Concrete multiple dwelling seldom have serious condensation problem, because of lack of ventilation, partial heating system and inside thermal insulation. Condensation free method by using ventilation system with heat exchanger is presented in this paper. Experimental study on this system installed in the house suffered by serious condensation problem, shows that the system is successful and possible to avoid extreme dryness in heating area simultaneously. Minimum ventilation demand to avoid condensation problem and comparison with exhaust only system are discussed through calculation.
The objective of this paper is to clarify the combined effect of air temperature and floor temperature on the person sitting on the floor with floor heating system. Experiments were conducted for winter seasons. Subjects were exposed to the following conditions : combinations of air temperature 20℃, 22.5℃ and 25℃, and floor temperature 20℃, 22.5℃, 25℃, 27.5℃, 30℃, 32.5℃, 35℃, 37.5℃ and 40℃ under still air. To evaluate the effect of heat conduction between the body and a floor modified mean skin temperature was defined. New weighting coefficients were proposed to introduce the modified mean skin temperature. The modified mean skin temperature can indicate the effect of heat conduction between the human body and a floor surface. Thermal sensation at the lower body was affected with floor temperature rather than whole body sensation. Heat transfer coefficient of the human body during floor heating was estimated based on measuring dry heat flow rate.
The objectives of this paper is to propose thermal comfort zone based on the experimental data of the optimum air temperature and humidity conditions for Japanese. Experiments were conducted on 650 Japanese young men and wemen in the summer season under 16 kinds of the following combined conditions : air temperature of 22℃, 24℃, 26℃ and 28℃, and absolute humidity of 7g/kg', 10g/kg', 13g/kg' and 16g/kg' under still air in which mean radiant temperature is nearly equal to air temperature. The following results were obtained : 1) The Comfort Zone for slightly clothed (0.45clo), sedentary young Japanese is represented in the envelope in which operative temperature range extents 24.7℃ to 27.6℃ on the 6g/kg' absolute humidity line, and 24.1℃ to 26℃ on the 80% relative humidity curve. 2) The mean skin temperature stands between 33℃ and 34℃ in the thermal comfort conditions.
This paper describes a method for estimating the decrease in annual electric power consumption for lighting due to daylighting. The proposed method is to use a chart for calculating annual mean daylight illuminance in a given room space and then to estimate the annual electric power consumption for lighting. The parameters included in the chart are window size, window orientation, room reflectance, and window types. Annual electric power consumptions estimated using the proposed chart were found in good agreement with those calculated by detailed computer simulation.
On a ventilation system affected by the buoyancy forces, different kinds of ventilation, such as several combinations of flow directions, flow rates or room temperatures, may occur in spite of the same setting of heat supply or temperature and same wind force. Theoretical studies on the variety of ventilation may not have been reported, although an experimental verification has been shown. On this paper, the creation of the variety of ventilation is verified to be caused by the buoyancy terms using the network model, and the kinetic energy that acts on the onside atmosphere by the ventilation system is adopted as an index of the occurrence frequency. The smoke eject problem in fire is studied so the variety of ventilation may cause the dangerous situation. The numerical calculations show that owing to the variety of ventilation the effects of natural smoke vents or fans become ineffective as the case may be, especially in the underground compartments with ventilators.
In the prediction of time series using multilayer feedforward neural networks, there are two methods for selecting learning data: the moving window data learning method and the similar data selective learning method with the correlation coefficients based similar data selection method which we proposed in a prevlous paper. With time series data on warm-up and pull-down time, predictive accuracy by the both methods were investigated by numerical simulations. With warm-up time, that by the latter was considerably higher than that by the former. With pull-down time, that by the former was slightly higher than that by the latter.
The paper discusses the thermal comfort at the interior office space and possibility of loosening thermal air conditions for energy-conservation where the task and ambient air-conditioning system with fluctuating airflow is aoolied. The task space is air-conditioned locally by slightly cooled fluctuating air from a "kiosk" unit located on the free access floor. The remaining ambient space is air-conditioned by the conventional air diffusion system. The effects of many factors conceming with the design/control of this task and ambient air-conditioning system on the psychological and physiological responses were examined by a series of experiments in a simulated office room. By utilizing the localized fluctuating cooled air, the ambient thermal air condition could be raised up to 29.6℃ SET^* at the cooling condition, while maintaining a neutral thermal sensation. The system assures the personal satisfaction in spite of the differences in thermal requirements among people and will be able to reduce energy consumption as well.
The authors work out the method that surface condensation of wall is measured by using Multi-Spectral Scanner(MSS), and experiments concerned are conducted on plates of glass and aluminum. The results are summarized as follows: (1) Progressing degree of surface condensation on plates of glass was expressed by radiant intensity ratios, such as 200nm/2000nm and 1700nm/1500nm. (2) Correspondence between spectral radiance ratio of 2200nm/2000nm and weight of condensation liquid water was analysed on plates of glass. (3) Consequences on plates of glass and aluminum were compared.
This paper analyzed land use of the local city, applying remote sensing technique. Using the Landsat-5 satellite TM data, land use of the city was analyzed. At first, It was tried an analysis by the data in the single season. Moreover, it was examined the precision of the analysis by combining and using data in multi-temporal data. Following result was gotten. In the analysis by the data in the single season, it was possible to analyze in the precision which is high level on the whole. However, it was found that the precision of the analysis fell down in the specific season depending on the category. When analyzing multi-temporal data, it was found that there was not improvement with precision of the analysis but that it was possible to analyze in the high precision accuracy regardless of the category.
The purpose of this study is to present some information about the builing design and planning from the viewpoint of proper refuse treatment, through the questionnaire investigation to buildings maintenance workers. In this paper, 227 questionnaires about 13 buiding uses were collected from building maintenance companies and were analysed. Consequently, following points of building conditions were clarified quantitatively: 1) floor space for refuse storage, 2) the number of elevators required for refuse carriage, 3) treatment equipments installed in buildings.
This paper describes the effects of fluctuating noise environments on human arousal/alertness levels. The amplitude fluctuating pink noise with Leq 50dB(A) were used as noise sources. The noise fluctuation characteristics were 1/f^0, 1/f, 1/f^2 and steady. Subjets performing a monotonous vigilance task were exposed to noises and their physiological responses were measured. Skin potential levels throughout the task and sleep latency after the task were measured using a telemeter system. Task performance and impressions to the noise were also evaluated. Results showed that subjects' arousal level, task performance and impressions were influenced by fluctuation characteristics.
In order to counter the global warming, there is a pressing need to promote energy conservation and efficient use of energy, while, people still strongly desire comfortable living environment. In order to meet both the demands, simulation-aided thermal environment design, rather than the conventional calculations, has become indispensable in realizing required level of performance. This paper presents recommendations for a future design system operations on systematic principles that can be utilized by construction companies for practical builiding-equipment systems. Specific consideration is also provided for such a design system using a simulation-aided design software, SAPLO(Simulation-aided Architectural Planning Language based on Object oriented concept).
The author felt certain that the exercise lesson utilizing personal computers is good at response of students and have an effect on teaching. But he met with troublesome to apply this to another subject which is an exercise for architectural environmental technique and building services. Because there are varieties of students' input to key-board and length of term which extend for 3-month period. Unexpected manipulation make the computer system run away and many repetition of a simple pattern discourage students from making effort by weary. Here, the improving process and the final flow chart of this program are indicated.
"Narrow space" between neighbouring houses at the present corresponds to the lateral regulatory separation between detached houses. Because of its narrowness, it becomes a dead space, environmentally isolated from the indoor of the house. This research performs the environmental design method for the spatial reconstruction of the narrow space: i) make clear that it has the capacity to control the outdoor wind and temperature conditions around the house, through thermal environmental meassurement, ii) evaluates this capacity through a wind tunnel experiment on a 1/50 design model and iii) introduce Kusabi element and analyse its capacity for the control of the wind inside the narrow space.
In this paper the spatial compositions of Japanese contemporary houses are analyzed in terms of the articulation of compositional units with building elements. Initially, compositional units are investigated by its shape and kinds of building elements. Secondly, typological compositions of the houses are defined by difference and similarity between combined units. Finally, series of compositional rhetorics are found, and the architectural composition of house is set into the structural relationship between compositional method (composition of volume, composition of building elements, composition of volume and building elements) and paradigmatical system (unity, contrast, coexistence).
Ventilated air space separated from mineral wool by Elastic thin wind barrier sheet will be narrower because of elongation of the sheet and spring of the mineral wool. This means that performance for vapor desorption and drainage of the air space will be insufficient. Measurement and observation on experimental walls with various wind barrier shows that a little elongation of the sheet shut up the air space. Not only elongation of the sheet but also mineral wool type affect to the size of air space.
In location planning of commercial facilities, it is important to be able to forecast shopping behavior. In this research, a competing destinations model which is proposed by Prof. Fotheringham as an improvement of the Huff model is examined on shopping behavior. It is concluded that the competing destinations model of shopping behavior is more adaptable than the Huff model from comparative study between actual data of shopping behavior collected from a questionnaire survey in built-up areas of the city of Sakai and values estimated by the model.
The purpose of this report is to clarify the housing needs of improvement for the one-person households living in the houses owned by public corporation. The summary of the results about the one-person households are as follows. 1) The ratio of the one-person households is 39% in all the rented houses. 2 generally, the female tend to live in the better class houses. The female increase in number on the older age group. 3) The standard of the houses owned by public corporation is low for the residents after 1975. 4) The degree of dissatisfaction with the housing conditions is high. The needs to improve the housing conditions account for 61%. 5) The contents of the extending rooms and the increasing rooms to be expected are varied by the sex, the age, the construction year, etc.. The needs to improve the housing equipment and the interior are high. The contents of the improvement are also varied by them.
I hope my thesis will provide a key to the progress in the study of "Shiro-wari" system. To begin with, I've taken the case of Hizen Nagoya Castle and given an example of removal of stone walls in terms of the superficial observation. I've considered how castles were influenced under "Shiro-wari" system through the analysis of the case of Hizen Nagoya Castle. From my study so far I've come to the conclusion as follows: 1) Judging from the present appearance of the stone walls of Hizen Nagoya Castle, they seemed to be fallen down artificially, which I've proved by giving a convincing example in this thesis. 2)"Shiro-wari" was a ritually-colored system to have castles suspend their functions temporally, but never to make them lose their functions completely.
It has been presumed from the item of Hyohanki of October 15, Ninan Gannen (the 1st year of Ninan era) that, the cardinal point to measure the distance when taking Daijyouegokeitenchi lying on the direction of east and west. Thus the possibility has been shown that such point should be placed inside of the Seiryouden, not placed in the Higashinomigiri (East side) of Seiryouden or the Hitujisarudan (Southwestern of the plat) of Shishiiden as others considered.
Many buildings in Kanazawa-castle were burnt down in the big fire in 1759, in Edo-period. In spite of her strict finances, Kaga-han organized Zoei-kata, the reconstruction system, and managed to rebuild the secondary palace, Kahoku-gate, Ishikawa-gate and so on. But the three-story turret and the front gate, both of which used to be the most important buildings of a castle, were not rebuilt after all, from which it follows that probably her view about the function of the castle had been changed. It is made clear in this paper that the system consisted of several divisions, what kinds of work each division was responsible for, by whom each chief was appointed, what artisans were appointed to the positions like Nushizuke, and so on.
This paper examines the status, duties, and evolution of the temple office known as koban (Fire Watchman's Office) based upon study of historical documents related to the Rinzai Zen monastery Myoshinji. From 1842 onward, however, the title of office changed to tenzoryo (Monastery Cook's Office) and was filled on a yearly basis by two monks jointly appointed to the Office of the Chief Seat (shuso) within the monastery's Western Rank (seiban ; the branch of monastic bureaucracy which oversaw the spiritual growth of the monastery).
The early activities of Eliel Saarinen (1873-1950), architect of Jugend-period in Finland, was supported by the design competition system. Their office became the leader in an instant, because of their win in several competitions. Through the competition for Tallberg's house(1896-97), Saarinen got the chance to design for Helsinki in cooperation with J. Tallberg, the enterpriser. The competition for Finnish pavilion for Paris World Fair (1898) meant to him the first step toward the central figure of National Romantic Architecture. Saarinen's two tendencies, i .e. modernism and nationalism, were both cultivated by the competitions of Jugend-period.
This paper starts with a conviction that "Manyoh-Syu" poem no.52. is a text for us, for the structure of scenery. In this poem, the human act of "seeing"- a kind of experience - is translated into words. In this paper, I tried to melt the frozen meaning behind words. Under grasping the phenomenon at the boundary as of scenery, I make clear that it didn't happen at the border-line but at the dot-like place as "Gate". In conclusion, I suggest that the ancient Japanese capital, "Fujiwara-Kyo" was not a walled city, but bounded with "Yamato-Sanzan".