The aim of this study is to investigate the situation of present waterways and the influence of measures adopted to improve waterways in Yanagawa. The purpose of a measure has changed according to a social conditions. Recently, it attaches importance to the maintenance management of waterways involved with the citizen. As a result of our survey, it is revealed that the public space is expanding along the waterway shores, and that such spaces have various forms, not only the same form as in early modern times, but also new forms brought by the direct connection between a dwelling space and a waterway.
In this research, we aimed to clear the characteristic of the modification of the shop-house of the apaerments and of the vicinity shop from the aspect of the increase and decrease of a concrete amount of the space. As a result, the following points became clear. 1) By owning the shop, the degree of freedom of the modification expands, but there is a problem that originates in ownership.. 2) The cooperative owned architecture made it possible to enhance the flexibility of the space. 3) It must be important to base the characteristic of the shop management by the family.
The purpose of this study is to investigate about going-out activities of the aged and sitting spaces outside. Especially, this study focuses on the bench on sidewalk of road that we placed for this experiment. Senior citizens and undergraduate students participated in this study. We operated the direction of the bench, and the subjects estimated their impression both on the exterior and on the experience. The results of the analysis are as follows; a) Although benches are not used so often, placing them in a suitable position and direction raises the availability of them. b) Most of the subjects prefer sitting on the bench which is set closer to a building and facing toward a road. c) The wooden bench for more than 3 people is prefered by the subjects.
In this study, The spatial system that brings various lifestyles is understood as various spatial scenes in houses. The housing planning method to lead various lifestyles needs sampling and understanding of various spatial scenes in houses. We take up the movie directed by Ozu Yasujiro that houses of the Japanese-style room appears, and investigate the spatial scenes that seen there. The purpose of this paper are as follows,. 1) It is to sample and collect various spatial living scenes in the movie scenes. 2) It is to analyze the basic spatial composition of various spatial scenes. 3) It is to clarify functions of spatial device in various spatial scenes.
This paper aims to reevaluate the environmental performance of walk up type apartment houses such as daylighting and natural ventilation by questionnaire survey and interview to the inhabitants. The results are as follows. 1.The inhabitants appreciate the daylighting and natural ventilation performance. 2.Operation of each window for ventilation is investigated to find good ventilation performance of walk up type apartment houses. 3. Walk up type apartment houses should be renovated to survive for a few more decades making the most of their environmental performance.
Native Town is past "Black Town" that was established as a bazaar area for indigenous merchants and craftsmen. At Native Town in Bombay, there are numerous accumulations of Chawls. The Chawl, built by speculative developers, to accommodate increasing population, is particular rent room housing complex with minimum component, which characterizes housing system of the city. From our field survey, we can find preservation of original environment of living and its typology of floor plan. There are several basic types, and the rest could be explained with combination of the basic plan. In contrast, Chawl preserves traditional living style, and the area keeps some characteristics of indigenous customs. We can find a feature of the area from combination of Chawl, as pioneer mass-housing, with traditional social formation of the area.
A crematory does not have an institution standard, but a test calculation example of a floor space is exemplified. I was aimed at clarifying the test calculation correction of errors in question and the present conditions of a building plan. As for the result, estrangement was thought to be a test calculation example. There were many institutions in a small institution with a few floor spaces, and, in the large-scale institution, there were many institutions, which grew bigger than a test calculation example. When there was a ceremonial hall, there were many institutions than a test calculation example with many floor spaces.
(1) A tendency to limit a burial of remains act is strong farewell and ten bone separation type and seeing off separation type when I compare it with non-separation type. (2) Non-separation type was the highest, and it was 85% that planned individual treatment of a seeing off in a hall in front of a furnace. (3) A lot of non-separation types saw off ten farewell bone separation type with the number that acceptance of one staff manners was possible and the number of the enforcement cremation, and there were a little separation types.
This study examined the possibility of measuring the workload during underground walking by conducting experiments and performing power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability during walking. A preliminary experiment analyzed heart rate variability in the application of a load of calculation tasks. The results indicated that the change in the frequency component (PSB) under load could be measured in seconds by performing power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability using wavelet transformation. The experiment of underground walking analyzed the relationship between the change in the extracted frequency component (PSB) and walking behavior by performing power spectrum analysis of the heart rate during walking. The results revealed that the PSB increased at the points where the subjects used stairs or made a turn at a crossing while walking, and indicated that the workload during underground walking could be measured.
The purpose of this study is the verification of the validity of the requisition system of vacant house. Classification of the enterprise forms of local government is carried out, and the composition, characteristics and differences of the system are explained, nextly the consideration about the subject toward the development is added. As the result, the system that the improvement fee burden is dispersed to local government, owner and tenant, the fees which local government and owner paid are collected, and owner's house rent income is secured has been evaluated as the effective enterprise form which solves the subjects of present basic system.
The main aims of our research are to restructure region planning for agricultural community as sustainable society. On this paper, we aim to figure out the mechanism of conservation of regional resources in association with the scale of agricultural community, and geographical condition. Analyzing the census data in Japan, we got results as follows. 1. The difference from distribution: The resources connected land, terraced paddy fields, and pond, are varied according to district. 2. The relativity between the number of house and the conservation of regional resources: At the regions there are low number of house, there is the trend toward that the main managements are public administrator. At the regions there are high number oh house, there is the trend toward that the traditional culture is carried on.
It has been 10 years since the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. During this decade, temporary houses privately built have taken a significant role for the recovery process from the earthquake damages. This study firstly shows how many private temporary houses (PTHs) have still existed and disappeared, secondly analyses the characteristics of long life PTHs, and thirdly explores how to utilize the empty plots after PTHs disappeared. As the result of survey, 844 PTHs have been existed and 810 disappeared between 2000 and 2004, It is found that a considerable number of PTHs has continuously existed today in the areas where urban redevelopment and land readjustment programmes have not covered. At the same time, many PTHs had disappeared with the progress of land readjustment programme but empty plot after PTHs disappeared have not always replaced permanent houses.
This study is to analyze the competition method of the construction plan proposal with residents' participation for the selection of the constructor of the TOMIHIRO-Museum which was supported by Project Formulation Management Group. This competition was an open jury process with comprehensive evaluation for the construction cost and the executive skill. All the process was opened with transparency and accountability. 12.3% of the budget could be cut by the adoption of the research price. Residents' participation is important to assess the construction company and for a better understanding of the building to be constructed. This process would prevent negotiated contracts.
Although more people are getting to be interested in Universal Design (UD), it is logically impossible to satisfy the needs of all users. However, we'll be able to get closer to the goal of UD by making efforts of "Continuous Improvements". In order to continue efforts to improve quality of designs, the correct and fair "Process" of design should be respected. This concept is called "Spiral Up". Some models have already been suggested to explain the "Spiral Up" concept. This is a study to examine them and suggest a new model of the "Spiral Up" concept of UD.
This research employs the grasping of the mechanism of the exuding actual land use (EALU) among unused land filled lands in the metropolitan coastal areas. The condition of the EALU and its basic character is manifested by numerical value. The EALU were obtained and mapped on 100m × 100m grids of the geographic information system (GIS). The results show that the EALU in the newer reclaimed areas near the coast as same as the older inland district against the mid parts.
This paper aims at making the performance-oriented bulk control system for securing the daylight access to the possible adjacent buildings. The performance standard for indoor skylight access enough to make a daily activity such as reading books and its indicator are proposed. In the following study, to evaluate the impact of newly developed building and other buildings on the skylight access to each adjacent building, the idea of the "Imaginary Walls" and "Imaginary Room" are created. In addition, different forms and layouts of the building within the envelope for securing the skylight access are created to examine the effect of the proposed bulk control system. We established the sequential approach that consists of setting of the purpose of the regulation, selection of the indicator, decision of the level of the indicator and production of the building envelope and this helps to make the performance-oriented bulk regulation.
This paper clarified the first plans of streets network and their characteristics in the cases of 43 small and middle scale cities. Plans of streets network can be classified into 4 big hierarchies and 8 more detailed groups from the viewpoint of the planning scale. On the other hand, we can understand all examples of streets network patterns by considering 4 fundamental types of grid, grid + radial, grid + radial-ring, and radial-ring as the models. In the composition of streets frame there are characteristics as follows: in many cases (1) the direction line of east-west arterial roads or south-north ones is basic line of draft, (2) streets frames are based on streets network pattems, (3) streets frame folllow former roads infrastracture.
It has been a recent phenomenon that one of the most striking urban regenerations in the U.S., especially university towns, is to integrate university facilities with local areas. In Japan, the number of satellite facilities for the purpose of education, research and commercial activities is increasing while their relationship with surrounding areas is feeble and the type of aforementioned urban regeneration is not fully fledged. As a successful example of the urban regeneration, University of Pennsylvania is examined in this study. This research focuses on the characteristics of the urban regeneration such as university facilities development, campus improvement, and community planning activities. Further, the skills of the urban regeneration are clarified, and it is noticed that university-led development is prominent.
The purpose of this study is to grasp the consciousness structure of condominium owners about the regeneration of housing complex. For this purpose, we analyzed the condominium owners' evaluation of regeneration methods proposed in entries of design competition through questionnaire investigations. The results are as follows; 1) In the regeneration of housing complex level, owners prefer the method considered cost-saving by partial reconstruction generally. 2) In the regeneration of building level, owners prefer the method considered the easiness of regeneration work generally. 3) In the regeneration of house level, owners prefer the method considered the expansion of space generally. 4) We found two common axes in each level that distinguish the standpoints of owners. For example, in the regeneration of housing complex level, one of them distinguishes between the standpoint to prefer maintenance of existing space and the standpoint to prefer change of existing space. Another distinguishes between the standpoint to prefer reconstruction and the standpoint to prefer remodeling.
In this paper we argue the coincidence of distribution area of Honmune style minka and the territory controlled by the Ogasawara, the Constable of Shinano. The factors of the coincidence are as follows: 1. The Ogasawara made it their policy to give members of the local gentry permission to erect decorative gables in the Sengoku period. 2. Under the peasant proprietorship of the Edo period, these of jizamurai descent and village officials expressed their status through minka design. 3. The feudal lord allowed this because it was conducive to stability and smooth collection of land tax. In conclusion, the Honmune style originated in medieval times and revived at the Edo period.
The purpose of this study is to clarify architectural feature of o-chaya in Fukuoka domain. This study is based on Utino, Akama, Yamae's drawings. This study gives attention to the outer building and the inner building and design. As a result, site plan and building plan have many points in common. Three o-chaya divide into four parts in terms of space and design. O-genkan part is traffic place whose design is syoin. O-hiroma part is meeting place whose design is informal syoin. O-ima part is resting place whose design is like sukiya. Tumesyo-daidokoro part is cooking and administration place whose design is like minka.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the details of how the "Shinden-zu" was drawn. It is possible that Kozen Uramatsu was the author of the "Shinden-zu" and he described it based on some historical materials. These materials also helped the author of the "Tbka-Zasho" complete his work. These materials asserted that it was a drawing of a resident building where Gokyogoku-dono was living in Kamakura period. But in fact, It was the drawing of a mid 17^<th> century residence of the Kujo-family. Kozen carelessly believed it true. It probably happened because there was a historical background that Kujo-family was building a traditional shinden in a Heian revivalistic style during early modern period.
The method to plan the column interval dimensions at Horyuji Kondo (the main hall of Horyuji temple) has been argued for a century. However we still have not reached to a reliable conclusion yet. This thesis explains the planning method of the column interval dimensions of Horyuji Kondo by adopting the mediaeval period's 'shiwarisei' as a clue.This is the method to design the standard unit of the column interval from the dimensions of the rafter interval. Up to the present, the method to plan the column interval dimensions at the Kondo has been understood by applying a whole number among the center of the columns. But fractional numbers happen to appear because of the existence of the interval dimensions of eaves girders (gagyou) and rafters.As a result, the existence of the primitive 'shiwari-sei' and a new planning method to position the columns can be proposed.
The paper traces the architectural meaning of Munamochi-bashira structure in gabled small buildings which contain both Munamochi-bashira structure and Jikubu-koyagumi one. Gable roof that depends only upon Jikubu-koyagumi structure is weak in the horizontal force of the same direction as ridge beam. It is required to make the building stable that Munamochi-bashira remains at least in one gabled wall, or that Hagai adds into the roof-truss. Gabled small buildings which contain both Munamochi-bashira structure and Jikubu-koyagumi one appeared as transitional skeleton at the transition from Munamochi-bashira structure to Jikubu-koyagumi one. The skeleton with Munamochi-bashira is established during the morphological changes from the old to the new.
A large number of researches have tried to solve the mysteries of the Akasaka Imperial Villa, but the interior decoration of the Akasaka Imperial Villa still has a lot of mysteries. The furniture and the decoration reflect the times, so it is very important to have a lot of information about the interior decoration to understand the Akasaka Imperial Villa in those days. This study found out the procurement process of the interior decoration of the Akasaka Imperial Villa. It relied on many imports to complete the western classic style room, but some products made in Japan were found in the room.
Reinterpreting initial works (8 out of 22 buildings in total) of the Horyuji Restoration Activities (1934-66) executed under Goichi Takeda's direction, this paper points out the following 3 items: 1) Takeda played an important role for drawing up the restoration guideline with field working experts and applying his (their) idea to each reconstruction. 2) In Takeda's restorations, original designs of architecture - forms and colours - were recreated by adopting revived techniques of ancient carpenters whereas posterior alterations were eliminated. 3) This restoration was criticized by various scholars of national or architectural history for not maintaining historical value or patina, which consequently modified the restoration guideline after Takeda's death.
This paper analyzed the fireproof communal building after Great Kanto earthquake, taking 3 examples planned by Reconstructing Building Assistance Co., ltd. supporting for fireproof architectures in Tokyo and Yokohama. Spatial composition of these buildings showed that the procedures of cooperation were very complex because of adjustment of different rights of land (ownership, leasehold and rented house). But they were achieved without the support of the law for communal building, and clarified that the communal building had various possibilities concerning the city residence of the revival period.
Mies's Brick Country House is one of his well-known five innovative works in 1920s. In my previous studies golden proportions were found in the relationships between its characteristic four long walls and so on. In this paper the analysis of its original ground floor plan exhibited at Mannheim in 1925 derived that golden proportions were found in the relationships between not only these walls, but also the outline of the drawing sheet and them. It shows that Mies made use of golden proportion.
In this paper we investigate the form of the spa village in Edo period, by doing the case study of the Atami spa, Shizuoka. In this spa village, hot spring inns were called the Yuko. They governed for this village, because they made a monopoly of the Oyu hot spring, which was the main hot spring in Atami. We study about for the space and community structure of this spa village in Edo period, by showing the existence of the Yuko.
The construction of Onoda Bottle Kilns for cement manufacture had started in 1881 at Taiheiyo Cement Corporation. The only kiln in existence completed in 1883 was specified for the cultural asset in 2004. For certifying the process of refurbishment in Meiji era and Taisho one, the excavation research of the circumference, the documentary one including drawings and old photographs, and the measurement survey with the kiln were carried out. The following items were obtained; 1) At the beginning, the kiln configuration was bottle, and changed through oval and bottle with several stories to rotational cylinder. 2) The kiln was consisted of the two parts, namely the cubic burning part (the lower) and the conic chimney one (the upper) which were refurbished-for repairing cracks caused by high temperature heating, thermal shock, and frost damage etc. 3) The three-storied workshop was attached to the kiln at the completion time. 4) The wall of chimney was consisted of three layers, and the bricks of external one and the inner one for lining were laid with header bond, and the middle one with stretcher bond. 5) Thirteen reinforcing steel bands surrounding the chimney with three kinds of connecting pattern were guessed to be replaced some times. 6) The bricks at the completion time were produced by cast molding, and those at the improvement one were done by extrusion molding.