The smoke and air flow through an opening in case of fire is analyzed by the treatment of a sluice flow. However the method to treat the smoke and air flow is different in the point of the considerations of the density difference between smoke and air and the pressure varying on the interface. This method shows the following results; 1) This method shows the clear stream line of the air flow, and is able to consider the curvature of stream line when the air is static. This method gives the hyperbolic velocity distribution on an opening. 2) This method shows the existence of the maximum value of the flow rate through an opening. The characteristic flow around the bound of the maximum value is verified by the experiment. 3) The burning rate expected by the maximum air inflow rate describes analytically the empirical relation between the air inflow factor and the burning rate.
Measurement methods of sound attenuation of silencers are studied to determine data for sound attenuation design of air conditioning systems. Measurement methods of sound attenuation of silencers are standardized in IS0 7235. A large non-reflection termination is needed in this standard. But laboratories with this termination are few in Japan. So in this paper, for suggesting simple and practical measurement methods, several measurement methods (includes that of IS0 7235) are compared and discussed. A substitution method and a direct method are described. A non-reflection termination based on ISO and that of simple type are used in measurement methods.
This study examined the method of lighting preferred for indoor behaviors. Level of illuminance and uniformity of illuminance were used as the parameters affecting preference. A questionnaire survey and experiments on scale models revealed the following facts : (1) Bright lighting is preferred for "active" behaviors that involve "personal interaction" and require "concentration" and "tension". Uniform lighting is preferred for behaviors requiring "concentration" and "tension". (2) Office behaviors requiring "concentration" and "tension" are associated with higher preference given to higher illuminance and a narrower range of acceptable illuminance in comparison with living-room behaviors characterized by "relaxation" and "comfort". (3) Office behaviors require a high level of illuminance in spaces surrounding the work surface, in addition to the sufficient illuminance on the work surface. On the other hand, living-room behaviors do not require a high level of illuminance in the surounding areas if the work surface is illuminated sufficiently. (4) The lowest illuminance of non-uniform lighting preferred by individual persons coincides with the lowest acceptable illuminance of uniform lighting. The average of the preferred illuminance of non-uniform lighting is located between the highest and thc lowest limits of acceptable illuminance found for uniform lighting.
The purpose of this study is to describe the difference between winter and summer effects on the indoor thermal environment and residents' thinking in due consideration of the condition of detached houses and climate in Nagano prefecture. The indoor thermal environment and questionnair of detached houses in Naeano city were investigated in the summer and winter seasons. The results of the investigation are as follows: 1) According to statistical data, the floor area in Nagano prefecture is large compared with some other places and have less cooling and heating systems and ecentage of household members 65 years old and over is higher than the mean value of Japan. 2) The difference between summer and winter of residents' satisfaction with thermal environment was more marked than those of other environments. 3) The difference between summer and winter of indoor thermal environment was influenced by the heat insulation property and air tightness performance. 4) It was admitted that there was a relationship between the seasonal difference of indoor thermal environment and those of residents' thinking. There was a tendency that the better the heat insulation property and ajr tightness performance, the less seasonal difference of indoor thermal environment and residents' thinking.
The purpose of this paper is to make clear the relationship between the influence factors and the electric generation efficiency of two kinds of PV modules ; amorphous and poly-crystalline. The test PV modules were set on the rooftop of a building on the campus of Kumamoto University. In this paper the results of electric generation efficiency during the period from August, 1992 to July, 1994 were presented. Regression Analysis were carried out to predict electric generation of the PV modules under various weather conditions.
To identify characteristics of passive cooling techniques quantitatively, a series of outdoor experiments using twin experimental test houses were carried out. As five passive cooling techniques applicable to actual outdoor rest facilities, foliage plant wall, water falling wall, roof water spraying, solar chimney and cool tower were picked up. Evaluating the effectiveness using SET^* as a parameter, it was verified that effects of roof water spraying, water falling wall and foliage plant wall were more significant than solar chimney and cool tower. Psychological influence of the water on passive cooling effect was derived from the results of subjective experiment.
An adoption of natural ventilation system is one of the most effective strategies on energy concervations for air-conditioning systems in large indoor spaces. Characteristics of air ventilation and thermal condition in a hemispherical large indoor stadium with openings were studied using numerical analysis technique based on the BFC (Boundary Fitted Coordinate system) calculation. As the result of the study, the following conclusions were drawn ; (1) Air flow around a hemispherical dome makes negative pressure field on the top of the roof. (2) Openings arranged on the roof act as an effective exhaust. Enough air exchange rate was obtained in the stadium when the openings were arranged on side walls and top of the roof. (3) Natural ventilation which is obtained using these openings enables to remove heated air caused by the solar radiation, and energy for air-conditionings will be conceived during spring and autumn.
Video imaging techniques were used to measure concentration fluctuations in the wake of a stack using a highspeed video camera. From the experiments, the following results were obtained. The image signals had linear relationships with gas concentrations for mean values in the gray range > 1.5. The turbulence intensity of image signals also had good relationships with that of gas concentrations in the range of I^^- > 0.04. The video image spectra were found to coincide well with those measured by a high-response hydrocarbon analyzer if the noise of the image signals were removed from the images using the numerical lowpass filter. Under this camera condition, the zone capable to take video images was limited in the region of I^^- > 0.04.
A new k-ε model which includes damping effect on vertical turbulent transport due to thermal stratification is proposed. The proposed model was tested by application to two kinds of two-dimensional thermally stratified flow fields. One is a high-Reynolds-number open channel flow, and the other is a low-Reynolds-number flowfield within an enclosure. The new model also includes low-Reynolds-number treatment which is effective not only in the vicinity of the wall but also apart from the wall. With the aid of this new low-Reynolds-number treatment, the proposed k-ε model becomes applicable to a flowfield which includes both turbulent area and pseudo - laminar area caused by thermal stratification. The agreement between the results given from the new k-ε model and the experimental results was rather good.
A series of studies has been intended to make the planning guide for space and environment of amenity water facilities. Present paper is the first report of this. In this paper, the authors have studied analysis of human behavior and environment by using computers. The authors examined algorithms to recognize human behavior to analyze digitized images from video sources in amenity water facilities. After the analysis of characteristics of them, the authors processed them every 1 minute of images. Finally, the authors obtained satisfactory results to grasp number and position of people in this processing. And the authors studied problems and methods of improvement of this.
Systematic full scale model experiments were performed using a 100m class experiment tower in order to simulate actual water discharge of high-rise residential buildings. Preliminary experiments showed that high level of discharge entry leads not only large peak negative pressure but also peak position being apart from the branch entry, which has not been observed in the 30m class tower experiments. ln order to develop a numerical prediction method of pressure distribution, the drainage stack system is hypothetically divided into four parts and each part is separatively modeled. A new semi-empirical hydraulic model is developed to relate constant pressure gradient at final stack length to stack air flow rate, based on the balance of pressure and frictional forces. Distance between discharge entry and a downstream point of the same recovered air pressure is successfuly modeled as a function of stack air flow rate. Other carts of the drainage stack systems are handled based on the empirically determined friction loss coefficients. Finally, we assembled each model and formed a full numerical prediction method of air pressure distribution of drainage stack systems, which includes prediction of peak negative pressure and stack air flow rate. The calculated results are satisfactory compared to both 108m tower and 30m tower experiments, in case of single-point steady discharge.
In this study, we show the type of heat-equipments, the kind of fuels, and the quantity of energy consumption of office buildings in Niigata City. And we can obtain the rate of electricity consumption and heating energy consumption of office buildings with each use in Niigata city. The obvious facts in our users investigation for managers of heating and cooling system in office buildings, are as follows. The main used fuel is gas energy in Niigata city. The main used heating and cooling equipment system is the central energy source system with the absorption and boiler. The big shopping center and city hotels have the most heavy quantity of electricity consumption and cooling energy consumption. Because in their buildings, men for shopping, and lights are heatsorces. In the shopping center, hotels and the calculating center in Niigata city, the cooling term is longer than the heating term. The units of energy consumption of schools, hospitals and city hotels are distinguished by the floor space.
The authors carried out the experiment of the subject's evaluation for the views from buildings fronting a nver. The nine sets of photograph were presented to the subjects; fifty-nine students belonging to the architecture course of Hiroshima University. Each set of photograph was composed with five pictures, which were taken from -15 degrees to 60 degrees of an angle of depression in the direction of a river at each selected story of a building in Hiroshima City. The subjects were asked to indicate the desirable view in a picture with the 35 mm frame of camera, and to select the prefered story for living. From these results, the authors clarified the angle of depression for the preference of the views, the remarked elements of the picture, etc. The subjects' evaluations for the image of the views from the prefered story were analyzed by using the Semantic Differential Method. On the basis of the Factor Analysis, the authors clarified the relationships between the meanings of the four factors selected and the characteristics of preference of the views mentioned above.
Due to the land developments, the hydrological cycle system has been disturbed and has caused floods. From the 1960's, it is obliged to construct the rain regulating reservoir by some local government to recover the declining water retentivity, in case of a land development. Although, it is difficult to construct a regulating reservoir on a low land, and the reservoir is not so comfortable for the new tenants. Therefore, the primary object of this study is to research the actual situation of the constructed or constructing reservoir, and secondary to propose a water way as a reservoir.
The purpose of this study is to formulate the mathematial expression of the risk of the accidents supposed to occur during the building services maintenance work, and to obtain the method to establish the safety manegement basis. During the maintenance work term, accidents are supposed to occur accidentally following by the Poisson distribution. The arrival rate of it expresses the accident occurance frequency that can be decreased boundlessly by the safety effort. 0n the other hand, as for the severity of the accidents, introducing the concept "danger level", the distribution of the damege is formulated. The distribution is expressed by the logarithmic normal distribution that includes the "danger level" as a parameter. The risk is defined by the convolution of the distibutions of the accident occurunce frequency and the severity. Finally, the method to lay down the safety effort level as a safety manegement basis by evaluating the risk is presented.
This paoer's purposes are to quantify the degree of the articulation of non-private spaces in house from the viewpoint of reception and to verify the regional difference of it. The data is 1596 house plans carried in the Juutaku-kenchiku from 1976 till 1991. Dual Scaling has been used in this quantification. The articulation degree of the group belonging to the Kinki region is higher than that of the group belonging to the Kanto region. And thc articulation degree of the group belonging to the cities which have minus Principal Component Score is higher than that of the group belonging to the cities which have plus Principal Component Score.
The aim of this study is to understand the state of the Chinese mondern theatre. we analysed the spread and constitute of 3227 theatres in all over the country, and we made a special point of analysing the spread and classification and organization of 176 theatres with theatrical company. we realized the following items : 1) the relation of economy and theatre construction, 2) the difference of theatre between city and farm village, 3) the Chinese goverment has been directing the performing artistic activities 4) the state of theatres with theatrical company.
We consider an analogy between the plan optimization process and the genetic evolution process. We define crossover and mutation operations to make a new plan like as a process of the evolution of the life. We simulate evolution processes of plan using the above operation in order to solve the activity-location problem that is formulated as a minimization problem of a total cost of communications between rooms. As a result, we get an optimal clan in fourth generation. Comparing the permutational method, the proposed genetic algorithm based on an analogy between the plan optimization and the evolution process is effective.
This study aims to identify the prospect of Edo and its changes and to investigate the significance of the changes. From the Edo-Mcisho-Zue etc., we find that in the Edo period people identfied their towns on a large scale. The prospect of Edo was classified geographically into 14 types. Nowadays there remains only 4 types consisting of the near and intermidiate scenery. Prospects lack individuality and the quality of views has completly changed. Such a condition has brought about weaker relations between men and environment. From now on, we can find the significance and possibilities of prospect on local levels.
This paper aims to clarify the planning characteristics of the town houses in the mountainous region in Taiwan by adducing Shen-Keng Hsiang, Taipei Hsien as examples. Main conclusions are as follows : 1. The original dwelling plan of town houses are classified into 4 plan types by the pattern of arrangement of shop space and Dai-cho (Main living). 2. In the process of the enlargement and the alteration of the dwelling, the shop and Dai-cho have been separated ; a few rooms have been produced in the 2nd floor ; the sanitary fittings have been placed inside of a dwelling.
This report is a study of houses in small towns of Jiang-Nan China. The point is to consider the various plans of houses which are closely related with water. From this study it became obvious that houses show three types. The first type is the courtyard-style houses built on large lots for purely residential use. The second type is the courtyard-style shophouses. The third type is the small shophouses of two stories. The second and third types are found in the commercial areas. The organic urban space of the water towns is formed by these three building types.
It is said that Greek temples were designed by the persons called "arkhitekton" on the basis of rules of proportion. But recent investigations suggest that the proportions of external forms of Doric temples change definitely from one period or place to another. This fact makes it difficult to decide what kind of rules the "arkhitekton" used to plan these forms. In this paper, a statistical analysis is made on the proportions which define facades of Doric temples. It becomes clear that, only in mainland Greece during the archaic and classical periods, the proportions particularly of column height to stylobate width and entablature height to column height alt highly closely correlated to time. This result implies that the "arkhitektons" involved in planning Doric temples in mainland Greece consciously realized these correlations by following the consistent change with time previously realized. Therefore, it is necessary to consider that their major aim was to realize further systematic change with time in the proportions of external forms, rather than to realize a satisfying appearance within the limits of rules of proportion
The purpose of this study is to clarify the function and the part of the reutilized ruins of roman amphitheater in the process of formation of italian cities. This paper is to clarify the general outline of this phenomenon with a classification of the 40 samples in 39 roman cities according to the four functions : "fortress", "house", "religious building", "public buiIding", showing a chronological chart of the functions. Particularly the function as a "fortress" is analysed by four factors : "fortification for the reinforcement of city defence in the latter term of roman imperial times" (3C-5C), "fortification for the domination of the city by another nations" (5C-9C), "fortification for the reutilization of ruins as housing" (11C), "fortification for the reinforcement of city defence in the latter term of medieval times" (11C).
The purpose of this study is to clearfy the structural principle of the settlements through the analysis of the relationship between the space structure of the settlements and holiness or ritual. This paper examines examples of the settlements which have the storehouses in the dispersed form or the clustered form in Tsushima. This paper also makes a comparative study of the structural principles in 2 types of the settlements (the one with a group of storehouses, the one with a disperesed or clustered form of storehouses), The summary of the results is as follows : The settlements which have the storehouses in the dispersed form or the clustered form in Tsushima are composed under the coherent structural principle derived from the "Holiness-Secularity-Pollution" space cognition based on the "Upper-Lower" notion as almost the same way of the settlements which have a group of the traditional storehouses.
The first half of the Meiji era marked an epoch in forest conservation. The Meiji government become the new administrator of forests and began to implement a new forestry system. However, it took several decades to establish the new system so much forest fell into ruin through tree felling in that period. The residents of Kyoto wanted to control the forest by themselves and had a plan to change the scenic spots with beautiful forests into parks. This paper deals with the forest conditions and forest conservation in the first half of the Meiji era.