Recently, it can be feeled that residential section landscape is more opened visually. The purpose of this research is to analyze the enclosure form of the detached housing outdoor space, especially (1) present states of enclosure form, (2) whether these enclosure form are affirmative or not, (3) a feeling of privacy according to the stage of openness. Investigation is being done with a questionnaire method for the housing more than 200m^2 in area. The main contents of investigation are the Real and Ideal conditions of ground height, description and height of enclosure, a feeling of privacy at the garden and inside of the house.
The purpose of this study is to suggest environment for the wheelchair users in a nursing home. This study focuses on behavioral patterns of elderlies from viewpoints of moving ability, transfer ability and degree of dementia, and on care of staffs. The results are as follows. (1)For the elderlies who cannot transfer by themselves, it is necessary to improve care environment and develop the tools that support transfer ability. (2)For the elderly with severe dementia, it is necessary to make a living base smaller size.
This paper aims at examining current nursing activities in a surgical step-down care unit in an acute teaching hospital in order to clarify the efficient room layout in these kinds of wards. Two nurses are followed and observed in each duty i.e. for 24 hours from the beginning of day duty (8:00am) until the end of night duty (8:30am in the following day). Another observation study was carried out the same day of the following week. Five observers were staying in designated locations and described the time of getting in and coming out from each room in the ward. As the result of this study, the following four major items are highlighted: 1. Actual situation of the nursing activities was obtained. 2. The investigated data was compared with those obtained in the previous studies. 3. Influencing factors to the nursing activities were discussed. 4. Some problems concerning the room layout were pointed out.
This research is based on the results of the questionnaire survey on the relationship between the autistic person's behavioral disorder and their living space. The results are as follows.: (l).The Autistic person's behavioral disorder often accompanies damage to property.; (2).Guidance counsellors are unable to do preventative counselling. They are only able to counsel after the autistic person has behavioral problems.; (3).The autistic person is prone to accidents indoors. Most injuries involve fractures and laceration.; (4).Damaged areas are typically windows, doors and walls.; (5).The autistic person can only concentrate on places or objects he/she prefers.
A model to acquire regression equations that evaluate whether an alternative satisfies the given conditions -i.e. "policy" - by learning case examples with inductive inference was attempted in this paper. 50 positive examples and 50 negative examples based on the "policy" were prepared for symbolic regression by using the genetic programming. The resultant formulae sieved an alternative set that are achieved by bi-objective optimization of "eccentricity ratio" and "daylight factor" in advance. A resultant alternative that satisfied eccentricity ratio and daylight factor highly and matched the "policy" also was shown in the end.
In July 2001, we used the method calling "Degital Simulation by use of personal computer" at Takahashi-shi Okayama-ken. The purpose of this study is to make clear the shopping district design consensus between neighborhood's and regional people. Some result of simulation analysis was that a final plan was not decided through the people. The reason why they had different images of shopping district. So we have to develop a educational content for urban planning.
This paper deals the survey and analysis on the wall construction about the wooden storehouse in close-set pillars style at Kitakami River basin, Miyagi Prefecture and Kuriyama-mura, Tochigi Prefecture. As the result, the following influence were found out; the works by the Kesen carpenter group in Miyagi Prefecture and the installing stone veneer in Tochigi Prefecture. We clarified that these influences on the construction and design improvement of the wooden storehouse in each close-set pillars style, and thereby regional characteristics were worked out.
This paper is discussed the escape safety of two fire protection openings. Three kinds of experiments, which a walker or the crowed flow passed through the fire protection opening, a fire door or a sheet shutter, were performed. We analyzed the relation between motion and flow rate using the view points of human engineering. The results are summarized as follows. 1) The evaluations of two fire protection openings were different among single walk and crowed flow, or the characteristics of walker. 2) The evaluation of the human flow was influenced by the touch with the others and the fire protection opening. 3) The evaluation of fire door decreases with crowed density. 4) The motion which pass through the sheet shutter were enforced by that characteristics. 5) The flow rate was influenced by the characteristics. The flow rate of the sheet shutter was smaller than the fire door's one, but was satisfied the necessary flow rare.
Two comparable sets of children's neighborhood activities were collected from Vietnam and Korea. This study suggested that the location analysis, although helping describe where each activity most often occurred, was unable to explain why an activity took place in a particular setting but not in other settings. The location-activity relationship analysis also hardly accounted for an activity that occurred across many different settings and a setting where many different activities occurred. This analysis thus focused on environmental resources as an alternative variable. Environmental resources referred to properties, qualities, and elements of neighborhood's sociophysical environment that children explored to use in the instrumental terms for the process of realizing intended activities. The analysis attempted to demonstrate that this alternative variable not only served to explain children's neighborhood activity but also provided conceptual basis to compare children's experiences in neighborhoods of the two different cultures.
This article clarifies the changes of 'place-constructing' by office workers around their workplaces during an office-moving as environmental transition from Kanda (a mixed-used downtown area in Tokyo), to Shinagawa (a newly redeveloped area in Tokyo). The methods were interviews and questionnaires about places of frequent use, dropping in, refreshing at, feeling 'mine', and routes for commuting and strolling. The findings are as follows: 1) The ways of 'place-constructing' in each area are different. 2) In an office with various advanced functions in the newly redeveloped area, 'semi-third places' are constructed. 3) There are complementary relationships between 'third places' and strolling routes, as well as between 'semi-third places' and commuting routes. 4) At a small office in the mixed-used downtown, some workers take their works out to 'third places'.
In this research, the distinction distance of the elements of architecture facade was calculated by using the formula of the atmosphere perspective and geometry perspective which writers have already examined. It was cleared about the way of calculating a distinction distance based on both perspectives first. Then, calculated value was compared with the previous research of the distinction distance, and the validity of the way of calculating was examined. The difference in distinction distance was hardly seen with either of the atmosphere perspective and geometry perspective as well in the distance to 300m as that result. As for the distinction distance of geometry perspective, it could confirm that it was greatly different from the previous research value by more than 300m. As for the distinction distance of the atmosphere perspective, it could confirm that it was about equal to the previous research value in all the distances. When it thought about the distinction distance of the elements of architecture facade, it was found out that the influence of the atmosphere perspective grew big more than geometry perspective according to distance. The calculation of the distinction distance of this research is effective as a conclusion.
Nearly one thousand of indoor escape stairs of medical and welfare facilities were collected to measure the size of staircase and landings. The findings of this survey are as follows. 1. Very few staircases satisfy the required size for area of rescue assistance in ADA. 2. More than seventy percent of staircases are arranged to adjust the typical span of wards. 3. Area of rescue assistance requires additional space in landing, which will consequently raise the total floor area. Easing restrictions of floor area ratio will be effective to make areas of rescue assistance widespread.
The waterfront market network in the Amphwa neighborhood played a big role in supporting settlements along their waterway network, through the distribution of agricultural and daily consumption products. These products were provided with considerable deliberation of the specific topography and environment. Product distributors in each neighborhood had operated as wholesales or retails in both the inner and outer neighborhood, through the waterway network in the entire western part of the Chaophraya lower basin. These product distribution system and waterfront market network are considered the main factors that contributed to the development of the settlement formation in the Amphwa neighborhood.
Our regional images are composed of many evaluations about the various kinds of elements or activities within different regions. In quantitative terms, the extraction of regional images is difficult. In this paper, we focus on a phenomenon in which a part of regional image is reflected in the names of buildings. In the first instance, a model based on the random utility theory is constructed to describe the spatial distribution of buildings names. Secondly, the proposed model is calibrated using actual data from the city of Tokyo (Setagaya Ward), and the effects of such regional elements or activities on regional images are then estimated. Finally, values for the regional images are quantitatively estimated and their spatial distribution is represented on a map.
Though use except traffic on streets is prohibited, people desire various uses such as open cafe on sidewalks to enrich street life. There are two difficulties to set open cafe. First is that the permissions of police and the government are required. Second is that it needs man-power for a municipality to carry out open cafe. So it is expected to study the possibility to manage open cafe on sidewalks by a municipality and local organization co-operatively. To discuss about the possibility that a municipality and local organizations can manage use of open cafe on street, this paper reviews the history of public facility management, analyzes the social experiment of open cafe in the downtown of Nagoya city which were made by the city of Nagoya and the organization of businesses along the streets, and compares the formations of open cafe experiments made in other cities.
This paper aims to clarify the process of development of stores and works with informational dispatch function, and the change of them belong to network to reconstruct place of traditional craft as "Place to visit." Findings are as follows. 1. They make class of visitors change. But, few have profits on management. 2.By carrying out network between them, the dispatch function and community of town are produced. 3.Wajima-city and Yamanaka-town may develop by community making spontaneously. But, it is necessary to make network on supports of administration or association at Kawada-district.
There is a traditional dispute about the regal matter of the architect contracts that are suitable for the contracts between owner and architect. This dispute is whether the architect contracts should be applied to Ininkeiyaku or to Ukeoikeiyaku. They are the types of typical contracts in Japanese Civil Law. In fact, this dispute would decide whether to pursue architect's responsibility or not in the cases for defective building. This paper tries to define the points in this dispute and reconstruct them by being compared with interpretation in German Civil Law.
This paper focuses on relationship between sense of values on housing and evaluation of RS (Residential Satisfaction) based on the dataset obtained from the recent UDC (Urban Development Corporation) survey in Japan. In particular, ordered probit model, which introducing a hidden utility concept in evaluation of RS is utilized to investigate this purpose. The result demonstrates that residents' sense of values on housing deeply links to the evaluation of RS, and the attributes related to housing characteristics affect more sensitively on RS than that of residential environment. Two statistical significance tests to sense of values on housing clearly show that these psychological factors also should be included in the regression model for the evaluation of RS.
The administrative policy of the Local Government for condominium management has been influenced by the establishment of a consultation service desk and the operation about Appropriate Condominium Management Act. Of all the policies, consultation and advice for homeowners association (65.5%), information distribution (53.4%) were operated to a relative degree, and taken mainly in the ordinance-designated city, the prefectures and the special 23-ward in Tokyo Metropolitan. In the promotion factor of condominium management policy, a type of the Local Government, the number of condominium stocks, and the condition of the office were important, especially establishment of the office was the most significant element. Moreover, it is difficult to make clear reasonable grounds for the policy for condominium management, since many difficult facts about reason for necessity of administrative policy were seen in the prevention factor. The administrative policy for condominium management was enforced on constructive administration rather than consumer and community administration as organization of the Local Government. However, from viewpoints of persons in charge, it is important to enforce the policies based on consumer and community administration, such as "a field of consumer protection" and "a field of community development".
This study aims at proposal for the renewal implementation time judgment technique of sanitary equipment. Renewal implementation time judgment was considered based on the measurement of flow rates of water closets in a office building. As the results, it was impossible to control on the standards flow rates in spite of the adjustment of the flushing values. Therefore, it was judged to carry out the renewal of the toilets. The renewal efforts by the fixtures of saved water type were clarified, and the evaluation of the renewal for the saved water fixtures was considered.
This is a study on the repair of Kumamoto Castle by Kato Tadahiro (Kumamoto Castle Lord) for twenty years from 1612 to 1632 by studying the darwing "Higo-kumamotojoTyakuzu" in the Monjokan of Yamagutiken and "Kumamoto-yasikiwari-sitaezu" in the Library of Kumamotoken, the writing "Higo-uto-gunki" in the Li- brary of Utosi and the drawing "Utojo-zu" in "Higo-uto-gunki". The results are as follows; 1. Kato Tadahiro repaired the composition of Kumamoto Castle from for easts to west for three years from June, 1612 to June, 1615. 2. Kato Tadahiro moved Utojo-Tenshu from Uto Castle and made it Kumemotojo-Kotenshu in Kumamoto Castle for three years from June, 1612 to June, 1615. 3. The cause which Kato Tadahiro was confiscated Higo-koku was because he repaired Kumamoto Castle.
This study is that we researched the managing of the housing society in Yokohama-city. The housing society enterprise in Yokohama-city is next high scale to Tokyo. As Yokohama-city was damaged from the earthquake disaster at Taisho-are, put in force the managing of housing society at the same time of making disaster victims. Therefore, a merchant company exceeds a housing partner rather than a salaried worker, and borrowed the money of the housing society for merchant company is usually 2.56 times the direction housing society for salaried worker. The housing society law started housing supply for the salaried worker below a middle class. However, in Yokohama-city, the merchant company whose damage of an earthquake disaster was serious was applicable, and it was shown clearly that the original meaning of a housing society law had deteriorated.
A dining kitchen is the Japanese English named by the Japan Housing Corporation in 1955, and is the fundamental housing style of postwar Japan. The purpose of this study is to make clear forming process of a dining kitchen. After the defeat of the Second World War, when Japanese some architects had the subject of a minimum house, they proposed "Wohn Kuche" as a model. "Wohn Kuche" was a housing style for a minimum house in Germany after the First World War. On the other hand, architects proposed three new life-styles. They were "separation of a meal room and a bedroom", "taking a meal on a chair", and "democratization of a kitchen." It is thought that the dining kitchen was materialized by two proposals, "Wohn Kuche" and the three life-styles.
This study intends to investigate the serial construction process of Yasukawa's residence and its evolution. Yasukawa's residence involves partly the reassembled structure of the mid Meiji era which was brought over from Wakamatsu district and completed in the end of Meiji era. The residence was supervised by Kosaburo KUBOTA and constructed by Yasukawa, Matsumoto provisonal building department. The retirement residence for Keiichiro was founded by Seizaburo and constructed by Simizu-Gumi in the end of Taisho era. Whole structure except "0-zasiki" (guest room) and warehouse was renewed in the early Showa era, founded by Hiroshi YASUKAWA. The building composition and its evolution process of Yasukawa s residence could be understood by three divided period.
Japanese Government erected its pavilion at Panama-Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco in 1915. This pavilion was modeled on Kinkaku-ji temple and designed by Goichi Takeda. He used historically different ornaments compared to the the original model. It was a new design arrangement, but his design attitude was positive that we have never seen before. In this work, we can see a new intension to create a new Japanese architecture style. This pavilion was also modeled on famous Japanese historical buildings like the precedents did in Meiji-era. However, after the international exposition, Japanese pavilion like this one has never been erected. This pavilion can be the compilation of the Japanese pavilion of Meiji-era. Takeda designed some temples based on historical styles with new arrangement after this pavilion. This pavilion can be a study model of temples that he designed.
This paper is a part of analysis on the changing process of temple layout in northern Vietnam. Thuong Dien which the object of this paper is the main building where enshrines the principal image of Buddha in the temple. The oldest techniques among existing wooden buildings still remain in Thuong Dien, and it seems the formation had changed as Buddhism faith develops; however, its process is not clear. Accordingly, I examined the measurements-ratios of column spacing, the structure form to support roof, and the number of purlins. In consequence, the examinations of these things make it clear that the fundamental formation changed at 17th century and the end of 18th century as the number of statues in that place increased under the influence of Vietnamese Buddhism which introduced Jodo-Buddhism, the faith of the founder and so on. Its changes are as follows; the early existing one which was built from 14th to 16th centuries kept shut, but the inside was decorated. In the 17th century, the plane was extended. From the end of 18th century, Thuong Dien got to be opened to show the statues and less decoration inside.
Three independent houses preserved at the Malqata Palace have overall similarities with the standard Amarna-type houses, nevertheless they present some architectural differences related to the official building characters, and the simpler details possibly show the tentative phases before the completion of this house-type. A careful study of the remaining brick pavement of the central hall in "Malqata-House A" concluded that a large stone dais for the master had been placed on the rear wall and that the roof of this hall had been supported by two columns resting on the edges of a stone dais, or more appropriately that it had been spanned by one single wood beam without any columns.
Messene was an important Hellenistic city in Peloponnesos and well known because it was described by Pausanias. The Asklepieion was located in the city center and was the main sanctuary in Messene. The Doric peripteral Temple of Asklepios was built in a square court which was enclosed by Corinthian stoas. The authors had an opportunity to participate in fieldwork to survey and study the architectural remains of the surrounding stoas. The objective of the present paper is to describe generally the present condition of the stoas and to make clear the dimensions of the buildings as a first step of their architectural study.
The main objective of this paper is to show how the economic robustness of private sector influenced the urban renewal of Tokyo in the early Meiji period. Immediately after the collapse of the Tokugawa regime, many samurai estates (bukechi), were subject to large-scale development using the capital resources of commoners (chonin), who generally resided elsewhere. These estates were transformed into areas resembling the former commoner's districts (choninchi). While the governmental authorities did not set abut such renewals themselves, they consciously utilized private sector capital to remodel the pre-modern city of Edo according to their requirements, through their provision of official approvals.
In this study, it intends for the history culture city (province class "Ming Chen") in P. R. China. A purpose grasps formation process and structure of a historical environmental conservation system and makes clear the present situation and a characteristic of a conservation enterprise for historical environment had for the ground, and think about the historical environmental conservation and enterprise. The investigation place is Yantai city, Shangdong province that was chosen as "province class "Ming Chen"" in 1999. An investigation method is actual place investigation on the basis of a design survey.