The purpose of this paper is to present a decision method of thermal space design conditions, considering the effect of the radiant field. The radiant field depends on various building design factors and becomes worse when the air-conditioning load becomes greater. From the results of simulation analysis using design of experiments, a simplified method is presented for estimation of space operative temperatures at the air-conditioning peak load. Furthermore, design charts of thermal space conditions are proposed. In this charts, besides PMV comfort lines, operative temperature lines are shown.
In order to quantify the effect of evaporation from foliage on the indoor moisture environment and obtain the basic data for the rate of evaporation from foliage, experiments to grasp fundamental characteristics and a series of experiments using design of experiment theory based on orthogonal array, were carried out. Transitional response of evaporation rate derived from sudden change of illuminance and ratio of evaporation rate from foliage to total evaporation rate including evaporation from ground surface, were confirmed. Five main factors such as temperature, relative humidity, illuminance, kind of sound and air velocity were picked up and laid out on the orthogonal table L_<27>(3^<13>). Considering indoor environment. levels for five factors were fixed, that is, 10/20/30℃ as a level of temperature, 40/60/80 % as a level of relative humidity, 0/750/1500 lx as a level of illuminance, conversational sound/music/noise as a level of sound, and 0/0.3/0.6 m/s as a level of air velocity. Results showed that relative humidity and illuminance were significant on the evaporation rate, in particular.
In this study, detailed behaviors of temperature and humidity variations in attic and crawl space are measured continuously over years with related external conditions such as solar radiation, precipitation, air temperature, humidity and air velocity. Data obtained have sufficient accuracy to discuss system identification of those spaces and validation of the system models. Of two experimental houses having same configuration and different specification, behaviors above mentioned are measured continuously during one and half year. In this paper, results of measurements are shown and characteristic behaviors of temperature and humidity variations are discussed. In attic, humidity variations are affected explicitly moisture ab/desorption of roof board. Of moisture flow in crawl space, ground surface acted as moisture sink during summer.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze on temperature and humidity variations in attic space of house. The numerical analyses on attic space were made to apply the hygroscopic mathematical model. As a result, close agreement between observed and calculated values was obtained. And large humidity variation in attic space occurs by absorption and desorption of moisture from sheathing roof board.
The authors verified the simultaneous heat and moisture transfer model using six different full-scale test walls in which hygroscopic materials were used. Humidity, water content and temperature inside the walls were measured for about one year in the field test. Principal physical properties of used materials were measured independently in other experiment rooms. One-dimensional numerical calculations corresponding to the test were performed by applying the measured physical properties and the observed boundary conditions. Agreement between the calculation and the measurement is fairly good except for materials composed of cement, such as aerated concrete. Validity and subjects on the model were suggested.
The characteristics of airflow turbulence in a unidirectional cleanroom are described in this paper. Firstly, the airflow turbulence distribution is measured in a cleanbooth with a hot-wire anemometer. Through the analysis of turbulence intensity, the shape of pleated HEPA filter is found out to be an important factor of eddy generation in airflow. Secondly, turbulence distribution behind HEPA filter is measured in detail. It concludes that the shear stress, caused by the airflow difference between pleated concave and convex part of HEPA filter, makes eddy generation in airflow behind HEPA filter.
It becomes important to study or estimate the quality of engineering design of building systems. This paper reports the method of quality estimation and a case study of chilling system for the first step. At first, fundamental surveys are conducted about components of building energy systems, their characteristics of load ratio vs efficiencies, energy demands in building, etc. Secondly, 6 design parameters are selected for quality estimation study on chilling system. They are 2 load factors (mean and variance), 2 system factors (system type and full load characteristic), and 2 engineering factors (number of equipments, excess ratio of capacity). Finally, the relations between SCOP (system coefficient of performance) and design parameters are discussed and their contributions for SCOP are estimated by using multiple factorial analysis of quality control method.
In housing area, the components in common space is important for the improvement of environmental quality. Amenity water facilities have been planned and constructed as one method for those components. In this paper, the amenity water facilities in housing area were classified into the several types and analized by questionaires. On the other hand, impressions for the facilities were evaluated by using pictures of each facility. By analyzing the utilization behavior and the evaluation for the facilities, in each type of facilities, several points of planning and design for the amenity water facilities were set up.
An experimental study to create a comfortable underground space was carried out. Some problems were found, and measures for improvement were taken, then their effects were examined. Before these measures, the level of subjects' satisfaction with air quality, visual environments and space planning was low. The level of subjects' satisfaction with air quality and space planning was raised by remodeling the space into an "intelligent office" environment. The typical problems caused by windowlessness were monotonous atmosphere, and lack of information from outside which prevented people sensing a lapse of time. It is necessary to create the environment where people can read and write with ease, as well as having a warm atmosphere, in an underground space without natural light.
We ran a follow-up survey for 3 years on the senile dementia aged in Sendai, and on the basis of the data from the survey, we have noted the changes needed to be made to update the care service of those people whose conditions keep changing, thus requiring such revisions. Most senile dementia aged do not convalesce and need more and more care service. That means the responsibility of people who take care of them becomes heavier and heavier. Through the studies of 7 typical cases, we can show that social support such as the care service at home or at civic establishments or instituions is in increasing demand.
The purpose of this study is to find some hidden rules of the perceptive structure and the memorial structure on approaching spaces of Shrines, noticing a learning process and the relation between the visual sensation and the memory. As an analytical method, 3-times experiments with eye-mark recorder, and hearing of the memory on these slides were made. According to the results of those examinations, 1) the perceptive structure consists of the observed objects as 'VISTA' which make the perceptive directions in straight spaces and turning spaces. 2) we got '3-connecting types in memories' in the memorial structure, "Series-memories", "Parallel-memories" and "Advance-memories". 3) We could explain some of the methods to produce the sequences on approaching spaces.
This paper is intended as a investigation of urban theories by architects. We already studied "Thought on City" expressed by architects, and purpose here is to show the character of "Images on City" drawn by architects. We chose various urban projects as materials in architectural magazines after World War II and analyzed spatial composition and analogical or metaphorical expression of them, and obtained two unique "Images on City." One is "the city as an artificial environment included in a single structure." The other is "the City formed into axis or linear alignment which symbolizes a society."
To understand the constructability of apartment buildings' interior partitions with wooden back-up structures, two on-site studies were carried out. Through processing the recorded data and analysis after that, some interesting phenomena, such as the characters related to man-minute values of different partition units, possible existence of 2 categories in accordance with influencial elements & different influencial patterns of electric cords, pipes & ducts of different functions were found and then, elaborated.
We often feel serenity in a room enclosed by a light transmitting shoji screen. Psycological effects of different sunlight phenomena on such shoji screens were examined by experimentations using slide pictures of 1/3 scale mockups. 1. The transmitting shoji light was more effective for the sense of serenity than the reflecting shoji light. 2. Manipulative 7 types of serene shoji light were evening sun light, direct sunlight through tree leaves, and skylight through wooden screen. 3. Sense of connection with such exterior elements was one of the causes of the serenity. 4. "Calm", "warm", and "soft" images of shoji were elements of serenity. 5. The light phenomena on a shoji screen are manipulative by means of types of light, a shoji screen itself, and elements between these two.
According to the Heider's theory on a human relation and an object, the good relation between two habitants is achieved when their evaluations to commodity are same. This theoretical assertion is accepted by the results of the surveys on the extensions of private commodities in alley-space. Also, the results show that the possibility of the occurrence of good relation between habitants is high in the open type alley-space in which the amount of the extensions of commodities is large compared with the closed type alley.
This paper analizes the structure about the sphere of land possession in rural region. This study confirms the following. 1) Land possession form groups by each settlement. So settlement functions a foundamental sphere of spatial structure. 2) The sphere of land possession is stratified correspond to the sphere of society, settlement -hamlet -village. And the sphere of farmlands or house lots gathers within that of settlement. Also the sphere of rice fields or forest gathers within that of hamlet. 3) Land possession of rice fields relates with forming the connection of settlements. 4) Small scale land owners relate with forming the connection of settlements, too. And the distributional pattern of land possession differs by the stratum of them.
This thesis examines the first zoning process in Kobe (1923〜24) in terms of the violation of self-government in suburban towns and villages by central cities. The local urban planning committees established by the 1919 Urban Planning Act were not enforced to involve suburban towns and villages, while central cities had some seats on the committees. At the first zoning process, Kobe city, taking advantage of this fact, designated the industry-oriented zone widely on the suburban towns and villages which had required the designation of the residential zone.
In this paper, we make a survey of visibility of visual informations as information maps and guidance signs on underground streets in Umeda, Osaka, and aim to gather the basic data allowing the visual informations to be designed and displayed in away that aging people can easily recognize. Further, using trancsparencies, we set out a questionnaire both to young and aging people, in comparison with young people, commonly have. As the conclution, this paper suggests whats the visual informations should be to enable aging people to easily recognize them.
The building control system in England and Wales was radically reformed in 1985. The "approved inspector" as a private system of certification is one of the main objectives of the reform. This system are assessed after 7 years execution ; 1. The NHBC fills successflly the role of building control, competing with local authorities. 2. The indemnity insurance is difficult for private inspectors to obtain. 3. The building control is not a good business for a private sector. 4. As a result, the private certification is not always easy.
Nowdays, housing problems must be analyzed with consideration of the growth in household as well as the social class of household. The purpose of this study is to analyze household conditions with consideration to the growth in household. In this paper, we propose three indexes - "growth in household", "growth and number of household members" and "type of household with aged members". Using these indexes, we were able to clarify the changes in household and housing conditions according to the age of householders and the number of household members. For this paper, we used the special tabulation in Sapporo from 1988 Housing Survey of Japan.
This paper aims to clarify the characteristics of the dwelling spaces of newly built, detached housing in view point of household types in Fukui and Kagoshima City. Main conclusions are as follows; 1.In case of the same household type, the dwelling space in Fukui City is much larger than that of Kagoshima City, and its tendency is much greater for the households with the elderly. 2.The differences of the dwelling space between two cities have a clear relation to the differences of the number of the surplus rooms which is not used in everyday life. 3. The mean number of surplus rooms in Fukui City are 1.8 while it is 1.0 in Kagoshima City. 4.The ratio of two and more surplus rooms in Fukui City is much higher than that of Kagoshima City. 5.These surplus rooms are mainly used as Japanese style suite of rooms for guest rooms. 6.As are results, the difference of the dwelling spaces in two cities could be explained by the differences of their needs to the Japanese style suite of rooms.
From Heian to Muromachi period the building called "ni-kai" was built in the aristcratic residences. The architectual style and the spatial characteristics of "ni-kai" are analyzed in this paper. From the instances described in the ancient dairies and the archives in Heian, Kamakura and Muromachi period, it is concluded that "ni-kai" in the aristcratic residence was the facility for enjoying fine view and the events of amusement in the garden. Its architectual style was not of ordinary twostoried, but of elevated main floor.
This paper handles the process how the positions of Soh-daiku and shuuri-daiku were taken over from the carpenters belonging to the Imperial Court to those to the temples and clarifies the following historical fact: A social status of Soh-daiku and shuuri-daiku was already established for the period of Ko-an years (1278-87). In the 1330s both of the daikus were given the official letter of appointment and at the middle of the 15th century it was officially and cleary stipulated that they were qualified to participate to the constraction works on an equal footing
Jonen-ji, located in Murakami City, Niigata Prefecture, has two early 19th century buildings: the Hondo (main hall) and the Manabe-Akifusa Otamaya (mausoleum). Both buildings feature the earthen-wall Dozo-zukuri building style, in which all exterior walls are covered with clay and plaster. In addition, the Hondo is characterized by another building style, expressing the design of a two-story building on the exterior but containing a single two-story-high space in the interior. The use of the Dozo-zukuri style and the two-story interior space -- both of which are features that show Edo influence -- is attributed to the fact that both of these buildings were designed in Edo; furthermore, the earthen walls are considered to have been designed in response to local fire prevention laws. The reason why these buildings were designed in Edo is that the two clans involved in the construction work, the Murakami-han and the Sabae-han, hold their discussions at the official Edo residences of both clans. The design differences between the Hondo and the Otamaya are attributable to the differences in the Sabae-han's degree of involvement in the design process of the two buildings. These two buildings in Jonen-ji should not be considered merely as special examples of local architecture but as one type of design which resulted from the influences of clan politics and law.
After the Russo-Japanese War, South Manchuria Railway Company was established in order to operate some railways and rule the Railway Zone by Japanese Government, and it had the Architects' Office which was the biggest architectural office in the Northeastern Province of China "Manchuria". This paper introduces a history of the Architects' Office and all of architects in it.
This paper attempts to research how the buddhist temples in Nothern Wei Loyang were erected and what roles they were playing on the city-planning's ground. Emperor Hsiao-wen-ti moved the capital to Loyang, and enacted a policy of temples in the new capital. Although the erection of the temples was controled at the beginning, his policy was getting laxer gradually. Especially when Empress Dowager Hu was ruling the country, several temples with high pagodas including Yong-ni temple--the most famous one with nine-storeyed pagoda, were built along the main street in front of the palace in this period. Since then the buddhist pagodas became a landmark of the city.
In this paper, an analysis will be carried out by the author on the Fischer's method of composing plate X by using the original literature and the sketch for its engraving as elaborated in: "A view of the Royal Residence at Siam in Ayutaya with the Magnificent Public Entry of the French Ambassador on the River Menam (1685)" taken from J. B. Fischer von Erlach's "Entwurf ciner Historischen Architcktur" (1721) are presented. Furthermore, the historical meaning of the Siam plate from the above mentioned book will be studied. The investigations will be include; 1) why the East Asian plate -A view of Slam- appeared in "Entwurf einer Historischen Architektur" presented 1721 to the Habsburg Emperor Karl VI.(1711-40); 2) what the source of literature was that was used to complete the plate; 3) what the Fischer's technique was in drawing-up this copper-plate engraving; and 4) how the Fischer's copper-plate drawing was appreciated. As a result, it will be explicitly shown, by using "Staged Composition of Plate Analysis" with the Tachard's plates (the source of literature) and the Fischer's plate, that the "characteristic mark" and "diversity" of plates can be successfully analyzed in terms of "morphosis", signifcant details in "copying" and "creation".
The oldest block called Castellacia in the center of the historical district of Peccioli, small medieval city in Tuscany, is analyzed through the "Formazione degli Elenchi (1982)", surveyed drawings (1985), and the historical documents "Catasto (1834)", in order to clarify the typological evolution of component buildings and the formation process of the block since before 1834. The process of formation can be divided into four phases according to the evolution of component building-type, that is, from medieval "casa a schiera" to post medieval "casa in linea" and "casa incorporata", all of which are still remained in present block.
This paper analyzes the design methods in the first 3 bungalow-type houses which represent Rietveld's middle career in housing design. The background and the design process of the each house are examined by looking at the context of the executed and unexecuted houses designed before and after the 3 houses. Then the compositions of elevation are principles which underlie the Schroder house, Rietveld's first independent architecture, were executed in these 3 houses by the simplified application of color and composition in the elevations.
This paper is to clarify the urban modernization procedure in China and Japan through analyzing the difference in adopting the railway, which is assumed to be the principal fruit of the industrialization. Due to the low-level traffic system, the railway was adopted right away in Japan at the beginning of the modernization. This caused a great convenience to the urban transportation among the main cities and habours. As a result, the urban modernization was enhanced. Correspondly, the traffic system was perfect in China before the industrialization, which resulted in a delay in adopting the railway compared with Japan. Moreover, the principal purpose of railway was to strengthen the Mingqing's government and the national defence. Therefore, the railway was not so useful in the modernization.