japanese spacial order.
It is significant for the current community building that residents are interested in their own close-at-home environment. By the way we tried to bring into action of "solution party of children" in Teine Ward that chiIdren realize what residents think for their living environment. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the activity process of it. Through this unique experience we analyzed that residents' (and chileren's) affection and sensitivity toward their living environment was raised, and the community consciousness of the participants was stirring. Action of "solution party of chiIdren" was very lively.
This paper analyzes the relations between the dwelling plan types and the orientations and shapes of lots for the newly built detached dwelling in local cities. As a result, the particular dwelling plan types are affirmed to the particular width and orientations of lots, irrespective of locality. This fact seems to mean that these popular dwelling plan types are Planned according to some principles of planning. So, six principles of planning are educed in this study.
This paper aims to analyze the changes in the structure of households with the elderly by the time trends, using census data. The conclusions afe as follows: 1. The ratio of the male of the single have been increasing at the middle ages, and that of female have been increasing at the sinior ages. And the most of the male of the single is under 50 years old, while over50 percent of the female of the single is over 50 years old. 2. The number of the elderly couple housuholds have been increasing rapidly. And the number become twice that of young couple in 1990. 3 The ratio of the stem family have been decreasing in all age groups. And that of households which are consisted of old elderly and their child's couple have been increased.
This research makes an analysis of factors that have an influence for management expense, and the composition ratio of management expense at condominium common space in Korea. The findings of this study is as follows. 1. The annual change tendency of the management expense; Generally a management expense rises in winter, and lowers in summer. 2. According to this investigation, the average monthly management expense per unit is about 70,000 Won. According to condominium type, the management expense of B type and B' type is higer than A type and A' type. 3. Especially, the number of the on-site manager and the excuse of any facility (elivator and central heating etc) influence increase in the management expense. 4. According to expenditure items of the management expense, composition ratio of general management expense that managers salary occupies much, is 50%.
This paper aims to fine out the original townscape of the castle-town Matsumoto in the Edo period, and deals with urban forms such as water-course and plot division macroscopically and microscopically. Original urban forms which are drawn from the different scales are listed below. Macroscopic urban forms: The water-way tributary to the river and the vista directed toward 10°clockwise from due north. Microscopic urban forms: The water-way running through boundary lines. Each urban area which has its original urban forms is situated on the same site. The paper concludes that this site was the original townscape of the city.
The lord of Mouri-Han sometimes made the tour of inspection in Edo era. Through the examination of historical materials on these tours, the following results are ascertained. (1) Temples were used as a lodging by the lord. (2) Teraple was composed of the main hall and the living quarters. Some temples had guest rooms in addition. (3) When temple was used as a lodging, dwelling of a lord and followers and cookroom were arranged over such a composition.
In Jugend-period of Finland, buiIding masters began the design work, though they essentially differ from architects as a profession. Heikki Kaartinen, the typical figure, designed only a few public facilities through design competitions, but many medium-rise housings which were based on the demand of the common people. Katajanokka in Helsinki, typical housing area of the period, has "Manty"-block which consists of two types of houses according to the life style. The narrower and more informal type was mainly designed for the newly-rising middle-classes. The credit for this belongs to both architects and building masters.
A question arises on the thermal effect of the areaway by comparison with results conducted from previous measurement fbr the test house without the areaway. Assuming periodically steady state in one year, and neglecting the effects of previous long-term variations of outdoor temperature and total solar radiation, we show that the comparison of the thermal effects on annual average room air temperature for the test house with and without the areaway vary with the difference between the annual averages of total solar radiation of each measurements. We also show that the ratio of the difference between annual maximum and minimum room air temperature generally could not exclude the dependency on annual sinusoidal characterristics of total solar radiation and outdoor temperature. Consequently, we pointed out that the findings based on the comparison of the thermal effect of the areaway is not meaningful.
The authors are grateful to Dr. Hideki Shibaike and Dr. Mamoru Matsumoto for their discussion on a comparison method of the annual mean indoor temperatures and the annual temperature fluctuations (the maximum-minimum difference in the monthly mean temperatures) of the semi-underground test rooms. The lack of our desciption on the method might lead to their questions. This paper gives the detail description with additional data and answer for their discussion. The answers are summarized as follows: 1) Even the annual mean room air temperatures are recorded for different years, when the annual mean solar radiation for each year is not so different from the others, the temperatures normalized by taking difference with respect to a reference room give meaningful comparison result. 2)On the other hand, comparison of the annual temperature fluctuations are difficult because generally annual sinusoidal characteristics of outdoor temperature and solar radiation vary with the year, as the discussers mentioned theoretically. Following their discussion, the relationship between amplitudes of the outdoor temperature and the solar radiation and phases of them were examined for two annual data series. As the result, it was confirmed that the comparison method in which the maximum-minimum difference in the monthly mean indoor temperatures normalized as ratios to that for a reference room was practically reasonable, when all the data are obtained at the same location and the climatic condition during the experiment is not singular.