The basic equations of two zones model of smoke movement are derived by the basic theory of flow and these are expressed by the incidence matrix and the loop matrix of graph theory. If the air temperature is constant and dP/dt=0 in all rooms, then some different equations are derived by the combination of the basic equations. However when the approximation of [numerical formula] is permitted, it is possible to ignore the differences. The calculation methods by means of the Pressure Assuming Method and the Flow Rate Assuming Method are considered by the representation of the incidence matrix and the loop matrix in the condition of two zones smoke flow. When the net flows in all branches are used, it is able to adapt simply the calculation method of one zone perfect mixing model. It is not necessary to change the graph of the one zone model and it is efficient to adapt the calculation method by means of the Flow Rate Assuming Method for two zones model of smoke movement because of the preservation of the advantage of the reduced computing times.
The authors at first argue about what the necessary and sufficient condition is with regard to Monte Carlo simulations for the calculation of illuminance of interiors. Although this condition has rarely been definitely argued about, when you devise a new simulation, it is very important to accurately understand what the condition is. After showing the condition, the authors give some newly-devised simulations together with a conventional one, discuss their validity, and compare advantages and disadvantages among them.
Unsteady state thermal behavior of void slabs used as an air-conditioning duct was numerically analyzed with FEM computer program. Non-insulated void slab and eight types of insulated void slab were simulated. The following results were obtained: (1) When a void slab is used as a floor, inside surface of the void should be insulated. If the thickness of insulation exceeds 30 mm, the temperature difference on the floor surface becomes less than 1 degree C and the surface condensation during cooling period can almost be avoided. (2) When a void slab is used as a roof, inside surface of the void as well as exterior surface of the roof should be insulated. Thc recommended thickness of insulation is more than 30mm for inside surface of the void and 100 mm for exterior surface of thc roof, respectively.
In this paper, the method of numerical analysis for heat and moisture transfer in porous materials below 0℃ is proposed which is valid in nonfreezing regime as well as freezing regime. The problem of coupled moisture and thermal states for freezing and thawing soils is complex because liquid water and ice coexist in soils below 0℃. Governing equations are obtained by conservation of mass and energy for each phase of moisture, and the equation on the relation between the unfreezing water, the water chemical potential and the temperature below 0℃. The aim of this paper is to present an exact and efficient numerical method for solving and simulating the transient heat and moisture transfer problems with freezing and thawing process by using those governing equations shown above. The proposed method is a finite difference method for one dimensional semi-infinite domain. Numerical examples and results in freezing process are shown and discussed.
uthors determined the mite-allergen and fungal colonies in the floor dust collected from the dwellings in Seoul, Korea and in Koriyama, Japan which were located in the same geographical latitude. Measurements in Seoul were carried out in September, 1992 and in March, 1993 and the data were compared with those of Koriyama in the same periods. The average mite-allergen in Koriyama was 22 times as much as in Seoul for Der I and 33 times for Der II in September and 10 times for Der I and 74 times for Der II in March measurements. Those difference of mite-allergen in two locations seem to have resulted from the traditional "ondoru", floor heating and from the relatively lower humidity in Korea. Further comprehensive research is advised.
We developed a method to calculate entropy values associated with mutual diffusion of substances and to articulate an exergy-entropy process of human body in terms of water and other inorganic substances. The purpose is to have a better understanding of the consumption process of freshwater resource of human body. It was found that human body consumes 95% of the supplied exergy of inorganic matter and disposes of the rest, namely 5%, with urine. The amount of water, 1.0〜1.6kg/day, which is required by human body, was confirmed to be optimum for maintaining actively the state of exergy in terms of inorganic matters in human body, while consuming the least exergy of freshwater. The disposal of entropy generated within human body by urination makes room for consuming exergy contained by freshwater.
The regional distribution of thermal environmental elements and thermal environmental index SET^* were estimated from NVl and brightness temperature derived from Landsat TM. The results of analysis on Kinki area were as follows. In the estimation of air temperature, the multiple correlation coefficient using brightness temperature and height above sea level as exPlanation variables was a good result. The surface temperature was estimated from NVl data using the earth surface heat budget. The result of SET^* at 15:00 of typical fine day presented high value in inland area because sea breeze did not reach.
The physical environment of classrooms in winter was investigated using evaluations obtained from a questionnaire completed by 2200 teachers working at all the elementary schools in Kawasaki city, Japan where the winter is relatively warm and most weather is fine. The most influential factors affecting the teachers' evaluation of the physical environment were determined from 18 factors, e. g., the age and sex of teachers, environmental control by a teacher and architectural planning elements. This methodology clarified the relationship among the evaluations, architectural planning elements and environmental controls, as well as environmental problems arising due to penetration of solar radiation and individually heating classrooms.
The aim of our study is to propose conditions for equipping the living environment of physically disabled with flow planning to alleviate the inconveniences in ADL when receiving guests. From the results of analysis of 501 physically disabled people living in Hokkaido, we proposed that : (1) The flow map from the physically disabled person's room to the toilet should not pass by the entrance. (2) The flow map from the living room to the toilet should not pass by the entrance. (3) The physically disabled person's room should be located next to the living room.
This paper discusses the users' sphere of libraries in sparsely populated areas. In this case study of the regional facilities, 6 rural libraries are investigated in Mie prefecture. The main results are follows: 1) Library users are divided into two groups. One is users who live near library and high ratio of users (users per population), the other is users who are not under the influence of distance to the library. 2) The one is contained aged persons and children who visit alone. Users near the library come to attracted by the libraries' service levels. 3) The other is contained children with parent, working men and housewives by car. The worker who use alone make wide users' sphere. The purpose of users who can drive to library is not under the influence of distance to the library.
This report, based on the survey, concerns with the structural and construetural characters of the Hohtoku Bank Noogata Branch, built in about 1919. The result of survey is as follows: 1. The wall structure is the English bonding bricks, the structure of low pitch roof consists of angle shaped steels, and the eave and the special floor slab above the treasury room are reinforced concrete. 2. The finish of exterior are tiles and artificial stone plastering, and the latter, including ornaments, was popular in local cities, because of cost. 3. The condition of this architecture has some differences from the standard specification of those day
There is natural light which generates unity or direction to an architectural space. We obtained the prototypes of such light by examining the location and form of the light in the space and percention of the light and the space. We have classified unity into 3 types: central light, enclosing light, saturating light and direction into 2 types: axial light and focal light on the axis of the space. The spatial effects of the light are essential and we named them as the characteristics of each type. Saturating light is unique in the natural light which can not be seen in objects' order.
Through the investigation of the architects' concept about fire-proof design and fire-proof codes in three big cities, Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, this thesis recognized the current situation of the fire-proof design and made clear how to improve the fire-proof codes further in China. Since the estabishment of Chinese fire-proof codes, they ale always short of scientific basis and force the architects to cany them out. Thus, on one hand, it is difficult to fit in with the technical improvement and the variety of building styles, on the other hand, it has also suppressed the designers to design the 'safe buildings' actively, and has made them depend on the rigid and standardized 'mandatory codes' passively.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the process of urbanization in view of mixed-ethic living in the marginal area of town and country. The results can be concluded as follows: 1) In the process of urbanization, inflowing numerous Han-Chinese began to live under the floor of the Thai-minority's stilt-house. 2)The traditional form and structure of the stilt-house began to change in accordance with Han-Chinese migration under the house. 3) Han-Chinese keep their territorial society even after they migrate to Xishuangbanna. 4) In accordance with the increasing number of Han-Chinese, they begin to construct their own apartment house around the Thai-minority's village. In this process, their territorial society performs important role. 5) The space that is under the floor of the stilt-house also performs important role for Han-Chinese migration as their first base in Xishuangbanna.
Street networks of most castle-towns were planned under the City Planning Law of 1919. This paper aims to clarify relations between a "plan" and its "projects" of street networks and programs of project plans. Following points became clear. Relationship between a "plan" and its "projects" differed according to castle-town. Some castle-town executed projects systematically and efficiently under their plan. Each castle-town tried to modernize itself by selecting a project of high priority and conducting it.
The composition of different types of architectural and urban spaces with a courtyard can be identified and explained by what we call the "principle of association of MA(Japanese meaning a room space)" based on two neccessary conditions : an opening for light and air of the MA and an efficient utilization of the site. 1) Different plans of houses with a courtyard result from the principle applied to the sites of various forms. 2) The principle permits to assimilate the galeries to the architecture with a courtyard. 3) The housing estates composed around a courtyard on large sites are a planning choice rather than the necessity of the principle. 4) A block of houses with a courtyard can be reorganized by the rearrangement according to this principle.
This paper examines and analyzes the strip zoning system area of designated use zoning system adopted by the Suginami Ward of Tokyo by comparing the current form of land utilization with the use zoning system. The paper also clarifies the current status of land utilization in respect to architectural applications, number of stories, and percentage of fireproof architecture as well as investigating the involvement with the land utilization conditions which restrictions for grouping and siting requirements. Of the roads designated as fire belts for checking the spread of fire in a disaster controlled living zone, the low level of disaster preventive capabilities of auxiliary street notably is of an important issue, and, moreover, the issue can be regarded as a weighty problem in planning a safe and disaster controlled city in the future.
In order to obtain a guide to design river landscape, this study examined the features of the composition in the river landscape paintings drawn by HIROSHIGE which is representative paintings in Japan. Analyzed indices is 'the position', 'the place', 'the width', 'the function', of the river, and 'the elements in the short distance landscape', 'the elements in the medium distance and long distance landscape' drawn along the river, and 'the ratio of the water surface', 'the degree of the look down', 'the inclination of the streem', which are the painter's visual features. We clalified the features of the composition by analyzing the correlation of the indices by using cross analysis. And we examined the greatly influence factor on the composition by using Hayashi Quantification Theory 3.
The objective of this paper is to examine the properties of the optimal location and the optimal objective-function values in the p-median models using eight prefectures in Japan. Two fundamental relationships between the number of facilities and the optimal location of facilities, and between the number of facilities and the optimal objective-function values, are derived. Based on these relationships, the efficiency of the sequential decision-making is examined. In addition, the trade-off curves of the optimal distances versus the number of facilities are interpreted in terms of facility location planning.
This paper is a discussion on the composition of chinese settlement of Nagasaki in Genroku period. Conclusion as follows: 1. Chinese settlement of Nagasaki in Genroku period was constructed by Edo Bakuhu. So, the composition of the settlement had possessed of artificial, functional quality by putting "nagaya" monotonously. 2. "doshindo" and its front space like a plaza which exists as a space for play and pray have a different character from residential area. 3. As a result, The composition of settlement can be devided to two different parts. One is monotonous dwelling space like a camp, another is the space like a plaza, containing.
This paper examines the development of the "Hashi-dono" and the ceremonies which are performed there, shedding light on the specific nature of its ritual space. At Kamowakeikazuchi Jinia Shrine, the "Mitarashi-gawa" and "Omonoi-gawa" rivers are used to create a hierarchy of sacred space, and the "Hashi-dono", straddling the "Mitarashi-gawa" river, functions as an intermediary realm. The Imperial messenger does not cross the river, making his offering from the "Hashi-dono", and rituals deeper in the shrine are conducted by the priests. The priest gives "Kaeshi-norito" (the answer of "Kamowakeikazuchi-no-kami") to the Imperial messenger from "Ganiyo", a sacred rock.
The purpose of this paper is to explain that the latter half of the post imperial era corresponded to a transition stage of views on residence concerning the "Sukiwatadono." By this study I tried to indicate the importance of the buiIding, called "watadono" in the aristocratic residences. The treatise is organized in the following manner: Introduction Chap.1 A view on residence making much of "Sukiwatadono." Chap.2 A primary factor bringing the changes of views on residence. Chap.3 A historical meaning of the changes of views on residence. Conclusion
This paper refers to a few observations on plan and structure of the funduqs in the Medina of Fez, reporting some results based on a field survey in July and August, 1988. Paying attention to their forms composing the courtyard-facade, 63 existent funduqs can be classified five architectural typos as follows : (1) Gallery type ; with colonnaded galleries surrounding the courtyard on the second and third floors, (2) Terrace type ; with open-terraced passageway around the courtyard on the second floor. (3) Composite typo ; with colonnaded gallery on the second floor and open-torraced passageway on the third floor, (4) Wall type ; having neither the gallery nor the terrace on the upper floors, the wall facing the. courtyard, (5) One-story type ; having no upper floor. It is the Gallery type (33 examples) that characteristic of funduqs in Fez. Two-story gallery type is simpler in design and more practical in use. Three-story gallery type might assume a significant function, distinguished from the others.
L. Reynaud the successor to J. -N. -L. Durand taught the architecture course at the Ecole Polytechnique from 1837 to 1867. By analyzing his typical teaching programmes from 1838. 1850 and 1853, there are revealed theoretical characteristics of the architectural education in the middle of nineteenth century. On the one hand he followed in Durand's footsteps, on the other hand he set great importance on building construction based on scientific knowledge as well as on a new material, iron. It also becomes clear that aesthetic proportions and forms should be finally accomplished not by the scientific methods but by the "gout" of each architect. Putting an architect for such a position, he semmed to have established a new professional outline as a modern civil engineer.
According to the description of the Alexiad, the seventh chapter of the fifteenth volume, written by Anna Comnena, the so-called "new city"(νεα πολιs) was constructed within Constantinople under the supervision of the emperor Alexios. This paper clarifies the characteristic of the "city" and the idea of the project. As the result, the "city" in circular shape seems to have been constructed in the land near the sea wall facing the Marmara, where the Monastery of Mangana must have been involved. The circular city, being defensive to the outside as a "kastron" and furthermore being probably surrounded with the land for cultivation, of all things, functioned as philanthropic facilities for the people who had to a certain extent some social disadvantage. The "city" within the city emerged as a self-sufficient community. Inspite of the official purpose for the enterprize, if examined carefully on the content of the description, the project is presumed to have aimed a segregation and an estrangement of those people in its idea, for the security to the ordinary city-space spreading outside
This paper is first study on "A study on the trend of architectural thought through Weimar's spirit". The object is to make clear the peculiar character-theory in Weimar's architectural classicism, through the most important German architectural theories in the late 18th century, that are aesthete Sulzer's "AIIgemeine Theorie der schonen Kunste (1771- 74)", anonymous "Untersuchungen uber den Charakter der Gebaude(1785)" and G. Huth's essay "von der Wirkung der Baukunst auf die Veredelung der Menschen(1794)". In the short, the peculiar character-theory in Weimar's spirit is moral and educational humanity-formation by architectural beauty.
Here is analyzed the syntactic relations between urban and housing designs in the English garden suburbs, which is epitomized in Hampstead Garden Suburb planned by R. Unwin from 1906. Unwin's early interest in college quadrangle and village green is developed into the geometrically enclosed green under the influences of Georgian town planning and C. Sitte. The model designs of cul-de-sac road and quadrangle illustrated in Unwin's book, Town Planning in Practice,1909, are compared to the executed designs in Hampstead Garden Suburb, such as the Orchard by Parker & Unwin, Waterlow Court by M.H. Baillie Scott, Litchfield Square by Parker & Unwin, and Lucas Square by G. Lucas, to reveal that each architect emphasizes the axis of the cul-de-sac road by a terminal element and secures the symmetry of elevations surrounding the green, although in a different style respectively.
The objective of our research is to design and implement intelligent agents that support the design and research in architecture and civil engineering. The agents are expected to handle the large scale knowledge about the fields by interacting with each other and also with the user. We propose a formalism for the world concerning the fields and the agents based on the assumption that the deep-structure of the world is formalized by higher-order logic from which the drawings and the other form of representation can be transformed. We show that our agent solves a depth-first searching problem.