In this paper, for evaluating the aerodynamic noise of double lined elbows, the sound power levels for 34 kinds of them are measured. They are formed from three combinations for two single lined elbows, two kinds of connection directions and seven kinds of duct length between the two elbows. The aerodynamic noise are shown in relation with the mean velocity in inlet ducts and the over all power levels. The measurement data of the aerodynamic noise for double lined elbows are compared with the value synthesized data of the aerodynamic noise for two single lined elbows. Then the frequency characteristics of the aerodynamic noise are examined in the relative band power level based on the over all power level.
In a present paper, floor impact sounds of void slabs are numerically studied using FEM with coupling of the in-plane and bending displacements developed before by author. This method has a feature that a three dimensional model can be treated as a two dimensional one. Eigenvalue analysis on the void slabs was carried out due to this program and the changes in natural frequencies were examined. When the total amount of the void is constant, the magnitudes of flexural rigidity and dynamical response of the void slabs were not varied by the patterns of void layout, and the increase in dynamical response is not so much in case of the ratio of the void in the slab becomes over 60 %. In addition, the calculation method of the equivalent thickness on void slabs is newly proposed based on the area of the void. Through these studies, it has been revealed that the void slabs are considerably advantageous construction.
Yao-dong are unique underground dwellings in the Loess Plateau of China. The only one open part of the Yao-dong tends to be made small in order to control heat loss. Therefore, although the brightness near the open part is sufficient, the farther inside, the more remarkably it decreases. We focused on the improvement on lighting conditions using light-shelf. The shapes of light-shelf used were flat and concave. As the result, the light-shelf which curvatured reflection board is the most effective in order to improve the lighting conditions especially back of the room.
Direct Solar Radiation during daytime is the greatest contributor to the indoor heat load for cooling in hot and humid area in summer. Since the roof surface is the forefront recipient of the solar radiation, it is reasonable to think of providing second roof above in terms of "Sun Umbrella Concept", with ventilating air gap in between, to cut down the heat load for cooling caused by direct solar radiation. This research therefore, examines how indoor heat load for cooling and indoor thermal environment can be improved by the adaptation of the double roofing system, involving the air passage (space formed between the main roof and the second roof above) by the method of coupled simulation of convection and radiation. The analysis results of the convective heat transfer coefficient, heat fluxes (convection, radiation, conduction), and surface temperature in the air passage are shown, and the basic heat transfer mechanism and characteristic of the double roofing system are examined.In the simulation, in order to demonstrate the performance of the thermal shielding effect of the double roofing structure, it is necessary to keep the aspect ratio of the air passage not less than 0.1,and to keep the wind velocity at the building height more than 1.0 m/s.
Passive cooling strategies alone may not be able to provide sufficient comfortable indoor environment during summer seasons, especially in highly dense urban areas. In such a case, we have to take some "coolness" into the room space to remove the redundant heat that the passive cooling strategies cannot yet remove. The "coolness" would not need to be an excessive coolness available from low-temperature cooling source, but rather a moderate coolness available from high-temperature cooling source, once appropriate passive cooling strategies are imple-mented. We call such a system supplying moderate coolness "SAIREI" system. "SAIREI" system is an active system that can work in harmony with passive systems. To make clear the feature and the possibility of "SAIREI" system, we compared the human-body exergy balance in the three types of room spaces : one is the built environment designed with external "sudare" screen and a radiant cooling panel, through which moderately-cold water flows ; the second is a mechanically air-conditioned room without "sudare" screen ; and the third is a naturally-ventilated room without "sudare" screen. The ratio of radiant cool exergy to convective cool exergy was 6 to 1 in the room with a radiant panel while it was 2 to 1 in the mechanically air-conditioned room. The thermal sensations of the subjects in the room with a radiant cooling panel fluctuate less than those in the air-conditioned room. Radiant cooling with moderately cold water was found to work quite well.
The authors have developed thermal-photovoltaic (thermal-PV) hybrid exterior wallboards that produce both thermal energy and electricity through solar collection and the incorporation of photovoltaic (PV) cells, respectively. The clapboard-shaped hybrid wallboards permit modular assembly that can be more easily adapted for residential applications than previous PV systems. Solar heat is collected in the form of heated air circulating in the air gap between the hybrid wallboard and the thermal insulation of the exterior walls. This paper presents an evaluation of both the electrical power generating ability and the solar heat collection capacity during winter of six variations of the experimental thermal-PV hybrid wallboard. In addition, exergy analyses were conducted using a computer simulation program written to evaluate the thermal energy collection ability of the hybrid wallboards.
The flowfield around a high-rise building model placed within the surface boundary-layer was analyzed using various revised k-ε models. The accuracy of these models was examined by comparing their results with the experimental data. Among the computations using various revised k-ε models compared here, the result with the Durbin's revised k-ε model showed the best agreement with the experiment. The reason for the good perfomance of Durbin's model was discussed based on 'Realizability' of predicted results.
Latent heat storage is a kind of heat storage technology and heat is charged or discharged through phase change, melting or solidification, respectively. Authors proposed a direct heat exchange system between granulated phase change material (PCM) and air. PCM is consisted from granulated porous media and paraffin. Its particle diameter is about 1〜3mm. Advantage of this system is that heat transfer coefficient is kept relative large and continuous during phase change. In this investigation, column experiments related with heat exchange between PCM and air were conducted. Also, a computer simulation program was made and phase change period was discussed by the proposal non-dimensional time.
Regional climate in Kinki district is analyzed by numerical prediction tool based on Mellor-Yamada model. In order to clarify the characteristics of the overall regional climate, the method of using and compensating the calculation result and the observation result together is examined. Since the nesting technique is used, in the target area, the calculation result and the observation result are adjusted. By considering the distribution of air temperature and wind vector obtained by the calculation and by the observation, the recommendation to urban and building planning can be proposed.
The purpose of this research is to clarify how oncoming pedestrians behave as to avoid a stranger on the nigttime street. As a result of observational research of walk behavior, it has been found that pedestrians tend to avert the stranger more quickly at nighttime compared to daytime, and the distance pedestrians leave between the stranger becomes greater when the stranger is standing at a dark side of the street. Moreover, it has also been found that pedestrians have the tendency to avoid the stranger in places that are not well illuminated, and that they tend to walk toward a place where it is well illuminated after crossing the stranger.
The purpose of this study is to grasp the direction of cause and effect in the hierachical structure model of environmental evaluation and to propose how to get causality model based on not only hypothesis but also exploratory modeling. The result are as followings : 1) In terms of the direction of cause and effect, this result shows the validation of the hierachical structure model. 2) The technique of exploratory modeling for causality is proposed, using Grapical Modeling for independence graph, Grapical Modeling for chain independence graph, and path analysis by Structural Equation Modeling.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect on the evaluation of regional landscapes based on the evaluator's sense of value for living. The questionnaire surveys about the sense of value for living and the psychological evaluation for regional landscapes were carried out to the inhabitants who are living in Higashi-Hiroshima City. According to the investigated data, the relationships between the inhabitants' sense of value for living and the synthetic satisfacion for regional landscapes were analyzed by the statistical technique. Then, we clarified the effect on the evaluation of regional landscapes by the different perception for the components of landscape based on the evaluator's sense of value for living. Especially, the sense of value such as "the city-life type", which emphasizes the modern convenience, showed a difference to synthetic satisfaction for regional landscapes.
Structure of the causes of window opening and closing behaviour from summer to autumn were analyzed for students in university rooms by means of rating scale method and factor analysis. 1)The primary cause of opening lies in ventilation, the secondary in warm discomfort, and the third in air contaminance. 2)The primary cause correlates with psychological reasons such as desire for outdoors. 3)The primary cause of keeping windows closed is to use air-conditioners and to avoid the invasion of rain, wind, insects and birds. 4)Noise is a cause of keeping closed only for the group of frequently open(IO), while lack of custom of opening is only for the group of not frequently open(NO). 5)The primary cause of closing is to use air-conditioners. 6)Windows are closed on the basis of behaviours such as going home or leaving. 7)Cold discomfort is a cause of closing for NO.
The purpose of this research is to develop a prediction method of outdoor thermal environment based on unsteady coupled simulation of convection, radiation and conduction. The prediction method of outdoor thermal environment has been already Proposed by the authors based on the steady coupled simulation. However the method based on steady state simulation is obviously insufficient for predicting thermal environment since the heat storage effect of solid material cannot be considered. This paper consists of two parts. In the first part, the unsteady radiation and conduction analysis method is introduced and the heat storage effect of solid material is numerically investigated for simple building model using this method. In the latter part, accuracy of the prediction method developed here is examined by comparing its results with the field measurement data.
In this paper, the results of the measurement on 13 real residential areas (270 square meters each) by wind tunnel tests are presented. The causes are examined why the spatial average wind velocity in the area of mid-to-high-rise apartment houses is found to be higher than that in the area of low-rise houses even though the gross buildings coverage ratio has been the same in both areas from the results of the measurement on 27 areas including 14 areas of the ex-paper. It is confirmed that the difference of spatial average wind velocity ratio between them is attributed not by the increase of the buildings height, but the difference in horizontal housing patterns that are related to the gross area ratio of mid-to-high-rise apartment houses. Finally, the standards of gross buildings coverage ratio in major cities for the planning of residential area in consideration of wind flow are proposed.
The "Breathing Wall" proposed by the authors was designed by including interior/exterior materials. The experimental bodies were installed on opposite sides of an outdoor scale mock-up house model. In the results of the experiment, it was found that, 1) the amount of ventilation under weak wind conditions in the mid-term decreases about 30 percent compared with the simulation value of the steady state. Therefore, under those conditions, it is necessary to count in a safety factor of about 30 percent, 2) higher thermal insulation properties are expected under natural wind pressure conditions than under constant wind pressure conditions, 3) no internal condensation was found to continuously occur in natural weather conditions, 4) no adverse effects on indoor living space were found even though low temperature distribution was found in the corner between the wall and floor by cold outdoor air flowing through the wall in the winter.
In this study, paneled conductive plasterboards composed of a conductive mesh sheet, carbon powders and some carbon fibers are discussed about their electromagnetic shielding efficiency for buildings. As a result, it could be obtained that the shielding efficiency of the panels was over 30dB between 30MHz to 10GHz, and the efficiency of their joint part, which caused shielding troubles for usual joint methods, was not lower than that of copper leaf. Thus, we established that the panels could be sufficiently applicable for simple electromagnetic shield buildings.
This study aims to make an evaluations of plan and significance in the Closed zone by researching on the lifestyle of children's bedroom in dwelling units. The lifestyle is described from relation between the position of children's behavior. Some conclusions are as follows. 1) A lifestyle of children's bedroom is affected by children's age, sleeping-style and position of bedroom in dwelling units. 2) A children's spheres in dwelling units which is defined by positions of children's behavior are affected by number of rooms in the Closed zone and relations between the Closed zone and Open zone. 3) The relation between Open zone and Closed zone is considerable at planning flexible with gradual change of lifestyle.
This study aims to clarify the life environment of the elderly who live at home with the help of in-home services. For this objective, 39 elderly who use home-visit nursing care service, offered by one health services facility for the elderly, were chosen. The results are as follows; 1)As the decline of ADL, they tend to have their meals in the bed room. Secondary causes of such tendency depend on whether they live alone or with the family. 2)When utilization of in-home services becomes popular, accessibility to the elderly's room is important.
This paper aimed to consider the quality of life of the elderly in a Group Living from a viewpoint of individual's whereabout. Whereabout said here is a concept including not only construction-elements but also the circumstances, the situation and mental elements. Detailed observations of the daily life of the elderly showed that each elderly has his or her own peculiar places and it is irrespective of the grade of dementia. The element and meaning of each peculiar place vary from others. However the human, physical, and personal elements of a place have a great influence with the selections of those places.
This research studies the validity of analyzing Kominkan's functions in three areas (demand, compositional, elemental functions) and showing their relationships systematically. In the analysis of the functions, the importance of ranking demand, compositional and elemental functions was shown. The historical analysis of Kominkan's function showed that there are functions that change through time and those that remain unchanged. The social education function and the assembly function were general demand functions that remained unchanged. Also, it was shown that the combined use of rooms can be planned through the application of the stage of thought development in a design.
The purpose of this paper is to consider the space structure of the Day Service center for the elderly. For this aim, close observations of behavior are considered important. Observation survey was conducted in 11 facilities, including 10 Day Service center and one Day Care center. Analysis of activity scenes collected in the observations was focused on the elderly's activities and the scale of activity groups. Consequently conclusions about the space structure of the Day Service center were learned as follows : 1) Main activities in the dayroom are dining, static activity and dynamic activity. From the viewpoint of the space structure of the Day Service center, these activities require each space. 2) It is important to be prepared some activity programs and its space so that the elderly can choose their activity according to their conditions or their preferences. 3) It is considered that each Day Service center is requested to have its originallity. And the space structure which promote communication with the nature or local community will help the facilities to have its identity.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the meaning of care environment for the elderly people with dementia.For this objective, two different types of group-livings were surveyed by means of observations of behavior and interviews with staff. Behavior maps were drawn every 5 minutes from morning to night. Some results show as follows : (1)Residents' spatial uses and sphere of action are affected by physical environment such as spatial composition and arrangement of the rooms. (2)Physical environment influences not only residents but also staffs. Circularity and selectivity resulted from the go-round style have an great effect on staffs' move-ment in quality. (3)Inductive environment that does not necessarily require definite intention seems to be critical especially for the elderly people with dementia.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the influences of children's fire safety knowledge on evacuation behavior in elementary school. We surveyed children at 13 elementary schools with our questionnaire. The results are summarized as follows; 1) The majority of children have basic fire safety knowledge, but above half the number of children do not understand smoke flow and whether to open or shut windows in a fire. 2) Having fire safety knowledge influences more or less the judgment of a correct route, but it is not a determining factor. 3) Most children in a fire during recess tend to act in a group with their teachers. 4) Children who will behave actively tend to judge a correct route more than the non-active children.
Inside the home, it is ordinary for a family member who is unexperienced in giving support to be the main 'helper' for the family member. Under such conditions, it is common for the helper to lose balance while giving support, but however, it is questionable that providing a large space will help to overcome this problem. Instead, a study was conducted to investigate the possibilities of providing a wall that will not get in one's way while giving care, but will serve as a supporting wall, and ensure safety and perhaps ease the difficulties involved in giving care at the same time. The subjects were instructed to lift and move a person from a wheelchair to a toilet basin. The efficiency of the wall used as support was evaluated in terms of differences in sensitivity and posture. The wall proved to be efficient in lifting the person from the wheelchair, and possibilities remain when turning the person around.
This paper aims to investigate remodeling and rebuilding of detached houses in Senri New Town and to analyze their effect on the life span of houses. We made a questionnaire survey to the residents in detached houses about the alteration of their houses, and the type of their houses and the family types. The results are summarized as follows : 1) About 40% houses were rebuilt, within 30 years after their completion. 2) By far the most popular alteration is extension, followed by renewal of the exterior finish 3) The longer the houses survive, the more times they tend to be remodeled for one year.
This study examines the influence of the design of exit space on visual attention and evaluation of landscape by a person who is leaving a building. Twelve movies, CG animations of opening overlaid on the images of outdoor scenes, were presented to thirty-six subjects. It was revealed that some of the subject's overall impressions of the landscape were found to vary according to the manner of opening up the scene. The variation of the subjects' overall impression was explained by; 1) the order of appearance of partial scene in the visual field, 2) the trace of eye movement led by the movement of the edges.
This study analyzes a method of comprehensive planning by a system which focuses on the needs of local residents as well as the public employees. The purpose of this paper is to study the various causes of planning, in the case of Miyazaki town, in Miyagi prefecture, which me and my colleague participated. The results were as follows. 1. The organization and method of progress of planning. 2. The process of planning. 3. The role of the various sectors, administrators, and the editorial office. 4. The significance of the local residents.
This study aims to clarify the consciousness of participants and the future tasks of projects. We conducted questionnaire surveys of 1081 owners who applied for projects, and of 437 inhabitants both of over 20 years. There are three clarifications of projects : (1)there are many demands on construction infrastructure such as flush toilets, waterworks and parking lots, especially in area where without such institution; (2)distance to rice terraces and cost of participation have an influence to continuance of participation; (3)close of interaction relation by owner and inhabitants will have an influence to condition of participation and administration principles in future.
This study aims to examine the programs, organizational structure, and funding of Community Design Centers- Non-profit type (4), Volunteer practice type (2) to clarify the organizational structure and activities of Community Design Center. We found that Non-profit type conduct fee-for service to earn their funding to enable to promote service for low-income to provide affordable housing, which is main activity of Non-profit type. On the other hand, Volunteer practice type coordinate architects and planners to help community-based organization to handle their activities. Non-profit type have bigger annual budget than Volunteer practice type. Volunteer practice type depend on private sector contribution.
In this paper, first, the authors summarize the walking activities of Nagoya CBD visitors, especially on their walking distances and routes, based on our survey. Next, in order to analyze such activities, we propose a framework of three different indicators on their redundancy levels : (1) the first redundancy can be interpreted as detours between facilities, (2) the second one is caused by visiting unplanned facilities, and (3) the third means the walking efficiency on their visit orders. Then, we analyze the explanation factors mainly from the aspects of visitors' attributes through some statistical tests. Last, we are to find the characteristics of their 'shop-around behaviors'.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the connection between inconvenience of shopping and eating habits of old people and to consider the way to deal with it. The survey was conducted in Itabashi area on 3000 old people by means of questionnaires. The conclusion is that frequency of shopping of the group of old people who are not satisfied with the distance to stores is the less and there are more people who miss their meals in the group and that delivery service may serve them.
This paper deals with the control of advertising storeboards in Paris. Based on a circulation in 1977,the regulations pertaining to storeboards are established. There are seven types zones for the control of advertising storeboards, namely general zones, prohibited zones, three kinds of restricted zones and two kinds of relaxed zones. Advertising storeboards are classified into four categories : one attached to a wall, one installed on the ground, one using a light and one attached to street furniture. They are controlled by regulations in each type of zone.
This paper clarified an outline about the birth of Cyuou-douro street and the renewal process of buildings along the street and the change of vista. The improvement project of Cyuou-douro from 1922 to 1924 was the largest one in Nagano City of those days. The planning concept thought much of street view and vista toward Zenkouji-temple.Residents there also thought the appearance and fire prevention and built houses and stores.After then the redevelopment undertakings from 1970 to 2000 have made building height irregular and have spoiled the vista.Because the experience of the big project of about 80 years ago is peculiar to Nagano City, it is important to use it with caution for the future planning.
The Singapore's heritage conservation has well maintained both of administrative systems and restoration techniques to ensure the balance of development and conservation. The "Conservation Guideline" provides to keep the project qualities for 47 designated conservation areas, and using the flexible application for the different conservation areas. All of conservation areas have clear development objective to preserve the historic environment under the urban planning system. (1) Higher incentives have provided for the further development. Not only to preserve the physical aspect. (2) Conservation Guide line has encouraged strong linkage with Development Guide Plan. And. DGPs have effected for the further usage for the conserved buildings, especially building extensions and design control for "Envelope building". (3) The Main building is strictly recommended to preserve the traditional form, but the extension buildings are provided to renew and re build to contemporary. living needs for the residents.
Primary concern of this paper is kampongverbetering (kampong improvement in Dutch East Indies), which was to have significant influence on postcolonial improvement. Major findings in this paper consist of following points. 1. Examination into the kampongverbetering implemented in Dutch East Indies reveals that postcolonial improvement known as KIP apparently owes its basic ideas to its predecessor. 2. Accomplishments of kampongverbetering supervised by the central government show close resemblance to the items prescribed by detailplan, which was the forthcoming driving force of the contemporary city-planning act. 3. Kampong Sidodadi, one of the first kampongs improved in Surabaya in 1929,turns out to be still inhabited by Madurese as it was in the colonial period despite constant change of the residents. 4. Observance of building lines in Sidodadi had been closely related to the drainage gutters installed both in colonial and post colonial period.
The purpose of this article is to develop a method to analyze characteristics of land use agglomeration using grid data in a small area. To this end, the behavior of a criterion called as Same Edge Ratio (SER), which is the average ratio of edges of each grid connected with the same kind of land use, is analyzed. First, its expected value in a small torus area of binomial distribution land use pattern is calculated. Second, the cause of its difference from the binomial probability is clarified. Last, an estimation method of the binomial probability based on SER is proposed.
This paper presents a pilot study to propose a method for the selection of risk strategies in decision support system of risk management from the viewpoints of site managers in Japan. This study used the 32 risk occurrence causes extracted from the past study to do the questionnaire survey, and the quantitative and qualitative data collected from 70 project managers in Japan. These data were analyzed from the viewpoints of risk occurrence cause and project to search the relationship among risk causes, risk strategies, cost of risk strategies, and project risk. And, to evaluate the effectiveness of risk strategies by the trade-off of cost and the reduction of project risk. Finally, the method for the selection from the combination of risk strategies are proposed and the selection method system of risk strategies in the construction phase of construction projects are developed.
Compared to the situation in Western countries, houses in Japan are said to have shorter life periods. Considering the fact that many of the houses are being replaced despite their satisfactory conditions in physical endurance, it is necessary for the environment to search for some way to prolong its life. This paper analyzes from the survey of the factor of detached house replacement to clear some differences and similarities between house extension, remodeling and replacement behavior, with a goal to find ways to lead replacement-motivated factors towards extension and remodeling activities, thus promoting longer lives of Japanese houses.
This study aims to recognize the improvement process by inhabitants in an urban riverside settlement. We found that, besides improving their houses, inhabitants in the settlement also improved the environmental infrastructure and provided neighborhood facilities such as a small mosque and daily goods stalls. We also found that there are three types of house improvements i.e. improving the house building materials, extensions or modifications of house layout, and the conversion of raft houses to pillar houses. Based on these findings, we recognized that improving houses and environmental infrastructures have been derived from the habitual activities of inhabitants in the settlement. This study also revealed the indication of some inhabitants hope that the government should be involved in the area's improvement process.
This study aims to clarify the building regulations in agricultural district of Yamashiro province through the Edo period. In South Yamashiro province, official notices by Kyoto machibugyosho (magistrate office) obligated every formers to present the application forms for building up to Kyoto machibugyosho in 1733 and 1738. But, I discovered some documents these records the process of obligating farmers to present the application forms for building up to Kyoto machibugyosyo after 1940. This paper takes up these documents.