This paper aims to clarify the formation and transformation of Kaloeng houses in the Northeastern Province of Thailand. Kaloeng people are classified to be a subgroup of Tai ethnic tribes which is the process of vanishing. There are a few number of Kaloeng villages in Mukdahan and Sakonnakorn province, among which the one in Mukdahan still exists as the origin of the settlements. This paper investigates Kaloeng houses in Mukdahan province, discusses the typology of houses, and reveals the transformation process through the analysis of the relations between types of houses. Based on the analysis of the transformation process, this paper aims to reveal the basic principles of spatial formation of a house.
The Korean housing policy was to supply new houses in the market. For the continuance supply policy, new houses were built excessively after 1990, and the present condition, over issuing of new houses and remaining the unsold houses in the market, causes houses to be unoccupied. The housing rate of 2005 was defined 105.9% by the government hearing of the National Assembly of the Republic of Korea, although 41.4% of household lived in rental houses, even so being the over supply. This tendency enforcements the turning point of housing policy only base on the new houses supply from 1965 and the modification of the FILTERING EFFECTS on the housing market, the demand of the policy from social welfares.
Based on the analysis of consistency between the plan of house planning one now lives in and the plan of house planning that is considered desirable by the dwellers, this paper intends to grasp how dwellers like to sit in “zashiki”. Results of analysis revealed dwellers yet seem to stick to keep “tokonoma”. As for the plan type of “zashiki”, there lies a noticeable dissociation (inconsistency) between dwelling plan and selection plan, vivid and increasing tendency in this respect is separation from living room as well as from “one room” to “two rooms”.
In order to defeat the present state of residences in Japan for the self supporting life, the status quo of apartment houses from the view point of lifetime homes in the United State of America, known as multiethnic and multicultural nation, were investigated. Through the comparison with those of in the country and Japan, the findings are as follows; 1) The Universal level in the U.S.A. is generally high due to not the climate but the social and cultural backgrounds includes aging rate, racial component, income differences, and so forth. 2) The level difference between the countries originates the lifestyles in the adjacent arrangement of the bedrooms and wet area, consisted of water closet, bathroom, and so on. 3) The evaluation based on the numerical value of the lifetime homes intention make it more clear. 4) The small amount of floor space are not always obstruct to the increase of the level.
An investigation on the conversion from buildings built for another purpose into the rental housings exclusively for elderly is carried out. a) Questionnaires to all converted and newly-built rental housings exclusively for the elderly revealed that converted cases had less toilets, bathrooms and kitchens in each dwelling house compared to newly-built cases. b) Through hearing investigations on the converted cases, different conversion tendencies were observed. Conversions from appartments required barrier-free renovations, which included utility re-works such as moving toilets. Conversions from dormitories allowed ease of eliminating differences on floor levels but required enlargement of the dwelling house sizes. Conversions from hotels required extra expenses on renovating non-dwelling spaces such as banquet halls.
This is the first report of this study on the re-formation of the planning of central pharmacy in hospital to correspond with recent its change of function and service. This paper describes the investigation on floor planning and the structure of zone and room of central pharmacies. We have clarified the following points. 1) There are some cases that the whole of central pharmacies are arranged on different floor from entrance hall. 2) The cases that central pharmacies are arranged near the central store is about half of the whole cases. 3) The necessity of pharmaceutical management and making injectable products increases. 4) Central pharmacies are categorized to 3 types from the view point of connection of prepare-zone and supply-zone.
‘Space’ is one of the most varied and important general conceptions of architecture. This report is to illustrate how contemporary Japanese architects construct a conceptual framework in their design theories using original phrases including ‘space ’ for example ‘universal space’(by Mies van der Rohe), ‘served space/servant space’(L. I. Kahn), and so forth. Firstly, original phrases were extracted from articles and contents of each phrase were investigated and classified into four categories based on their context for architecture. Secondly, contents of each phrase were investigated through three forms of architectural thought - the specification of a correspondence of architectural parts and ideas; concrete or abstract, the systematization of their concept; singler or compound, and the opposition concept; confrontation or independence. Finally, the relationship between the content of context and three forms of architectural thought was investigated and analyzed totally.
The purpose of this study is to analyze human behavior along waterside in the Chinese Residential Quarter. Observation generated the following result: watching the scenery is the dominant behavior along waterside. Children typically tent to stop on bridge or on stepping stones, while elders tent to stop at decks with benches. Most of residents stood within one meter off the waterline to watch the scenery, play or take pictures, and some of them moved away from the main trajectory to have a better view, enjoy the water, etc. In addition, it was also observed that most of residents preferred to take pictures along the waterline where they could capture an effect of depth.
By using Bayesian network and Belief propagation, we made relationship clear between display way of merchandise and purchase behavior in mass-market discounter of medium scale shop, selling childhood product after observing and recording customers behaviors. Followings are characteristics of customers' behaviors towards clothes in shelves, displayed by “Face-out”, “Sleeve-out” and “Folded”. On “Face-out”, they tend to act same ways on shelf just after upper one. On “Sleeve-out” and “Folded”, they tend to act same way side by side (particularly, on “Folded” they see both sides (they don't tend to pick up or buy them)).
The practice of TAKUROSYO has extended. TAKUROSYO means a frame of services and facilities that has multi-service of the [Daycare (established Day-Service function)], [Staying (established Short-Staying function)], and the [Residence (established Group-Living function)]. Therefore, the senior citizen's life can be supported continuously in TAKUROUSYO. In this research, "Small-scale nursing care facilities for elderly people based on day service" including TAKUROSYO were analyzed. In this paper, the regional difference of the management modality and nursing needs of these facilities is analyzed. It was expected that was different according to such as the aging of population, how much can the family nurse, and how many senior citizen support facilities are there at the locality. A lot of parts of the TAKUROSYO management based on fl exible service with local conditions are contradictory to a managerial vision under the new system that is uniform regulations throughout the country. Danger of destroying the senior citizen's life is involved to the system management that doesn't consider the regionality.
This paper is a part of series of research on public open spaces as affordable places for being in the city. In China, there is a tradition of using the park with variable activities by inhabitants in early morning, and it has become an important opportunity of social communication, especially for the elderly, nowadays. By investigation through questionnaire, observations and deep interviews with the users in Huangpu-park, we clarify the following facts: 1. Most of the users have their utilization activities in groups, which are various in scales, patterns of organization or relationships. 2. There seems to be a rule which is maintained by all users to share the places, and it is long-established among the users, spontaneously. 3. Not all of the users have definite utilization activities in the park, and most of their purposes are to communicate with other users.
Authors have been conducting the field research under the title ‘Origin, Transformation, Alteration and Conservation of Urban Space of Colonial cities' since 1999. This paper discusses the characteristics of the Spanish colonial cities established in Cuba focusing on Cárdenas as a typical urban model. This study has been accomplished based on the analysis of old maps corresponding to colonial Spanish period and field survey. Cárdenas was planned by Andrés José del Portillo who introduced the very simple gridiron system based on the single plot of same size in the late 1820's. and maintained the original structure. We clarified the original model and transformation of Cárdenas based on the analysis of block size, block division, and plot subdivision.
This study has aimed clarifying of the trend of public supports in the urban redevelopment projects in Hokkaido regional cities by the statistical data and the original questionnaire survey. It is as follows as the result. 1) The urban redevelopment projects in Hokkaido changed greatly on the boundary of 1990 at the city planning decision time. 2) The urban redevelopment projects in Hokkaido small cities are greatly different compared with that of the whole country, 3) The urban redevelopment projects in Hokkaido regional cities has been helped by large public supports. The public supports include the initial support and the latter term support. 4) The urban redevelopment projects in Hokkaido regional cities are classified under 4 types by Today's situation of main facilities "Projects continuance type", "Replacement type", "Reproduction type by public supports" and "Failure type".
The purpose of this study is to show a new system to promote environmental services in residential area. In particular, this study is focus on possibilities for residential environmental services in residential area by the building agreement management association. We clarified following 2 points: 1)The effectiveness of environmental services in residential area by the building agreement management association. 2)A indicator for the formation of residents' association to promote environmental services in residential area.
This study aims at analyzing the interrelationship between district characteristics and generational changes at micro-level by applying Generation Balance Index (GBI) to 1950's, 1960's and 1970's cohorts as offspring generations of the first generation who settled in the suburbs during the high economic growth period. The “Generation Balance Index (GBI)” is an index which shows the relationship between the parental and offspring cohorts. GBI can indicate generational changes when calculated using different time or cohort data. The study clarifies that in the Tokyo metropolitan area the populations at micro-level are out of balance especially in such districts as detached-owned residential areas, commercial areas, or farming areas, and the imbalance is projected to continue until at least about 2020. This phenomenon is mainly led by the residential choice of the 1960's and 1970's cohorts most of whom were born in the Tokyo metropolitan area, and it will not be apparent at the macro-level and the community policies will have the more importance than ever.
The purpose of this paper is clarify the characteristics and the effectiveness of the participation type landscape design technique using information technology from the transition of the remarks and the proposals made by participants in a landscape design WS. The following conclusions were obtained. By using the landscape design planning support system, the participants' understanding of the degree of importance of the problem and measures to be examined became clearer, the participants' understanding deepened, the WS proceeded efficiently, and the discussions became lively. Furthermore, when models and VRML were used together, a wider it was possible to extract a wider range of views from the participants due to the difference in approach when thinking of the city as a whole as well as from the viewpoint of a pedestrian on the street.
The purpose of this paper is to characterize convenient position-values to evaluate nodes on such a connected undirected graph by use of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the adjacency matrix. First, we explorer the best location which maximizes convenient position-value according to corresponding graphs. Then, we derive the continuous distribution of convenient position-value by use of eigenfunction in order to explore how the size of the study area affects the total convenient position-values. Finally, we show the difference between convenient position-value and standard location criteria through illustrative examples.
The Contiguous Building Design System makes possible the applied multiple building lots to be recognized as a single site in the building standard law. Its utilization is anticipated for improvements in the densely build-up residential area. In this study, the regulation of Kawasaki City is examined in comparison with that of other municipal governments. In Saiwaicho-Sanchome district, multiple tactics for a typified site and simulations to an existing site are conducted. Through the comparative case studies in multiple levels, characteristics and potentialities of the system are pointed out. Then, further development of the system in such area is examined.
Recently, death is one social topic in aged society. Death is an important theme for us as well as the life. The purpose of this paper is to study on community development from the point of view of the death. I learned the following thing from the questionnaire survey to NPO, the hearing investigation and the observational research. Death is an important theme and an opportunity so that an individual and a community may learn life and community development. In the scene which death and that preparation work, many request is to ask a connection between the good old environment and the close people. That shows the subject of the new living environment plan, and so on.
Currently women architecture at university graduates' activity is being expected in society since a number of women architecture at university students are increasing gradually while women graduates' employment rate, gets high. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to make a close inquiry into factors to keep up career after analyzing the actual condition of business method and the flow's change with women graduates who are taking an active part in current society.
This study statistically analyzes the account information of the 1,000 public hospitals all over Japan, and the annual deficits are found in more than half. This study analyzes the relationship between the region, the facilities'scale, the operation situation and the building maintenance expense. After the study of the annual revenue, the capital asset, the depreciation cost and the utility cost per bed, the simple and tentative method of the evaluation of the maintenance cost is proposed.
In 1970s, whether architects could engage in building contracting or not was discussed in the U.S.A. and the U.K. It was prohibited by a ban on contracting in a code of ethics of architects' professional institutes. There is a close relationship between a code of ethics and how the profession is. Based on removing of the ban on contracting in a code of ethics for architects, this paper aims 1) to trace the major factors of Design/Build Contracting Issue in the U.S.A. and the U.K., 2) then to explain how the professional institutes coped with it, and 3) finally to analyze how profession of architects changed in it.
This paper is a study of environmental evaluations of outdoor rest areas on university campuses, based on the Facility Management approach. In the writers' previous research, the Facility Environmental Evaluation Method was applied to the students at a certain university, with the results indicating that the status of outdoor rest areas was a cause of dissatisfaction. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the basic factors impacting environmental evaluations of outdoor rest areas, in order to implement concrete improvements for the establishment of outdoor rest areas. In this report, with the focus on “awareness conditions” and “acts of use” of outdoor rest areas, the evaluation items for use in environmental evaluations are developed.
“Tai-an Utsushi” means the tea-ceremony room which has intended the same architectural design as Tai-an. The purpose of this study clarifies the actual situation of “Tai-an Utsushi” and the tendency in succession to Tai-an. By field study and investigation of documents and historical materials, we found the characteristics of Tai-an as important components of “Tai-an Utsushi”. And we found the relationship of the succession to Tai-an to obtaining materials, the building technology, the location, the truth of Rikyu's creations, and the purpose of building “Tai-an Utsushi”.
This work intends to disclose the ordering system for actual firefighting in Kyoto city under the Tokugawa regime(Tokugawa era). There is no description about fire extinguishing by farmers. But, in this paper, it will be clarified the fire extinguishing by farmers in the suburbs of Kyoto city. Especially, they worked hard with agricultural tools and logs. They break houses with them for check the spread of fire. Such a successful result proves the fire fighting talent of masses.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the formation process of the Architect Law, which Tsuyoshi Ichiura personally proposed in 1976, and to consider its characteristics and significance for today. The characteristics of his proposal are as follows: 1. The Law is intended for the individual architectural designers. 2. The qualification of building engineers excluding architectural designers shall be defined by the Law for Professional Engineers, not the Kenchikushi Law forArchitects & Building Engineers. 3. Would not dispute what organization architectural designers shall belong to. 4. Attempted to solve the defect of the Kenchikushi Law for Architects & Building Engineers by improving the overall law system for architects and building engineers. Japanese architects at that time never accepted his proposal since they thought architects shall belong to dedicated architectural firms. However recently, it came to be known that by international standard, the qualification of architects shall belong to individuals, no matter what organization architects belong to. In that sense, his concept of proposal was a pioneer in Japan.
The purpose of this study is to clarify of spatial consciousness reflected on dancehall in modern Japan. Through several drawings of the project of dancehall at Hotel Lake Biwa constructed by The Policy of Tourist Industry during1930s, there are some conflicts and reflections at the points of various appearances and plans on design process. The beginning of this project, it was designed as a dancehall under the policy of promotion of dancing by Shiga Prefecture. A few years later, suppression of dancing by the police administration had caused some changes from dancehall to multi-purpose hall on design process.
This paper discuss about the tea firing places owned by Glover & Co in Nagasaki. The main points are as follows : — · It was August 1861 when Glover & Co. had established tea firing place, which was moved from Japanese town into the foreign settlement on December of same year. · In 1862 Glover & Co. ordered tea firing apparatus and Chinese skilled staff, tea boy to overcome unsatisfactory quantity and quality. · As the sale was much influenced by world market and price it was difficult to have the constant and steady profit, which was probably connected with their technical improvement works. · In 1867 the trial of availing the machine preparing tea was introduced in the establishment and designed by T. J. Waters. · This establishment, although on the way of development, could be looked upon not the small household manufacture but one of the earliest modern industries in Japan.
This paper examines the works and activities of the architectural associations of modern movement Hakuro-sya and Teppi-sya founded in 1920's at Kyoto. Hakuro-sya was founded by 6 architectural engineers at Kyoto in 1926. This group was lead by Kazuo HIRANO and Syuji OHASHI. The group was influenced by Bunri-ha and Souu-sha those were the architectural associations of modern movement in Tokyo and aimed to make expressional and functional architectures. The movement of the group was ended in Nov. 1927. As soon as it was ended, 5 members of Hakuro-sya founded another architectural association of modern movement Teppi-sya in Kyoto. This group was lead by Kazuo HIRANO. The members of Teppi-sya made architectures based on functionalism. The group did not have a specific idea but aimed to make the association itself. Each member lived in different areas in Japan. The activities of this group based on Tairyu-do book store in Kyoto and the magazine “DESIGN” which was published in Osaka.
The Concours des colonnes nationale et départementales in 1800 is important in the architectural history in France as the first public competition during the Consulat period (1799-1804). It is also around 1800 that the architectural journalism emerges in France (Journal des arts, founded in 1799 and Journal des bâtiments civils et des arts in 1800). In these occasions, the public opinion is openly manifested at the first time concerning the national monument. This study tries to make clear the relation between the public monument and the public opinion, and to describe the mutation from the style révolutionnaire to the style Empire.
This study is to consider the process how “Kaishochi” (the open space in the block), which was planned in early Edo town, transformed into the housing lot, focusing on Nihonbashi area. To understand the landownership of “Kaishochi”, two historical maps (Cadastre) are utilized for this analysis. This paper consists of two contents;(1)landlords and the property forms around “Kaishochi” in the eighteenth and the nineteenth century, (2) “Kokenkin”(land price) around “Kaishochi”. The purposes of this paper are to clarify the aim of possessing “Kaishochi” and to consider the distribution of “Kaishochi” by “Kokenkin”. Through the transition of “Kaishochi”, particular land formation in Edo, the urban space of Edo town transformed through mutual adjustments amongst local community.
This paper is to make it clear the system of road and drainage's development of the English Settlement in Shanghai which was opened as trading port in 1842. The Foreigner developers borrowed lands from Chinese and developed their offices, mansions or multifamily houses before the official street built. The uncontrolled land-develop, however, had brought many urban problems. For example, the road-width couldn't meet the traffic, and the ponds of polluted water often found at the roadside because the drainage hadn't be provided in time. Additional, the Municipal Council of English Settlement which was the department of city planning was found just in 1854, so in the period of 1854-1866, its finance was not very healthy. With those urban problems and the financial difficulties, how the Municipal Council planed the infrastructure? We found that the Directors of the Municipal Council often negotiated with the foreigner developers and asked them to take back their walls of houses, or to provide lands to construct road. As to get better living environment, those foreigners cooperated with the government, such as contributing lands for planning the roads or paid the money to maintain the drainages. So the conclusion is that the Municipal Council was master of the English Settlement planning and the foreigner developers was its supporters. That is the character of the development of Shanghai English Settlement during the period of the 1854-1866.
The objective of this paper is to clarify methods for training plastering site supervisors and providing education regarding the building technology skills that are vital to work performance, on the basis of ascertaining the on-site work and job conditions faced by plastering site supervisors. A questionnaire survey was commissioned by the Japan Plasterers' Association (hereafter “JPA”). The survey was subcontracted to and conducted by the Building Production Laboratory (Mihara Laboratory: to which the author belongs) of the Institute of Technologists. The main content of the survey can be broadly categorized into the following six items:(1) Work conditions on building sites; (2) Employment conditions in the plastering industry; (3) Work details in the plastering industry in comparison with other industry categories; (4) Condition of plastering skills education in relation to orientation workshops for new workers as part of on-site education; (5) Work of plastering site supervisors in development stages, and methods for training plasterers; and (6) Methods for training plastering site supervisors at the JPA. Site surveys were conducted regarding points (1) to (6). Subsequently, plastering technical skills education methods were investigated. The tasks of plastering site supervisors are numerous and diverse. We confirmed that of these tasks, the role of instructor—for guiding apprentices, qualified workers, and workers with technical skills—is very important.