日本建築学会計画系論文集
Online ISSN : 1881-8161
Print ISSN : 1340-4210
ISSN-L : 1340-4210
74 巻 , 640 号
選択された号の論文の29件中1~29を表示しています
  • 安福 健祐
    2009 年 74 巻 640 号 p. 1265-1270
    発行日: 2009/06/30
    公開日: 2010/01/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    The goal of this study is to simulate human evacuation behavior using virtual reality technology which improves the reality of evacuation from a disaster in a virtual building. Specifically we have developed an immersive evacuation simulator which surrounds the subject's field of view by large screens and achieves a high-quality virtual environment. Using not only the immersive-type of the evacuation simulator but also a PC-type of the evacuation simulator, we conducted an experimental test on escape directions. As a result, both the immersive type and the PC-type show the evacuation behavioral characteristics. First, the over 80% subjects on both immersive-type and PC-type follow a virtual human model which is in front. Second, the over 80% subjects on immersive-type make a choice wide route. Third, the approximately 80% subjects on PC-type make a choice bright route. Moreover, it is easy for the subjects to recognize a difference of route width using the immersive-type.
  • 土屋 伸一, 長谷見 雄二
    2009 年 74 巻 640 号 p. 1271-1276
    発行日: 2009/06/30
    公開日: 2010/01/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    Measurements are conducted on group evacuation of simulated patients aided by working nurses using an actual hospital ward. Three types of auxiliaries for evacuation, stretchers, sheets and wheelchairs, are selected. Influences of the proportion of different types of auxiliaries and ambulatory patients, number of nurse, lighting conditions, and the existence of a corner on the evacuation route are studied. All components of the time to evacuate from bed to temporary refuge area are quantified. The analysis suggests the followings. (1) Existence of a corner has significant influence on the evacuation with stretchers. (2) Evacuation with auxiliaries occupying large area such as stretchers tends to be affected strongly by other evacuees. (3) Moving speed with stretchers and wheelchairs in a group evacuation is reduced by roughly 30-45% and 16-30% respectively from individual evacuation.
  • -京都市南区東松ノ木町を対象として-
    韓 勝旭, 高田 光雄, 神吉 紀世子
    2009 年 74 巻 640 号 p. 1277-1285
    発行日: 2009/06/30
    公開日: 2010/01/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this study, we focused on Higashi-Matsunoki, Kyoto city, where the squatter area exists. The purpose of this study is to analyze the improvement process of the residential environment in the area through the maintenance project of infrastructure and the residential environment and clarify the relationship between the actors involved in the process. In clarifying the relationship between the actors, we focused on the network built up by the residents.
  • -バングラデシュの都市住宅における漸次建設方式に関する研究 その2-
    カムルジャマン エムディ, 小倉 暢之
    2009 年 74 巻 640 号 p. 1287-1296
    発行日: 2009/06/30
    公開日: 2010/01/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    This article is a continuation of the previous paper concerning research on self-help piecemeal housing construction in Dhaka city, Bangladesh*1). The aim of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework and to demonstrate different forms of small-scale (household) landlordism in middle income settlements. The survey testifies that there is a clear continuum in the scale of construction for rent which categories into different types of landlords who used to construct apartments adopting piecemeal construction technique and their landlordism nature is dynamic. Only 9% landlord households are providing housing for 91% households who are tenants. Of them, intermediate landlords are providing 73% rental accommodation and playing the greatest role in creating shelter for city's tenants.
  • 台湾の日式住宅における居住空間の変容過程に関する研究 その2
    郭 雅〓, 高田 光雄, 清水 貴史
    2009 年 74 巻 640 号 p. 1297-1305
    発行日: 2009/06/30
    公開日: 2010/01/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    Surveying the remaining Japanese-style houses in Showa-Cho in Taiwan, this study conducted the measurement survey on the houses, and authors interviewed the Japanese who had lived there. The findings of this study indicated: 1.Showa-Cho was developed with the housing society, which was established by the Japanese academics who wanted their own houses in Taiwan. 2.The results of this research suggests that there were no significant differences on the housing plan and the living conditions between the house in Showa-Cho and ones in the mainland of Japan around the same time. However, the housing plan in Showa-Cho considerably reflected the residents' desires and the characteristics of their own culture of life. 3.The residents wanted to be the permanents in Taiwan, so that these houses were particularly high-quality and adapt to the subtropical climate condition in Taiwan.
  • -台湾南投県のジジ地震後に再建された小学校計画に関する研究 その2-
    李 美慧, 中山 茂樹
    2009 年 74 巻 640 号 p. 1307-1313
    発行日: 2009/06/30
    公開日: 2010/01/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study aims to clarify planning trends of the reconstructed elementary schools after the 1999 Ji-Ji earthquake in Taiwan. The 54 reconstructed elementary schools in Nan-Tou County were selected for this study. This paper mainly focuses on the classroom and the corridor. Through the document analysis and the field survey on the schools, we found the follows.
    1. In 1994, the reformation of education was proposed to improve school environment. The Ji-Ji earthquake brought rapid introduction of new concepts of class room design.
    2. Most of the schools for reconstruction were small in size. A practical design code for small size schools was implemented to spread new concept of class room.
    3. New design of classrooms has not only group lesson spaces but also small space for individual work and multipurpose open-space. Non-square type class room, CR with alcove and CR faced to open-space were introduced into the new schools.
    4. The corridors in many schools become wider and have additional function for living activities. A classroom type with corridors on two sides was found in some reconstructed elementary schools.
  • 高齢期における地域生活に関する研究 その5
    井上 由起子
    2009 年 74 巻 640 号 p. 1315-1321
    発行日: 2009/06/30
    公開日: 2010/01/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study aims to clarify the relationship between management of small-scale service station with multifunction and users' life at home. For this objective, one small-scale service station with multi-function located in urban community was surveyed by means of visiting investigation over 40 times and by analysing users' care-manegement records. The results of the analysis are as follows:
    1) By restricting the service providing area within daily living area, each user can feel living in community.
    2) It is important to control frequency of using the services in consideration of not only user's physical condition but also the family's ability of care. This viewpoint is effective delaying of users' removal to institution and running of small-scale service station with multi-function.
    3) The management point of small-scale service station with multi-function seems to consider family and community as resources, not as problems.
  • 地方空港におけるわかり易さ改善の為のサイン計画に関する基礎的研究
    彦坂 渉, 田中 直人, 宮井 雄太
    2009 年 74 巻 640 号 p. 1323-1330
    発行日: 2009/06/30
    公開日: 2010/01/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    This article comprises a case study of the guide sign renovation in the Kobe Airport Terminal building, which is a basic study of space planning for improved ligibility based on the evaluation of the old and new guide signs by passengers and the results of way-finding experiments. We surveyed the evaluation of old guide signs by passengers and specified the disadvantages of the old guide signs. Also, we analyzed the renovation factors which greatly affect the overall evaluation of the guide signs according to Hayashi's quantification method type I. The way-finding experiments were conducted using an eye-mark camera, and the tendency of looking-around actions during way finding was analyzed. As a result, we specified: (1) the tendency of evaluation of old guide signs by passengers; (2) 5 renovation factors crucial in guide sign renovation; and (3) the tendency of way-finding by passengers and disadvantages of old guide signs.
  • -先駆的にユニットケアに取り組んだ従来型特別養護老人ホームへのアンケート調査より-
    島田 美和子, 無漏田 芳信
    2009 年 74 巻 640 号 p. 1331-1338
    発行日: 2009/06/30
    公開日: 2010/01/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study is to make clear the method of the living environmental improvement for the unit care in traditionaltype nursing home for the elderly. We examined the actual condition of the unit care from the questionnaire survey to the practice reports of 84 examples in 2007, and analyzed the spacial structure of unit and the hardware improvement. (1) The building-floors and the court influences on the hardware improvement, and the standard of the unit division is related to the hardware improvement. The new part of the spacial structure of unit is different from the old part of it. (2) The method of the hardware improvement for the extension-form depends on the facility policy and so on. (3) Many cases share the bathroom and the restroom. (4) When the site has room, it is easy to do the partial enlargement.
  • -福井在住の介護保険未認定者を中心として-
    堀 敦志, 桜井 康宏
    2009 年 74 巻 640 号 p. 1339-1348
    発行日: 2009/06/30
    公開日: 2010/01/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study investigated the relationship between the residential environments and activities of dally living (ADL) of at-home elderly people in Fukui, adding “Subjective experience” to international classification of functioning and health (ICF) and paying attention to quality of life (QOL).
    As a result, it was suggested that ICF was related to “Subjective experience.” Besides, the relationship between “Subjective experience” and “Activity,” “Participation,” and “Environmental factors” was found out be strong.
    Aiming to make such elderly people socially independent on an objective side and mentally independent on a subjective side is important as the intervention method from “Environmental factors.” In addition, this aim is thought to be necessary from a viewpoint of the preventive approach in long term care.
  • -団地とその周辺地域との関係性の再構築に関する研究-
    原田 陽子
    2009 年 74 巻 640 号 p. 1349-1357
    発行日: 2009/06/30
    公開日: 2010/01/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristic of space and residential evaluations, actual living conditions of households in the areas surrounding the Kori apartment complex. The following are major findings. 1) Surrounding the Kori Apartment Complex, there are many narrow, complex streets with small houses and few large green spaces and parks. 2) Many residents in the areas surrounding the Kori Apartment Complex appreciate the wooded area and find the shops in the apartment complex to be useful. In particular, the residents who live in the narrow streets or small houses often use the apartment complex outdoor environment. 3) The housing relocation from Kori apartment complex is especially found the areas located near the apartment complex or the same school ward.
  • 積田 洋, 濱本 紳平
    2009 年 74 巻 640 号 p. 1359-1364
    発行日: 2009/06/30
    公開日: 2010/01/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study, the structure of the city space is clarified by the Indication-method and the SD method. First, Two experiments were done in 99 points of 9 cities (Marunouchi, Ochanomizu, Ginza, Shibuya, Makuhari, Utase, Kannai, Kawasaki, Omiya). Then, Cluster analysis was done using the data obtained by experiments.
    1) City atmospheres were classified into 5 Consciousness-types.
    2) Structures of elements were classified into 5 Indication element-types. Finally, the relation between Consciousness-types and Indication elements-types was analyzed.
    As a result, we have found the 5 types. These types show the structure of the city spaces from Indication elements and consciousness.
  • 竜口 隆三, 高橋 儀平, 田村 房義
    2009 年 74 巻 640 号 p. 1365-1370
    発行日: 2009/06/30
    公開日: 2010/01/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    Under the new legislation for the promotion of barrier-free environments, people with mental retardation, psychiatric disorder and developmental impairment are added to the user list of all barrier-free facilities. This amplification of users has brought about new problems for the current public toilets as well. The only multi-functional room can not meet the various needs of all users and wheel chair users are demanding for more user-friendlily private rooms to their convenience. This study conducts verification experiments for a minimum measurement of newly-designed private rooms for wheelchair users and suggests that the ideal space should be kept at a scale of 1,150-1,250mm x 1,900-2,000mm within a public toilet.
  • 松本 直司, 清田 真也, 伊藤 美穂
    2009 年 74 巻 640 号 p. 1371-1377
    発行日: 2009/06/30
    公開日: 2010/01/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    Urban streets contain not only functions like traffic and transportation but also important space elements that form cityscapes, and have influence on our daily life. However, nowadays, urban congestion increases and information overflows in the cities. Therefore, streets tend to be planned disorderly and we have only a little chance to be attracted to the cityscapes.
    We are always influenced psychologically by experiencing the whole surroundings of the streets. That influences our attraction in various ways.
    By timing walking speed of people in the cities, we comprehend the relationship between attraction of streetscapes and people. Then we recognize attractive streetscape.
  • 朴 恵恩
    2009 年 74 巻 640 号 p. 1379-1385
    発行日: 2009/06/30
    公開日: 2010/01/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study aims to examine the future expansion of Adventure Playgrounds operations by clarifying the actual operational situations and change of three Adventure Playgrounds. For this purpose, two sets of field surveys and interviews were conducted in 2004 and 2008. The results showed gradual changes in each of the three Adventure Playgrounds in terms of: 1) the cooperative ties between play leaders participating in the operation and local resident groups; 2) operational expenses, the number of play leaders available at the site, and the roles of play leaders due to changes in the size of the site; and 3) operational expenses and public relations activities due to changes in the consignment structure. These changes can be understood in terms of the facilitation of the Adventure Playgrounds' operations, the formation of a community among the local residents participating in the operation, and the development of regional activities.
  • -中国鄭州市・開封市・中牟県を対象として-
    杜 守帥, 小林 祐司, 姫野 由香, 佐藤 誠治
    2009 年 74 巻 640 号 p. 1387-1394
    発行日: 2009/06/30
    公開日: 2010/01/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    Recently, the population growth and urbanization of the suburban area have been progressing in city in the middle and lower of Huanghe valley. To achieve sustainable city development, overall land use and natural environment control are required. In this research, a new method (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index in Built-up Area: NB) to measure indicator of vegetation activity is developed to evaluate the remaining green tract and the vegetation distribution in built-up area. The NB value is calculated by land use agglomeration (C Index) and NDVI. As a result, the vegetation distribution in built-up area and the situation of urbanization are evaluated overall in the object area.
  • 大澤 義明, 林 利充
    2009 年 74 巻 640 号 p. 1395-1402
    発行日: 2009/06/30
    公開日: 2010/01/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    The aim of this paper is to analyze the distribution of convenient position-values defined on a connected undirected graph. Such values are defined only by the connectiveity of the graph, but meet equilbrium condition on the graph. First, we prove the convenient position-value are distributed according to gravity model using a negative exponential distribution. Then, we exhibit the echo effect and characterize the distribution of convenient position-value on a monocentric city. Finally, we compare radial, external ring and radial-arc graphs routings in terms of convenient position-values.
  • 高橋 宣行, 瀧澤 重志, 加藤 直樹, 具 源龍
    2009 年 74 巻 640 号 p. 1403-1410
    発行日: 2009/06/30
    公開日: 2010/01/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the previous research we have revealed that kansei evaluation of rental office buildings much influences on the rent. Based on this result, in this article, we examine the kansei evaluation factor on entrance halls of office buildings in Osaka City. At first we examine the detail of entrances such as texture, lighting, visibility of a trash and so on. Then relationship between various kinds of building attributes and kansei evaluation is examined by correlation analysis and CAEP. As a result, it is clarified that some entrance attributes such as the size of an entrance hall and the existence of an auto door influences on both kansei evaluation.
  • -台湾・集集地震における被災集合住宅の再建 その2-
    米野 史健
    2009 年 74 巻 640 号 p. 1411-1418
    発行日: 2009/06/30
    公開日: 2010/01/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study aims to examine effects of support measures for reconstruction of condominiums damaged by the 921 Chi-Chi Earthquake of 1999 in Taiwan. To clarify influences on reconstruction projects caused by each support measure, eleven reconstruction cases were investigated by hearing surveys for readers of unit owners' organization, and relations between activities on the reconstruction process and support measures were analyzed. The results are shown as follows: (1) The combination of a deregulation on the required participation ratio and a financial support for purchase of ownerships from non-participants, and a bridging loan for owners who participate in the project, were the most effective support measures. (2) Despite the presence of effective supports, progress in reconstruction was slow because of the relocation of owners caused by delays in the establishment of support measures.
  • その1 専門工事業と技能労働者の関係に関する考察
    蟹澤 宏剛, 秋山 哲一, 岩松 準
    2009 年 74 巻 640 号 p. 1419-1424
    発行日: 2009/06/30
    公開日: 2010/01/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    The shortage of skilled labours and the successors in the construction industry poses previously a very large problem. However, the actual working conditions of skilled labours are not grasped correctly. Therefore, the radical remedy of this problem is not shown. In the research presented so far, authors have pointed out the actual condition that specialist-contractors have separated a large majority of skilled labours from the employment which is a premise of various social security systems in order to ease the burden of the labour expenses outside wages. Institutional complexity is not independent, either, although the first factor is in the labour cost which fell even to the limit in recent years. Variables which specify the relation between skilled labours and specialist-contractors, such as law and various practices, are manifold and complicated, and we have never come to describe particularly. This research investigates the skilled labour's working conditions, referring to exactly the legal welfare expenses, Labour Standard Law, Construction Business Act and Tax Regulations based on former survey experiences. Besides, new criterions of judgement about employment relationships, such as wearing the helmet, are added. These will show the realities of working conditions of skilled labours rationally and exactly.
  • -福岡藩御殿に関する建築史的研究 その1-
    成田 聖, 宮本 雅明
    2009 年 74 巻 640 号 p. 1425-1432
    発行日: 2009/06/30
    公開日: 2010/01/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    Among studies about Daimyo palace and state palaces, studies of Edo palaces and state palaces have been discussed individually. Also, there is no existing studies of Fukuoka-Castle from the view of architectural history, and drawn plans are left unanalyzed. This study is aiming to grasp the relations and characters of state palaces by comprehensive analysis on the state palaces in the Fukuoka-Castle. In this article, changes and characters of uses of Fukuoka-Castle palace are made clear, using mainly documentary records.
    As the results, it became clear that the plan of Honmaru-Palace has not been chaged since it was built although the use were changed from lords' residence and government offices to a place to hold ceremonies. Ninomaru-Palace was planned and used as a residence of the lord for the next term but dismantled afterward because the value of keeping decreased. The use of Sannomaru-Palace became the central facility, and the usage varies depending on the term. At last, the change of Fukuoka-Castle palace can be divided into three periods which are the establishing, the peak and the declining periods.
  • 丸山 俊明
    2009 年 74 巻 640 号 p. 1433-1438
    発行日: 2009/06/30
    公開日: 2010/01/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the end of edo period, town people in Kyoto are obligated by Tokugawa Shogunate to accept and treat Nijo-castle caretakers (Nijo zaiban) in their machiya about few days. Town people in Kyoto have to prepared five or six room house for Nijo-castle caretakers. This paper aims to clear up the detail of this boarding system by investigation about town people's documents and concrete sample.
  • 磯田 桂史, 伊藤 重剛
    2009 年 74 巻 640 号 p. 1439-1448
    発行日: 2009/06/30
    公開日: 2010/01/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    Kumamoto Junior College of Technology was founded in 1906 and its main building was built of wood in 1908. It was one of the first western style buildings in modern Kumamoto and played an important role in the history of architectural westernization of the local town in Kyushu. Although there was preserved no drawing of the building, the authors could reconstruct its precise plan and elevation with the analysis of its remaining old simple single-lined plan drawn in 1919-20 and old photographs in several school albums. The building was symmetrical with wings on both ends, twin towers in the middle and mansard roof. The exterior was decorated with rich ornaments as small pediments and arches on the windows, the roof at the main entrance supported by Tuscan style pillars and scrolled arms, fluted parastrades on the corner of the walls, and so forth. Its layout - lecture rooms on the north side and the corridor on the south - was exceptional compared with other schools at that time which were planned by architectural section of the Ministry of Education. The architect was Jirokichi Oota who worked as an engineer of the Ministry of Education. Thus, the present study cleared a part of architectural history of early modern Kumamoto.
  • クメール建築の造営尺度と設計技術に関する研究 (3)
    溝口 明則, 中川 武, 佐藤 桂, 下田 一太, 古川 大輔
    2009 年 74 巻 640 号 p. 1449-1455
    発行日: 2009/06/30
    公開日: 2010/01/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    As previously reported, the construction measure used in dimensional planning of the Khmer architecture was considered around 412 mm. In this paper, we verified this envisioned construction measure by analyzing from on-site measurement data the planning process of the pyramid temple called “Prang” in Prasat Thom at Koh Ker, the height of which was mentioned several times in the inscriptions.
    The results are as follows: Firstly, the original plan of the monument existed. This initial plan was regulated to prevent its central axis passing in the center of the land. With this regulation, total dimension of the pyramid was reduced, the height of present “Prang” corresponded well to the previous interpretation of the inscriptions in consequence. We also confirmed that the construction measure of 412 mm applies to this monument reasonably.
  • ソレマニエ 貴実也
    2009 年 74 巻 640 号 p. 1457-1463
    発行日: 2009/06/30
    公開日: 2010/01/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study is based on a field survey and historical data of Tehran's great Bazar. As a result of survey, we found existing 32 commercial facilities which are shown one or both maps made in 1857 and 1891.And based on the number of courtyard and passage (dalan), 32 facilities could be classified into 4 types.
    1. type-a with single dalan and single courtyard.
    2. type-b with single dalan and multi courtyards.
    3. type-c with multi dalans and courtyards.
    4. type-d with no courtyard.
    These 4types of commercial facilities extended from east to west of Bazar. And as it goes west their formation become subdivided.
  • -ガンダーラ仏教建築における仏塔に関する研究 その2-
    加藤 直子, 矢谷 早, 増井 正哉
    2009 年 74 巻 640 号 p. 1465-1470
    発行日: 2009/06/30
    公開日: 2010/01/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study discusses the transformation of stupas in the Gandhara Buddhist temples focusing plinth forms and masonry techniques. The second article takes up the remains of two archaeological sites, Dharmarajika and Jaulian, located in Taxila where is the east region of Gandhara in the broad meaning. This article studies the features of stupas based on the excavations reports carried out at Taxila by John Marshall. Consequently, the features found in Taxila were one-story type, two-story type and step-down type, and these are the same as Central Gandhara's. The Taxila's characteristic features are stupa with platform, form of relatively-high platform and plinth base, and heavily usage of Kanjur stone.
  • 中江 研
    2009 年 74 巻 640 号 p. 1471-1480
    発行日: 2009/06/30
    公開日: 2010/01/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    In 1929, Hugo Häring lectured his theory on design of dwelling house and discussed with a sanitarian, a medical scientist, a housewife etc. in technical meeting of "Rfg" [Reichsforschungsgesellschaft für Wirtschaftlichkeit im Bau- und Wohnungswesen e. V.]. Häring acclaimed that ventilation, enough sunlight, and scattering sunlight around the room are to be well considered. Therefore, dwellings designed by him from the late 1920s to the early 1930s had following design; living rooms and bed rooms face to south, balcony (not loggia), white walls, not-so-high ceiling, etc.
  • -外壁仕上げ材における現状変更について-
    田中 和幸, 羽生 修二
    2009 年 74 巻 640 号 p. 1481-1490
    発行日: 2009/06/30
    公開日: 2010/01/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    Before World War II, finish materials used on exterior walls in Japan included tile, terracotta, mortar, steel and paint. Though many of these buildings have been designated as cultural properties, approximately 60% of these original finish materials have been remained. The author notes that there are four types of procedures which are followed: repair, restoration, resemblance and alteration. Although many buildings retain original materials in their exterior walls, resemblance and alteration in replacement materials, such as paints, are being used which were unavailable when they were first built. This presents two conservation-restoration dilemmas. First, the original exterior wall materials are being lost, and second, the overall value of the buildings decreases.
    This paper, drawing on conservation - restoration research, will make recommendations for the replacement of finishing materials on the exterior walls of pre-war reinforced concrete - construction buildings. The paper concludes that care should be taken when retain original materials whenever possible, and / or when choosing replacement materials.
  • 趙 賢貞
    2009 年 74 巻 640 号 p. 1491-1496
    発行日: 2009/06/30
    公開日: 2010/01/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    The aim of this paper is to identify repair of architectural members in Korean heritage, consider their historic development, and analyze repair and restoration cases. Data used for analysis are mainly reports and specification documents of heritage buildings' repair and restoration works, complemented by field surveys on repair work sites.
    This study clarifies issues of traditional repair in Korean architectural heritage and analyzes the introduction of synthetic resins in repair as follows: the process of introduction of synthetic resins from Japan in 1978; the development of their use in conservation and repair work sites since then; and analysis of synthetic resins used for repairs, execution techniques and architectural members to which these application were applied.
    Analysis results show that the application of synthetic resins in architectural repair in mostly limited to large section members and certain parts of members. Analysis results point out the issues and problems of repairs.
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