We made it clear by using decision tree analysis (CHAID) what item (kinds of anticrime measures, their costs and so on) are concerned with uneasy feeling by mostly-old households about anticrime (sneak thief, doorstep sales) living in 3 suburban housing estates developed at 30∼40 minutes by private railroad from center city 20∼40 years ago. Estimation of “anticrime performance in town” and “any suffering like sneak thief or theft” are concerned with an uneasy feeling about sneak thief. People who hear only short summary of sales or long explanation at entrance have more uneasy feeling about doorstep sales.
The purpose of this study is to investigate how residential environment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The following approach was the breath muscle, because of indicate disease progression. The information presented in medical equipment used in their home. The issue of medical equipment is not irrelevant to methods of remodeling the home. A further important point is to planning the bed room because of being greatly influenced by the disease progression it relates activity of daily living in specially excretion and urination. It is concluded that requested not only kept enough space but also sanitary environment in home.
The purpose of this research is to investigate the effects to family carers for reducing BPSD (Behavior and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia) in homes. It is assumed to be important issues to understand the current conditions of BPSD and environment from two aspects of “whereabouts pattern in daytime” and “sleeping place”. For the research methods, an interview on responses from/to carers was conducted. The results were as follows: 1) The dominating factors of whereabouts were categorized in four patterns. 2) The sleeping rooms were categorized in five patterns. 3) Problematic noises and vibrations caused by BPSD were identified in a type of sleeping at a separate room, out of four patterns.
This research analyze the parking space and green space as we recognize them as balance issues to the outdoor space under density conditions targeted for the apartment houses. We selected 89 cases out of architectural magazines and Kobe/Nishinomiya cities, and classified these cases into 5 types by the dwelling unit supply methods, and analyzed these types using several indexes for the building dispositions and parking locations in the planning of apartment houses. As a result, general tendencies of the cases and chronological trends of parking space demands were clarified after the analysis possibility of the parking space location was examined through a systematized index along the apartment house plan.
The complete enumeration questionnaire survey throughout Japan concerning current situations of group living for the elderly was conducted in 5216 traditional nursing homes. The contents of the investigation are whether or not they introduce group living, how they manage the care for group living, when they started, and what effects cause the elderly and care givers. As a result, about 27 percent of the answering facilities provide group living, and about 60 percent of group living facilities evaluated the positive effects to the elderly with BPSD.
The aim of this study is to find out conditions of places for teenagers through the analysis in Mie prefecture. For this objective, we performed the questionnaire survey to teenagers and hearings to managers of the facilities. The results of this study are summarized as follows: · The private facilities differ from the public facilities in the kind of rooms, interiors, furnitures, etc. · The management organization's characteristic has influenced program activities in the facility. · In the factor as which a user chooses the facilities, the neighboring facilities have the human relations more intimate than the distant facilities.
The aim of this study is to analyze and find out space utilizations around classrooms with open-space from actual joit classes in elementary schools. Sometimes pupils sit on the floor and sometimes are at their desk during classes. The results of this study are summarized as follows: 1) Behavior settings of classes were defined as combination of five factors, i.e. activities, unit of class, pupil's aggregate configurations, pupils' number and spaces. 2) We classified joint classes by the transitions of pupil's aggregate configurations and spaces. We found the basic pattern of transitions of learning program. 3) Finally, we grasped space utilizations around the classrooms in the case of joint classes with sitting-on-the-floor-activities.
On this study, we aimed to evaluate the realities, maintenance policy and content of maintenance of campus of National Universities established in the whole country after the end of World War II from historical view. The National Universities were established by reorganizing the higher school institutions under the old educational system. This reorganizing process caused problems of space like desperation of sites. To solve these problems, the 9th special committee was set up on the University Chartering Council. Three methods were used to maintain the campus of doing at each university based on the point of the committee. The standard when facilities of the campus were maintained succeeded to the difference of the antecedent school. The establishment of National Universities aimed at the establishment of a homogeneous integrated university that assumed the prefecture in the system to be a unit. The maintenance policy succeeded to the difference by the school type by which the empire university before the end of World War II was made the top.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the transition of facilities and activities of the Kobokan. The Kobokan one of the settlement houses in Tokyo was established by Japan Christian Women's Organization in 1919 for the relief of the poor especially for their children, which is managed even now and mainly contributes to child welfare at the same place moved in 1929. The result can be summarized as follows; (1) In the case of Kobokan, all activities have been adjusted to the need of the residents at all times. When they judge unnecessary, they change programs as the occasion demands. (2) Especially in prewar times, their activities were not for giving alms to the poor, but for enlightening them to improve their living conditions. (3) Before the war, the area of the facility was not sufficient, so that they used the same space in common with other programs. As a result intergenerational exchange came off spontaneously.
This paper proposes two methods for medical facitity programming to evaluate a medical treatment function with its patient data, in order to determin the function and size of the medical facility/hospital. One method is based on the length of patients' stay and the medical treatment fee. The other is the method to analyze the competitive ability of that hospital, that is, with its regional demand of health and the number of patients to treat there in classification of diseases. We quote the PPM (Product Portfolio Management) which is a marketing technique, and analyzes market growth rate arround the hospital and its share. To confirm the validity of these methods that we propose, we applied these methods to “A” hospital (103beds). Then we learn that these analysis methods make clear the treatment function of “A” hospital (Originality, strength and weakness etc.).
Based on the investigation on the house-renters living in Xibali village in Xi'an city of China, the research on both the resume of house-renters and the accommodation function of urban villages have been studied. Conclusions can be given as follows. 1. The house-renters of urban villages can be mainly devided into three colonies as students, employees and store owners. 2. Most of the house-renters of urban villages are from the countyside and choose the urban villages as their first living places when they come to Xi'an, especilly for the store owners. 3. Urban villages can exert the accommodation function indeed for the people who firstly begin their business or work, the people studying at universities and the new people living in the city who come to the city from the countryside.
The purpose of this research is to examine effects of use situations of an open-air cafe on pedestrians' behaviors. An experiment was carried out to observe pedestrians' attentive actions to the cafe according to the use situation on the open terrace of the cafe. The results of the experiment are summarized as follows. 1. When the open terrace was used by costomers, pedestrians tended to face the cafe frequently. The more costomers there were, the more remarkable the tendency was. 2. Pedestrians tended to face the cafe more frequently at night than during the day. 3. Male pedestrians tended to face the cafe a little more frequently when the costomers were only men. On the other hand, women pedestrians tended to face the cafe a little less frequently when the costomers were only men. 4. When two men were on the terrace facing the street, pedestrians tended to face the cafe only for a moment. 5. There were some differences between actual attentive actions and psychological evaluations, and a part of the differences were estimated to be associated with interpersonal relationships with sex.
The purpose of this research is to identify environmental factors related to the ease of borrowing a cigarette lighter from a stranger in a smoking area. An experiment was carried out in which subjects actually talked to ordinary smokers and borrowed lighters at smoking areas in Yokohama city. As a result, it was found that the ease of talking to a stranger corresponds almost exactly to the ease of entering the smoking area. The distance between the smoking area and the surrounding traffic, and the numbers of surrounding pedestrians were connected with the ease of borrowing behavior. The width of the entrance to the smoking area and the arrangement of benches, etc. were also related to the evaluation. The characteristics of suitable smoking areas for borrowing behavior were summarized into three main factors, that is, people can approach the place without feeling too conspicuous, smokers in the place seem not to have monopolized spaces, and the smoking area has a casual atmosphere which promotes interaction between people.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the psychological evaluation structure, and make clear of the atmosphere of city spaces by the consciousness-types. To get hold of the atmosphere, psychological evaluation experiment was done in 99 points of 9 cities. SD method was done using 18 pairs of psychological evaluation criterions. 5 psychological factor stems: amenity factor, urbanity factor, familiarity factor, abundant factor, diversity factor were extracted from the factor analysis to make psychological evaluation structure of city spaces clear. To type the city atmosphere, cluster analysis was done using psychological quantities of 5 factor stems. As a result, city atmospheres were typed into 5 consciousness-types. By laying out the consciousness-types in each of the cities, psychological evaluation structure was revealed.
The purpose of this study is to extract elements which leave impression to people in city spaces, and to specify the structure of the elements by typing them. To extract the indication elements quantitatively, indication-method was done in 99 points of 9 cities (Marunouchi, Ochanomuzi, Ginza, Shibuya, Makuhari, Utase, Kannai, Kawasaki, Omiya). The indicated elements were divided into four groups: short-distance, intermediate-distance, long-distance, and distance indefinite, according to the distance from research-point. Cluster analysis was done on the base of indication rate of each group. As a result, structures of elements were classified into five indication-element structure models. We have found the characteristics by showing how the five models distribute in each of the city spaces.
Authors have been conducting the field research under the title ‘Origin, Transformation, Alteration and Conservation of Urban Space of Colonial cities’ since 1999. This paper discusses the characteristics of the Spanish Colonial cities created in the Cuba Island. In the period of the Spanish urbanism in America, approximately a sixty of colonial cities were established in Cuba. This study on these cities has been accomplished based on the analysis of old maps corresponding to colonial Spanish period. As cartographic database, 916 images and maps from AGI (The Archive of the Indies in Seville- Archivo de Indias de Sevilla), are used for analysis. In the analysis of the city maps, we classify them into several types according to the criteria of urban items such as location, urban, plaza, blocks, streets, measures, plots etc., which Law of Indies describes.
Authors have been conducting the field research under the title ‘Origin, Transformation, Alteration and Conservation of Urban Space of Colonial cities’ since 1999. This paper discusses the characteristics of the Spanish colonial cities established in Cuba focusing on Nueva Paz as a typical urban model. This study has been accomplished based on the analysis of old maps corresponding to colonial Spanish period and field survey. As cartographic database, maps of 26 cuban cities are included among 7,152 images and maps from AGI (The Archive of the Indies in Seville- Archivo de Indias de Sevilla), four of which are plans for Nueva Paz. Santa Cruz de Mompox who established Nueva Paz prepared two types of city plan, both of which were not implemented. We clarified the original model and transformation of Nueva Paz based on the analysis of block size, block division, and plot subdivision.
The large-scale residential quarter development which exceeds 50ha is done 374 cases. As for these residential quarters it is many in Tokyo and Osaka periphery. Japanese Newtown Act have made 49 Newtown. Japanese New town Act's law has been given expropriation right. Expropriation right was used 24. areas. Japanese New town Act's law because planned characteristic is strong.
This paper aims to analyze the urban spatial structure of the old district of Macao. In our previous researches, the spatial characteristics of open space such as Chin-Dei, Dead End Streets and Extended Pedestrian Space (EPS) were clarified focusing on the relation between them and their adjacent streets. In this paper, through comprehensive analyzing of the relation between spatial characteristics and distribution of three different types of open spaces in the old district of Macao, the urban spatial structure is found out such as the complex of open spaces composed with cultural background, spatial formative character and function to support Macao people's life and tourism activities in high dense city.
The purpose of this research is to clarify the characteristic and usage of vacant lot through the house rebuilding. The results of current study were as follows. 1) The number of small-scale multiplex house has increased by means of house rebuilding. 2) The shape and usage of vacant lot in the site has simultaneously changed with the increase of the number of small-scale multiplex house. 3) Vacant lot has been versatilely used such as spaces for housework and community. 4) Vacant lot belonged mostly to public lands.
This paper focuses upon the spatial formation of mohalla in Varanasi city. Mohalla is traditional neighborhood unit common in North Indian cities, and it was the elemental component of the city in Mughal period as an administrative tax unit as well as an autonomous organization. Nowadays, however, it has lost the administrative meaning and its geographical extent and boundary are becoming unclear. Based on our field survey, this paper clarifies the spatial formation of mohalla such as allocation, size, boundary form, distribution of facilities and street structure, and links them to the historical formation process of the city. The mohallas of Varanasi can be classified broadly into two types. One has linear or tree shape formed along streets, and the other has broad territorial shape. The spatial features of those two types are different in various aspects, in reflection of the degree of urbanization at the time the mohallas were established.
The aim of this paper is to understand the issues for making better use of the public space in the future. We investigate the activation of the street space by “Parasol Gallery”. The results of the investigation are summarized as follows: 1) Pedestrians in the street with a temporary setting increase up to ten percent by Parasol Gallery. 2) For activating, it is necessary to make the space to take a long look at a calm frame of mind. 3) For activating public space, it needs not only space but also exchanges of pleasant experiences, such as talking chance.
The purpose of this study is to develop the physical and psychological environment for improving the street quality and vitality. The result are 1) understanding the pedestrians flow and staying behavior, and 2) clarifying the relation between space composition and staying activity in the parasol gallery based on investigations of traffic and observation. The statistics and analysis shows that staying behavior is a significant factor in thriving the vitality of public space and that the composition of public space is a major factor affecting staying activity and the type and quality of social activity.
This study aims to clarify the relationship with the environment of shopping street, the action trigger elements and human activities. First of all, we classified shopping streets into 7 types from viewpoint of scale and structure of cross section. And 6 types of shopping streets were investigated. The items of investigation are store's facade type, building's use, the elements in front of retail store, frontage width, building's height, pedestrian's activity and the traffic form of the street. The results are as follows: 1. traffic of cars, presence of a arcade, and a location of shopping street influence store's design, the elements in front of retail store, and human activities. 2. A retail store which owns opened frontage has a lot of elements causing human purchasing activity at frontage. But, a retail store which owns more closed frontage did not cause human activities. The openness of store is very important to activate a human activity. 3. In shopping streets except market types, there are many kinds of activities except purchasing acts.
Today, there are many construction failures in many parts in Japan. This is attributed to the fact that there are some problems in the building construction system. The authors assume that the quality assurance system in construction is composed of four levels. The first level is “law” such as the building standard law. The second level is “standard” such as JIS, JAS, JASS, or the standard specification. The third level is “plans in a particular project” such as drawings, particular specifications, working drawings, construction plans, or working instructions. The fourth level is “the technology/skill of the engineer/craftsman”. The quality is to be assured by the complementary relationship among these four levels. These days, projects are getting bigger and more complicated, the procurement system is diversifying, and the technology is advancing. However, “law” doesn't correspond to these changes, and “plans in a particular project” which formerly complemented “law” are not enough now. Therefore, this study focuses on the following aspects. 1. Clarify the quality assurance system from the view points of the four levels. 2. Clarify the actual conditions of the quality assurance system. 3. Clarify the mechanism of the construction failures by using descriptive models.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the transition of townhouse' warehouses of the early modern period in Kyoto. After the division of public area, warehouses were built in the backyard of townhouses at the end of 16th century. After that, another type of warehouses appeared in the street frontage, these were full of the expression wealth. However, these were extinguished by the architectural control of Kyoto- shoshidai in the middle of 17thh century. As the result of that, warehouses have been placed in the backyard of townhouses.
The carpenter group of the Kumo school were analyzed on following: 1. The name of the Kumo school originates in the master carpenter who is named Hoji called a Kumo teacher in Kyoto. 2. The genealogy of the master carpenters of the Kumo school was made by Mokuzaemon YOKOTA of the six generations, Yasugoro MURAKAMI and Syuzou-Syoji YOSHIDA 3. The constituent member of the Kumo school had the scale of 20 carpenters in the Tenpo era, 29 ones in the Kaei era, 38 ones in the late Meiji era, 50 ones in the Taisho era and 24 ones in the late Showa era.
Chuta Ito the historian of architecture surveyed the historical buildings in Okinawa. Ito gave them the name of “Ryukyu architecture”, and positioned it as one of the type of Chinese architecture. On Okinawan side his valuation of “Ryukyu architecture” was broadly embraced around the intellectuals. And in 1930's the movement to try to designate “Ryukyu architecture” as National treasure toned up, because regional society needed to insist on the value of Okinawan culture against the government through it. Behind it there was the will of regional society to assimilate into the nation state rapidly and to remove the cultural discrimination between “Japan” and Okinawa.
This paper analyzes the Noh space which set up at exhibitions of early Meiji era, including its relationship with the distinguished guest such as the Emperor Meiji or the royalty arrival. Noh space was not established at all of the exhibitions, so I take up the Kyoto, Osaka exhibition and Kanazawa, Nagoya museum where the Noh spaces were able to confirm. I analyze the layout of Noh space at the exhibitions, its spatial structure and the erection process. I examine the significance of exhibition from the angle of entertainment establishment which was never picked up. There is a characteristic at the point that used the newspaper articles to develop the process of the establishment of Noh space.
The aim of this paper is to reconsider about wooden roofing written in “Charpentes et tuiles khmeres” by Jacques Dumarcay. Especially, traces of wooden structures at Banteay Srei and Ta Phrom temple have to make consideration again. Throughout the course of this paper, I make sure following that: 1). Some of buildings at Banteay Srei temple, which have wooden roofing, were changed the construction method of it. 2). Traces which remains on the gable that located above an entrance of building, there were not exist Special rotel system which substitute double beam for crown- post, at Ta Phrom temple. Because of there are no crucial clues that determine when these wooden structures were built, some of wooden structures at Ta Phrom temple couldn't predicate quite accurate building age.
This paper analyzes, for the first time, the whole process of the planning of the defensive walls realized in Larache, Morocco, the enclave Spain of Felipe III possessed in 1610, by referring the related documents in Colección Aparici. The final plan was based on the idea of Bautista Antonelli, one of the most important military engineers in that period. And this paper shows that the most important factor in that process was to make a project which can be constructed with low cost and two conditions observed in the original plan of Antonelli were not seen in the final plan. Antonelli modified his original plan according to the wish of the Court which was concerned about its cost. At that period, the Spanish government was trying to reduce the expenditure for military budget, including that of the fortification, in order to solve its financial problem. Therefore, we can regard the process of the planning of the fortification in Larache as a case that shows the general feature of Spanish fortification in the first quarter of the 17th century.
The Monastery of the Prodromos of Stoudios (Stoudios Monastery) in Constantinople was one of the most important monasteries in the Byzantine history. It provided a good example of a Byzantine monastery, located in the imperial capital, Constantinople. Through the examination of three contemporary sources, “Rule of the Monastery”, “Testament of Theodore the Studite”, “De ceremoniis”, this study try to clarify the facilities which attached to the monastery, and at the same time, to get a clue to consider the ruralization of Constantinople in the 9/10 th century.
We propose Symbiosis Communicator for Advanced and Preserved Environment system, SCAPE System, which consists of virtual, intelligent, and Kansei media. This paper shows the analysis and model about a mechanism that makes different media information harmonized. We use building data as 3D information and urban landscape image as 2D information to retrieve different kinds of multimedia data information. We construct a system that 3D building data harmonized with a urban landscape are retrieved when the urban landscape image is put as a key. As a result, people who are not specialist can tell own opinions to specialists and they can take part in urban planning.
It seems that the roles of the companies are indispensable for the early recovery in the earthquake disaster. For example, it is hoped for the construction companies immediately after the earthquake to perform the damage investigation, the emergency restoration, etc. In this research, the decision-making support method to the damage investigation of a lot of buildings is studied to execute the investigation preferentially from the building which has high investigating need, and to go around all target buildings efficiently. Moreover, the analysis example based on the method is shown, and the applicability of the method is examined.