The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between a subjective response and brightness distribution of lit environment in a contribution to improving lighting design. The experiment shows the following results; (1)While contrast is decreasing, activity is increasing. In case of general lighting, activity appears to be the lowest: Application of downlight or uplight for the front wall and the side walls, overcome higher complexity. The use of general lighting or downlight on the walls, generate higher harmony. (2)In case of working factor, in general, it shows that pendant light is suitable. Beside of pendantlight, working factor rate seems to be higher while the contrast become smaller. In case of leasure with family factor, it's evaluation rate seems to be higher following the contrast decreasing. In case of relaxing factor, it has a tendency to be the highest in condition of the middle rate of contrast. (3)It appear that, orderly and harmonious with uniform lighting is prefered for the behavior of reading newspaper and leisure with family, while vivid, various, luxurious with some local lighting is prefered for having a party. In addition, ununiform lighting which creates calm atmosphere is prefered for relaxing alone.
The purpose of this research project is to present the methods for and important points relating to artificial lighting plans that are based on seated office workers' assessment of brightness in an office where daylight is utilized. In the brightness assessment experiment carried out by the authors, daylight was used as the ambient lighting and perceived brightness was assessed in offices with differing layouts, in which many chairs were used as objects. The results show that perceived deficiency of brightness was related not only to low luminance in the location in question, but also to position in the visual field, and to the types of surfaces. It was also discovered that the distance between an office worker and an object, as well as qualitative factors such as the importance of the object to that office worker, also affected the level of brightness perceived as necessary. These results demonstrate that the task and ambient lighting that would most effectively provide the needed brightness depends on the types of surfaces in the seated office workers' visual field, and how those surfaces comprise that visual field.
The purpose of this is report is to examine experimentally the indoor thermal environment of highly insulated house constructed in hot and humid climate. Four test houses were constructed in the site of Kagoshima University (31°34'N, 130°33'E) in 1990. Each of them was single story, one room detached house with 3(m)×4(m) floor area. One was built by 2 ×4 construction and the other three were built with FCP(foam-core-panels). Outdoor meteorological parameters, as well as indoor air temperature, surface temperature, globe temperature and relative humidity in the four test-houses were measured. The effects of sunshading and natural ventilation during summer, and solar heat gain during winter on the indoor thermal environment were examined.
Thermal radiation distributions in several types of classrooms occupied by students were simulated using the VLITE algorithm and a newly proposed "absorption factor of a surface into a student (AFSS)" that determines the radiant effects of a particular primary surface on a seated student. We determined (1) the absorption factor for each body surface of a student, (2) the distribution of AFSSs for each student, and (3) variations in AFSSs due to student occupancy, (4) seating orientation, (5) addition of an adjacent open space, and (6) use of personal partitions. In addition, the resultant distributions of mean radiant temperature (MRT) were evaluated for four cases in which the primary surface was heated. The floor and personal partitions were found to have the greatest influence on MRT of the majority students, while walls most strongly affected students seated nearby them.
Configuration factors between rectangular planes excluding the blocking effect of the human body are essential to calculate accurately thermal radiation interchange between planes including the human body in a room. This paper described calculation method of the configuration factors which were derived from orthographic projection of the human body by using the photographic method and rectangular planes using computer graphics. The configuration factors including the effect of blocking by the human body were compared with the ordinary configuration factors between planes. Consequently, the maximum difference was found by 20% between two kinds of the configuration factors. A sphere is applied as the model of the human body without considering the effect of blocking. The configuration factor for the spherical element is affected with position of height, though configuration factors between the planes were not affected with blocking of the human body.
KOTATSU is a well-known heating facility in Japan. It heats the lower extremities of a body by an infrared heater or wood coal fire in a box. The objective of this paper is to clarify the thermal effect of KOTATSU on a person. Experiments were carried out under the following combined conditions: air temperatures were 11℃, 14℃, 17℃, and 20℃ and infrared lamp levels were 'off', 'low', 'middle' and 'high' which correspond to 0W, 87W, 91W and 181W infrared heater electric consumption, respectively. Five male subjects participated in those experiments. The following results were obtained: 1) The mean skin temperature at the lower extremities of the body rose and that at the upper extremities dropped respectively, while a subject was seated at the KOTATSU. 2) The corrected operative temperature to indicate the thermal effect of KOTATSU was introduced by the authors in the basis of heat balance equation of the human body. This index correlates with the modified mean skin temperature and the thermal sensation. Consequently, it is a suitable index to evaluate the thermal environment while a subject is seating at the KOTATSU.
A well-known heating facility in Japan, KOTATSU, heats the lower extremities of the human body by an infrared heater or wood coal fire in a box. The objective of this paper is to clarify the thermal effect of KOTATSU on the human thermal comfort quantitatively. Experiments were carried out under the following combined conditions: air temperatures were 1 1℃, 14℃, 17℃, and 20℃ and electric power of infrared lamp were to OW('off'), 87W('low'), 91W('middle') and 181W('high') electric consumption, respectively. Five male and six female subjects participated in those experiments. The following result was obtained: There was significant difference of comfort vote between female and male subjects when subjects reported hotter votes than thermal neutrality. The KOTATSU at 'low' and 'middle' IR heater level has the equivalent effect of 7℃ operative temperature rise at the condition of 11℃ air temperature, and that at 'high' IR heater level has the equivalent effect of 10℃ operative temperature rise at the same condition. Also the KOTATSU has more than 2℃ effectiveness at the condition of 14℃ air temperature even if the infrared lamp of the KOTATSU is turned off. Its effectiveness decrease gradually with increasing air temperature.
This paper is intended as an investigation of how much exhaust heat from factory which is one of un-used energies is and feasibility of using for District Heating and Cooling (D.H.C.). In the first place, using reference materials 1), we selected six kinds of industry in which much energy is used, because energy consumption relates very much with quantity of exhaust heat. In the second place, by questionary-research, we study how much exhaust heat from the energy consumption is and make a formula to calculate the quantity of it. Furthermore, we do case study of introducing it to D.H.C. at the 38 districts where heat energy is much used in Kanagawa.
For the analysis on relation between the air temperature and land uses, we consider on four regions (Kantou, Toukai, Touhoku, and the west of Hokkaido region which was already published in AIJ No.479). This paper describes an analytical effect on these regions and compares results of each regions. We also consider the deference of B value about each regions. The study led to the following results. 1)The temperature of the artificial areas in every region increases and it decreases in the forest lands. 2)Also the temperature of agriculturally cultivated areas decreases and the surface water temperature increases in winter and decreases in summer. 3)The average value of temperature decrease per 100m rise from the sea level is approximately 0.6℃. 4)The B value that gives the maximum correlation coefficient within the analytical extent varies from 0.1 to 0.45. 5)The calculated result of factor of increases/decreases temperature, using the maximum correlation coefficient and using the average B value are same.
The present study examines whether or not the subjectively preferred tempo responding to periodic noise-bursts reflects the temporal information in continuous brain waves (CBW). The experimental condition was designed to examine: (1) the hemispheric specialization on as temporal aspect, (2) a relationship between subjective preference and the effective duration (τ_e) of the autocorrelation function (ACF) in α-waves range. According to the results of the paired-comparison tests, the most preferred period was found around 550 ms. From the analysis of the τ_e values in α-waves range, the hemispheric difference is identified by periodic effects (p < 0.001) which were obtained only in the left hemispheres at periods of 550 ms, referred to 300 ms and 1,000 ms. The global results also show the significantly periodic effects (p < 0.001) are thoroughly found in both periodic pairs.
The purpose of this paper is to propose an index for degree of congestion with buildings in the city area by the evaluation not only for buildings volume but for closeness of exterior space. First, dividing an area on the ground surface into cubes of some scales. Second, counting a number of closed surfaces of the six surfaces that consist the surfaces of the cube. Therefore, the spatial closeness on the ground surface, including architectural space and exterior space, is classified by the number(1〜6) of closed surfaces of cubes. The degree of congestion with buildings in the city area can be evaluated by the average number of closed surfaces of cubes per area of each scale of cubes. And the effect of the index was examined by a case study.
In this paper, we used three kinds of variable with duality to make experimental environment and to reveal the physical dimensions of the ideal dwelling environment : detached/collective housing, the presence/absence of a macro concavity (enclosure) formed from the natural topography of mountains, and the presence/absence of a micro concavity formed from the arrangement of houses. We were able to confirm that the housing style and two types of concavity (visualized in the housing arrangement forms and the presence of mountains) were promising as dimensions of the ideal dwelling environment.
This paper is the investigation for Seong Yup village and folk houses in Cheju island. The purpose of this study is to find out the some characteristics concerning spatial composition for the Feng-Sui thought. The summary is as follows : 1)The village has been built up by two axes under influence of the Feng-Sui thought. 2)There are two center points by two center axes. It is a point for functional constitution, and one more point has a ratio of geometric constitution. 3)Folk houses built up by a position relation of a main building and a gate. And, it was to add to the mark of the Feng-Sui when decided an arrangement house. Accordingly, the rule gave luck and bad luck. We are understood that there was a apportionment 75% at a position of luck. 4)There is the south, south-south-eastern direction of the house that is a apportionment 74% in the village. This orientation is toward main mountain of Feng-Sui. Therupon the folk house can to receive insolation and sunshine equally a day from day. 5)Spatial compositions of the village and folk houses were influenced the Feng-Sui thought in the history of the past. It was connected with the natural environment and culture in the period.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the viewing area in front of basic exhibition tanks concerning visitor's viewing act in Japanese aquariums. 1) The constituent of this research is "viewer's density" and "scale of basic exhibition tanks" which influence the viewing act. 2) The items of analysis are ① viewer's tracks, ② viewing position and time and ③ moving distance. 3) As a result, the viewing act is influenced by "viewer's density" rather than "scale of basic exhibition tanks".
This paper investigates the spatial composition of the exterior space and the interior space in the contemporary houses designed by Japanese architects. In the analysis, the exterior space is articulated into two parts : the semi-enclosed space which is partly enclosed by architectural elements and the other open space. Through investigation of the relationships among these three spaces (the interior space, the semi-enclosed space, and the other open space) in 147 houses, 15 composition types are defined. The relationships among these types are also discussed.
In present paper we optimized an ideal plan with genetic algorithm (GA). The goodness of the plan was evaluated by sum of distances between rooms and construction cost. By minimizing these indicators simultaneously, we could get the optimum plan with GA efficiently. In the transition of the best plan of each generation, we could see strategies for good design such as zoning and effective column arrangement. In spite of giving only a system for generating plans and a method for evaluating the goodness of them to a computer, it seems to have obtained know-how for design.
In this study we grasped the actual situation of a demand for GREEN-TOURISM in suburban agricultural villages by a questionnaire survey for urban dwellers of Osaka prefecture. As a result of this paper, we made a next matter clear that is a demand for GREEN-TOURISM of urban dwellers is very high, and in suburban agricultural villages GREEN-TOURISM will come into existence.
Since Meiji era, the people who came from Tonami reagion of Toyamaken immigrated into Kurisawachyo-Tonami disutrict of Hokkaido. They combined their cultures and formed their ways of living in Hokkaido. The purpose of this study is proving the successions and changes of traditional spacial type of dwellings from the point of comparison between that of imigreted village "Tonami, Kurisawachyo" and that of original village "Tonamishi". In "Tonamishi", they succeeded to the dwellings of making much of traditional ceremoney up to now. In Tonmi, Kurisawachyo", though first they succeeded to the traditional dwellings in original village, after World War II, they changed neu types of making much of family life.
The purpose of this paper is, by taking Suginami ward as a sample, to examine and analyze the actual state of the land use of the strip zoning system as the firebreak belt and its optimal location and allocation. Metropolitan's proof living zone plan divides 23 wards area (of Tokyo) into 700 units with roads rails rivers, and so on. This study shows the following, an improvement degree of the disaster prevention barrier and the block scale make some areas dongerous. It's the most important problem in order to further disaster prevention town planning.
The shinkansen has an impact to not only transportation but also economy, society and culture since 1964 which is opened. As a result, the shinkansen has brought to a change of urban spatial organization. Under such a circumstance, this paper aims to grasp the real conditions and timeserial and spatial development process of urban improvement project around the shinkansen station. And, this paper clarifies cause and effect of promoting project around the shinkansen station and clarifies interaction of interproject. And, this paper analyzed between a type of spatial development process and the characteristics of urban planning. Finally, this paper suggests desirable development process of urban improvement project and system of urban improvement after this.
This study is aimed to propose the method of the multiple evaluation of urban block environments using "The Three-dimensional Use Diagram" and "The Sunlight Diagram" and to make clear of efficiency of it, from the view that floors should be situated suitably for its use and should have sunlight condition suitably for its use. First, I make clear of the condition of sunlight about each of the five urban block models analysing "The Sunlight Diagram" based on simulated data. And analysing the ratio of the floor area with the sunshine for four or more hours to the residencial floor area with it, I make clear of the most suitable land-use composition to each models, it is given as a conclusion that the three-dimensional separation of residence and other uses is an effectual method.
The objective of this study is to develop a new comprehension on the composition of the street space in Japan. To clarify the diversity of streets image spread around the railway station, this study took "Shinjuku" district as one of the typical city central. To describe and quantify the image of streetscape, a method named "component element graphics" was adopted. By analyzing various types of streetscape, typology of streets' image were classified and the exsistence of distinctive space in city central was pointed out.
In connection with the detailed planning and scheduling for construction process, we studied characteristics of construction workshops and defined four formulas for planning and sheduling problems. The previously reported paper proposed new systematical methods based on "Construction Process Chart" to make appropriate representation of detailed planning of process, then solve resource levelling and term shortening problems on a construction project. This paper defined workshops characteristic of structural and finishing works, then confirm usefulness of them. That is, the proposed metods and formulas were adapted to the some practical works, which proved they would greatly contribute to the successful usage of construction planning phase.
This paper describes integrated modeling of information required in a concurrent building construction project. The authors utilized ability of object-oriented data base (OODB) to enable collaborated design, reuseability along the project's process, and flexibility to alterations. This model is supported by using relationship, inheritance relationship and visibility of OODB. It can offer multiple windows by using relationship, deal with vague information to be handed down to later process by inheritance relationship and visibility. The effect of alterations can be estimated by visibility. Its prototype managing multidisciplinary jobs in conceptual design is developed.
This paper aims to statistically analyze the characteristics of rental housing situation and to clarify the roles which the rental housing plays in housing markets in Jakarta metropolitan area. Main conclusions are as follows; 1)There are big differences between owner occupied house and rental housing as for the physical conditions and sanitary conditions of housing. 2)As for the characteristics of household, typical size of household is 4 to 6 persons in case of owner occupied house and that of rental housing is less than 4 persons. Typical age of householder is 35 to 44 years old in case of owner occupied house and that of rental housing is under 35 years old. 3)As for the monthly income of household, though there is little differences between owner occupied house class and Kontrak class, average income of Sewa class is lower than that of Kontrak class. 4)Sewa rental housing in Indonesia seems to play the same role as Japanese wooden one room rental housing during 60s and 70s.
In the beginning of this paper, the geometrical town planning method presented in the last paper, is demonstrated by the alzebraical solution. Then, the town plannings method for Samurai (Warrior) classes residential area are identified by the geometrical method. The principal planning methods in this area were the right angle and the rectilinear to the focus.
In this study, We analized the town size and the block planning of the north Senba area, through the "Mizucho Ezu", the restoration of "Mizucho" and the "MinyuChizu". In the Senba, the drainage area was separated 3 districts. The boundary street was Fushimi-machi and Karamonomachi. In early stage of development of the Senba area, the inside measurement of the block was 42ken from south and north. It was equal to the inside measurement of the block from east and west.
This paper is intended to introduce the recent studies on the Plan of St. Gall that are against the theory of Hom and Born which is now widely accepted, and to reconsider the importance of the Plan in the carolingia architectural history. In his survey, Jacobsen made an important discovery on the Plan and made clear that the Plan church had experienced twice modifications, and concluded that the Plan was made aound 830 without any direct relation to the monastic reform synods at Aachen.
This study is concerned with the historical design changing of incineration plant as an important infrastructure. The characters of design of plants in Kansai area were analysed on 3 aspects as scale, composition and color. The backgrounds which decide the design were analysed on tecnology and social movement. The results of them were synthesied and 6 periods of historical design movement were shown. The main purpose of designing plants has changed from just covering mechanical system to covering the negative image of waste manegiment. The movement of designing plants to be looking other than the incineration plant was started around 1975 and gradually escalating.
This paper is an investigation of the spatial composition in Rudolph Schindler's residential buildings focusing on the planning of rooms and sequences. As a result, following points are derived. By mid 1930s, Schindler adopted various manners on the planning in terms of the sequence and the planning of the rooms. After mid 1930s, Schindler gradually turned his manner towards both the simple introducing and the unify of the space of living room.
The following three questions were presented; 1)To clarify the difference between Two-dimensional Thermal Sensation Model by Kuno and his measurement method and the authors'; 2)To clarify the difference between the past results by Kuno et al. and the authors'; and 3)To discuss on Kuno's opinion that kan-sho(cold-hot) scale should be used for the measurement of thermal sensation in Japan.
It is considered, on the basis of following points, that the model and the word-choice method proposed by authors are different from Kuno's Two-dimensional Thermal Sensation Model and method. 1) the model is aimed at expressing the process of psychological evaluation, and the object is not limited to the thermal environment and thermal sensation, 2) the method assumes that each word evaluating environment has various meanings and that the relation between words is arbitrary, 3) the influence that psychological factors give to evaluation is considered in the model. As a result of the experiments, previous knowledge concerning words expressing thermal evaluation were verified based on a large number of subjective statements, and differences in the human mental state involved with the words were elucidated.