We studied procedures of leading people toward light for an escape. This experimental study focused on the effective lightness of wall surface for selecting the safety escape route. In a model space with walls capable of changing the lightness, the testees were allowed to select an escape route. From the experimental results we found the conditions of wall lightness that are the most and least effective in leading people in the safety escape route. We then proposed suitable procedures of leading people for an escape.
The objective of this paper is to clarify the effect of spectral power distribution of different fluorescent lamps and luminance levels on the human brightness perception in a building interior. The following psychological tests were conducted. The perception of room brightness over photopic luminance ranging from 100cd/m^2 to 300cd/m^2 was measured for 20 subjects using a pair of experimental chambers. The daylight, warm white, incandescent colour 3band-type, white, 3band-type and daylight 3band-type fluorescent lamps were used as lighting sources. Each fluorescent lamps has different S/P ratio (scotopic lumince / photopic luminance). One experimental chamber was lit by daylight fluorescent lamps and the other chamber was lit by one of the other five fluorescent lamps. After the subjects judged the brighter room, they were requested to adjust luminace level in one chamber to get equal brightness with the other. Ratios of luminance by the compared lamp to that by the daylight lamp were calculated. The following results were obtained: the subjects judge of that the fluorescent lamp with high S/P ratio is brighter than the fluorescent lamp with low S/P ratio. The differences of brightness perception between daylight flourescent lamp and the other lamps decreases with a rise in luminance level. It became clear with regression analysis that not only photopic luminance but also scotopic luminace contributes to perceped brightness in according to luminace levels. Both of scotopic and photopic luminance is required to account perceived brightness in interiors.
In the present study, we examined panelinvolved energy transmission (convection, radiation and conduction) through a test version of a panel heating and cooling system, created by attaching ducts to a metallic panel. Tests were conducted during both heating and cooling. Furthermore, numerical analysis of the test panel was conducted using the finite element method to predict panel surface temperature distribution, amounts of heat removed, etc. The results of prediction by this method agreed well with the results of actual measurement. When the data yielded by three-dimensional numerical analysis were compared with those yielded by two-dimensional numerical analysis, there was little difference between the twosets of data. This indicates that two-dimensional numerical analysis is useful for prediction of panel thermal profiles.
After thermal environments of a subway were surveyed for a year, the author developed a thermal environmental simulation program by the two- and three-dimensional finite element methods. Affluent data obtained through the survey showed theoretical values were nearly coincident with actual figures. The simulation found the outlet temperature of the tunnel rose 0.6 degree centigrade when ventilation facilities were stopped throughout the year, while it went up 1.0 degree centigrade when the heating value doubled.
It is important to assume the proper room conditions for simulating the air-conditioning load and the thermal sensation in a office building. But the reference data are not sufficient enough to assume the proper conditions relating to the use of office space. Three buildings have been researched to clear the fluctuation in occupancy and clothing insulation and to clear the number of machinery for office automation. We show the heat rates generated from office machinery in the researched buildings. These data become the useful reference both of for air-conditioning system design and for simulation analysis on the air-conditioning load and the thermal sensation.
The ratio of clothing surface area to body surface area, namely, clothing area factor may play an important role in analyses of heat exchange between the clothed body and surrounding environment. It has been commonly defined as a function of clothing insulation for the practical use although clothing fit becomes a determinant factor in estimation of clothing surface area. In this study, clothing area factors (fcl) were derived from the photographic method using 180° OP fish - eye lens camera while a subject was standing or sitting. Subjects wore the relatively tight - fitting clothing or loose - fitting clothing for each posture. In addition, clothing microenvironment volumes were measured with different methods including a shadow projection method. The fcl values were varied in the range of 1.05 to 1.22 and not concomitant with clothing insulation of which values were consistent (the mean = 0.52clo). Clothing microenvironment volumes also varied with clothing fit and posture. These results demonstrated that clothing area factor was strongly related to clothing fit, I.e., clothing microenvironment volume, for a given clothing insulation.
In this study, the distribution of surface temperature on the surface of two buildings was measured using a thermal infrared camera. Two buildings having different characteristics were selected and surveyed in summer and winter for comparison with difference of weather conditions, especially solar radiation. Using time sequential thermography, the heat characteristics of each building were investigated and the surface temperature of each element of the building, which was classified according to temperature, shape, material and position, was obtained throughout the day. The sensible heat flux from whole observed building surfaces were calculated based on these measurements and the areas of all elements which was obtained from a blue print of the buildings.
This study covers almost all of the foreign literatures in relation to thermal sensation voting and gives histrical perspective of those; 1. Voting methods can be classified into rating scale methods and trichotomous methods, and rating scales can be classified into ASHRAE scales and Bedford scales. 2. (1)ASHRAE scale has been changed occasionaly. Glickman replaced 'comfortably' with 'slightly'. Gagge replaced 'comfortable' with 'neutral', while Bedford scale keeps its archetype. (2)McIntyre applied the trichotomous method which originally used by Houghten. (3)Fanger revived the two-step-questioning method of Houghten. 3. (1)Questionnaires in the field studies were distinguished from those in chamber studies until 1950s. (2)Diagrammatic scaling methods have been used since 1970s and rise in number. 4. Category numbers of the rating scales were five at the beginning. Glickman allowed the voting at intermediate of the categories. 5. Some used dials, switches, charts, pointers, and recently on-line votings as voting apparatuses.
In this study, the viability of annual cycle energy system -ACES- with seasonal thermal storage was examined using system simulation. The annual cycle energy utilization is basically achieved by sifting hot and cold exhaust heat by cooling and heating to winter and summer respectively. And the difference of both quantity is made up by the solar energy. In this paper, the storage medium is water and the system is applied to a typical residence in Japan. The energy performance of the system was compared with the conventional residential HVAC and D.H.W. system and the solar D.H.W. system. From a results, the ACES decrease about 66% of energy consumption against the conventional system and about 17% against the solar D.H.W. system.
The purpose of this study is to survey volatile organic compounds(VOC) and indoor emission source of them through field measurements. As a basic survey of VOC, hydrocarbons from C9 to C19 were measured for 3 months, and the relations of concentrations between indoor and outdoor were analyzed. Then VOC were measured in two atriums, and emission sources of them were evaluated by principal component analysis. The results are as follows; 1) The sum of each indoor hydrocarbon concentration was ranged from 30 to 180μg/m^3. Indoor hydrocarbon compounds were primarily consisted of outdoors, but some compounds were considered to be emitted from sources of indoor. 2) Ethylbenzene, xylene, trimethylbenzene, dichlorobenzene, D4 and hydrocarbon were detected at μg/m^3 order in atrium, and total VOC concentrations were ranged from 150 to 300μg/m^3. 3) Ethylbenzene, xylene and dichlorobenzene in A atrium were considered to be emitted from smoking, and ethylbenzene and xylene in B atrium were from insecticide used to plant in atrium.
A radiant heat measuring device, which has an automatic spherical tracking system with both sensors of the solar radiation and the infrared radiation, was developed to investigate the thermal distribution in outdoors. First, a calculation method to obtain the mean radiant temperature around a plate and a sphere was given by integrating the spot radiation data in every angle. Then, several outdoor spaces in a forest canopy and building canopies were investigated. The measurement results of the mean radiant temperature corresponds well with the data by the black sphere method with an error of 7%, though this is under a dynamic weather condition.
The coppice trees has been used since 1920 in the garden of Kanto district. According to the examination, this paper found, before this trend has appeared, the word of "coppice" or the name of the components of "coppice" have been used in the plural Japanese modern literatures. The track of Jukki Iida, the founder of the garden, coincides with the movement of modern literature dealt with the coppice. In the modern pictures, the new motif of the deciduous trees were appeared. Jukki Iida seemed to express this sense in his garden as a contemporary.
This paper aims to describe and to analyze the distribution of people in the open space of housing estates. In the past studies, we suppose, the inter-personal environment of housing estates has not been described correctly compared to the physical and socio-cultural aspect of it. Quantifying and analyzing the distribution of people should be a first step to describe the inter-personal environment. As a research method, we utilized behavior mapping by time sampling procedure. Case studies have been conducted at five housing estates in Japan. Each of them can be characterized in terms of its spatial configuration. As the result of analysis through the comparison between the near surrounding of house units and the rest of it, we found that the quantity and the quality of observed behavior were substantially different. More specifically, the observed behavior in the near surrounding of house units has certain characteristics, low density and high percentage of staying behaviors. It might be possible to assume that we feel it as the atmosphere of the dwelling milieu.
The purpose of this study is to suggest the desirable planning of the mid-rise and high-rise multi-family housing with earthquake-proof, according to investigate the influences of Hanshin-Awaji Great Earthquake to the residential buildings and residents' living. In this purpose, a questionnaire were conducted to 105 members of Kinki branch of Architectural Institute of Japan and some of them were interviewed, and the following items were investigated and discussed: 1)disaster of residential buildings, 2)stoppage of electricity, gas, water supply, and elevators, 3)residents' refuge and their difficulty of living, 4) mutual support in the neighborhood, 5)change of residents' consciousness of neighborhood association.
In this study, I tried to clarify the relation between the possibility of actual seclusion and the consciousness of inhabitants regarding their privacy, basing the evaluation on the following criteria : 1. Duration of stay in the room /2. Duration of curtain being closed /3. Distance between houses. Results indicate inhabitants' consciousness of privacy occurs even in situations in which they don't stay long in a room during the day, or where the distances are greater than those normally allowed in "proxemics". To make clear this hypothesis on privacy, I conducted a survey on the residents of the Experimental-Housing project NEXT21.
Effects of earthquake experience on the measures of residents - management of living behavior and provisions against the emergency - were analyzed on following 3 aspects. 1. The measures against earthquake of residents in Hachinohe City have been taken well, and they increase furthermore in an opportunity of the 1994 Far-Off Sanriku earthquake. 2. The measures against earthquake increase by the cause of suffering damages and having experience in earthquake even without damage. And, at this point, we recognize the effect of experience of the 1968 Off-Tokachi earthquake. 3. The measures against earthquake decrease with the years. But, the effects of earthquake experience are saved. In view of effect of experience, they are divided into 4 groups.
The purpose of the study is to examine the characteristics of the local standards established by the Land Readjustment Associations in Fukuoka Prefecture, and to clarify the actual planning procedure of land replotting in the projects under the City Planning Act of 1919. The method of study is to compare the local standards with the national one, and to examine the sizes of blocks and lots, and the plotting plan. As a result, we found that the city planning section of Fukuoka Prefecture had established the unique local standards of blocks. While the standard blocks were realized in executed plans, standard lots were not, because of the actual replotting restriction from original land ownership.
Statistical data and a visitor questionnair at a particular amusement park were analyzed on following 5 aspects. 1. A positive correlation was found between the number of amusement facilities used per visitor and the total number of facilities in the park. 2. Concerning "thrill type" facilities, there was a positive correlation between the rate of use and the total number of people in the park, while there was a strong negative correlation between "marchen type" facilities and park occupancy. 3. When very few attractive facilities were available, a given facility's distance from a park gate had a strong influence on visitors' first choice. 4. A negative correlation was found between the total distance from the park gates and the rate of a given facility being used. 5. It was found that joint use was most likely when the facilities were close to each other. This was found to be especially true for "child type" facilities. People tend to use "thrill type" facilities consecutively regardless of their relative locations.
This paper aims to clarify the process of post-relocational adaptation of elderly relocatees who move to nursing home. In this study the notion of environmental personalization was introduced, and a role of private room of whole dwelling institution in adaptation process was discussed. Methods used were mapping and counting of private furniture and possessions, behavior observation and deep interview of the residents about meaning of the possessions. The survey was repeated five times in order to follow longitudinal change. Findings are as follows. 1) Number of possessions placed in resident's private room has been increased. 2) Four aspects of process of personalization in private room by means of bringing possessions in were observed, those were spatial aspect, personal aspect, social aspect, and temporal aspect. 3) Each resident could confirm identity by sense of subjectivity and relationship in private room. 4) Private room played very important role in diverse adaptation processes that reflect diverse relation between each resident and environment around him/her.
The requirement of comfortability in condominium increases gradually, therefore many kinds of electrical instruments are used in them. It is necessary to consider establishing place and outlet plug etc. for built-in and largesized instruments in advance. These appliances influence on planning and life style. But the way of use and establishing place are not grasped enouugh. The purpose of this study is to grasp the actual conditions of them. In this study, we systematized inconvenient phenomena and possible control methods for them. We also conducted research on the way of use and establishing place of those industruments by questionnaire.
With the major type frames systermatically analysed, this paper points out both the superiority and necessity of the plastic - wood compound frame on the frigid zone in East Asia as far as its applying function are concerned. In this paper, the study are made about compound position, technique means of compound, main problems of compound and a compound method compound squeezing method in the production of over - all packed plastic - wood compound frame is put forth, and this project lays foundation for the further study and production of new type plastic - wood compound window.
The Ariake creek region has a unique environment, but a large farmland improvement project has recently led to the reorganization of the water system. This has had profound influence on this region. Therefore we investigate various functions and systems of existing traditional creeks and study these roles in the environmental conservation. Then following are made clear in this study. 1. Creeks are artificial channels which are consisted of relations between several natural, geographical elements in this region and human behavior for these. 2. Forms of creeks indicate the days when those were formed. These forms represent ecological or dynamic meanings. 3. Creeks have many various functions, not only agricultural but also living, ecological, spatial and against disaster. 4. It is need to restore the various functions and the water environmental totality.
This study aims to seek for some measures to improve the living environment of island's habitants and to find out solutions to keep their communities active, after understanding each habitant's life in the island. First, we studied and classified the ways they obtain their ordinary foodstuff necessary for everday life as well as the ways they dispose their waste, and areas of personal activities. Second, we studied and classified how they evaluate their own living environment, and systematized the reasons why they evaluate so by using a method commonly known in Japan as "KJ Method". Finally, correlation among such classifications was systematized and some remaining problems were identified.
Residents' behavior and cognition in water environments were discussed on following points from the view of spatial relation between residents' life ranges and water environments. 1. Classification of Residents' every behavior and cognition according to 5 typical characteristics of water environments. 2. Analysis by a kind of image map method . The followings was concluded : As residents' life range is more relative to water environments, its behavior and cognition become more direct to water environments. Furthermore the network of relations among each type of behavior and cognition are more complex and tighter, and the favor of water environments increased.
This study, as a case study of Danbara Area Urban Redevelopment Project in Hiroshima City, examines how residents evaluate the project after enterprising project by questionnaire survey. In this paper, by pay attention to former land-owner-and-house occupant' right conversion and their attitude to residents' movement, we understand that they can be divided into five groups. 1) Detached house class I (residents' movement type) does not always accept project result, but approves the important role of residents' movement. 2) Detached house class II (Middle type) approves the important part of improvement of project, 3) Detached house class III (administrative depending type) recognizes the important part of project execution, 4) Building owner class is a group of beneficiary, who recognizes the important role of land reduction. 5) Public house class whose land and house has been purchased by project executor, become relatively unconcern about project.
Sana'a in Yemen, one of the most prosperous cities of the Kingdom of Sheba, was instilled with the characteristics of an Islamic city after the seventh century, and it retains to this day the appearance of belonging to the Middle Ages. This study aims to give consideration to the conservation of the Old City of Sana'a which was included on the World Heritage List of UNESCO in 1986. And this paper examines the problems related to international assistance for the conservation activities, then indicates necessary strategies.
This study is based on the findings of questionnaire investigations of the co-operative housing residents carried out on two occasions, in 1980 and 1995, in four co-operative housings. The actual conditions in which the evaluation in the group formed by the planners and the participation persons from the residents side were analyzed. This was followed by the consideration of the role and the problem accomplished to the community creation of the co-operative method. The findings indicated that in the case of living environment-making by co-operative method, there was a tendency characteristic in creating the community.
This paper aims to clairfy the transformation process of the detached 3 story houses in the urban densely inhabited area. Main conclusions are as follows ; (1) It was not until 1971 that the detached 3 story houses have been built. (2) 2 stories with underground dwelling rooms could be classified into 3 types by the structure of the housing ;such as, (1)[retaining wall type] (2)[heaping up earth type] (3)[digging in the ground type] (3) Floor space of the detached 3 story house for sale was increased about 20 m^2 by having the underground garage. Then, houses have steadily transformed into 3 stories. However, decreasing in lot size have resulted in the decreasing of the floor space.
In the underpriced housing market, each site is sold to an applicant who wins a lottery. Potential buyers have to select a lot maximizing their expected utility level taking into account the subjective probability to win the lottery. A logarithmic form of the subjective probability function best explains the housing lot choice behavior among four models compared. This suggests that potential buyers optimistically overestimate the winning probability. This form is of particular interest, for it mathematically coincides with logit models except for the hypethesized error term distribution.
The compass directions of villages are divided broadly into two categories, a large majority of southerly directions and a minority of nonsoutherly directions. The factors on the compass directions of villages are judged as two, a landform holding a village, and, main wind directions of summer, winter, and typhoon seasons. Both factors relate with the southerly directions, and a landform holding a village relates with the nonsoutherly directions. In the villages of southerly directions, the similarity of villages and folkhouses on the compass directions is caused by the functional adaptation of folkhouses to main wind directions of three seasons.
This paper deals with urban formation of "chou" especially by "Koya-gake" which meant to build rude buildings to meet an immediate need. In Kyoto the rapid urbanization was prompted by the construction of Juraku-dai from 1586 onward. "Koya-gake" formed "Koya-no-chou" close to Juraku-dai. The form could be seen through Daichuh'in archives which recorded the width, but not the depth, of each premise in "Koya-no-chou" of 1587. This showed that "Koya-no-chou" was urbanized only in the land facing on streets. The paper concludes that the construction boom changed only the surface of blocks at the first urban dynamics.
Atsumi was a hot spring spot in Shonai-Han and feudal lords sometimes visited there in Edo-Era. Ocha-ya and Hon-jin were both used as lodgings by them. Through the examination of historical materials, the following results are ascertained; (1)0cha-ya was the permanent lodging administered by Shonai-Han. (2)Hon-jin was the temporary lodging used as a hotel and a dwelling house when it was not used as a lodging. (3)Ocha-ya disappeared about the middle of Edo-Era.
This is the second report of original plan of Gozasyo, Kohojo and others in Senyu-ji temple in Kyoto. In this research, based on the Department of the Imperial Household's historical records and an analysis of the traces of the buildings' members, clarified that : the Kohojo building has been constructed from materials displaced from both Osatogoten palace of the Kansei era and Dairi-tainoya palace of the Ansei era : the Osetsuma and Shikidai buildings have been constructed from materials displaced from Dairi-tainoya palace. Then, the original shape of Dairi-tainoya palace of the Ansei era and wall paintings were restored.
The purpose of this research is to clarify the building engineer of the Public Colliery Company in Hokkaido, from 1878 to 1889. There are three points in this paper. (1)The brain of technologists were the hired foreigners who were the American and the Dutch, and the Japanese who had studied abroad in early the era of Meiji. (2)The transition of building engineers is distinguished three terms. In the second term(from 1881 to 1885), the main technologists were Soichiro Matsumoto and Seijiro Hirai who were a graduate of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in the U.S.A. (3)Comparing the Public Colliery Company with the,Building and Repairs Office of the Kobusho and the Industry Office of Sapporo, about the post and the salary, Matsumoto and Hirai had received hospitable treatment.
This paper deals with Adolf Loos's urban planning for Vienna where he was active as an architect and a critic. The purpose of this paper is to show the following. First, to clarify construction-principles and the ambiguous character of his urban planning. Secondly, to point out critical contents of his urban planning and make clear a structure of its critique. His urban planning's ambiguous character originates in quarrels between parts and the whole of his plan. Then his utopian urban planning's critical power arises from a sharp difference between reality and possibility of modern Vienna.
The intention of this paper is to make a thematic explication of both the Modification processes and the internal systems of the form of Modern Houses. The analysis will be in three chapters as follows: Chapter 2 illustrates the fundamental meaning of the plan and the modification process through the words of Le Corbusier and Kahn. Chapter 3 presents three diagrams derived from analysis of the form of seventeen houses by Kahn. Chapter 4 presents two intentions of form analysis : The conflicts between form and internal needs. The synergistic relationship between house and garden. The true meani ng of "the work of house" is in this interstitial place.
Australia is an English penal settlement from 1788. Early immigrants constructed first colonial settlemnet in New South Wales. This research analyzes the geometrical composition of three domestic works of John Verge, who immigrated to New South Wales in 1827 as an architect and played a vital role in New South Wales in 1830s. It became clear that he uses 3:4 rectangle in the way of overlapping and adding them to compose basic proportion of plans and elevations. He uses also 3:4:5 triangle to elaborate a further proportion.