Fire prevention planning is based on requirements in building regulations and laws. It's unclear how much its effective safety is. It usually doesn't consider its cost. Building regulations and laws will be rewritten on the performance in fire prevention. This paper suggests the system that evaluates life safety, and that considers the fireproof cost. This system estimates the cost with public data and estimates life safety with the comparison of smoke behavior and people's one under fire. Finally we applied this system to a model of office building and made clear effective fire prevention planning and their combination.
In the preceding paper the discrete numerical calculation method of sound radiation efficiency has been newly presented and that utility was confirmed. This method is utilized as not only a calculation method but also a measurement method of sound radiation. This is a hybrid method consisting of a measurement of vibration and a calculation of both self- and mutual-radiation impedance. In the present paper, application properties and accuracy of this method are concretely certified in an experiment on sound radiation. As results of the work, the followings are revealed. 1) The discrete numerical calculation method has a lot of merits that a conventional method doesn't possess. 2) The length of imaginary divided part, that is, a space of measurement points, is enough to be half of the bending wave-length at the coincidence frequency.
Two experiments were conducted to determine whether color, lighting and material interact among each other in affecting the evaluation of an interior's ambience. Experiment 1, in which interior models with varying wall color and lighting were evaluated by subjects, showed that the effects on ambience evaluation of wall color and lighting are essentially independent of each other. Experiment 2, in which wall color, lighting and wall material were changed, demonstrated that wall color and material interact with respect to the parameters "beautiful" and "serene." The parameter "warm," however, showed no interaction among the three factors, and its evaluation was explainable as the linear sum of the effects of wall color, lighting and wall material.
The thermal insulation, heating, and ventilation systems of four typical existing detached houses were upgraded to meet current building standards, Air leakage was reduced to 2 cm^2 per 1 m^2 of floor area and the hygrothermal condition of the crawl space of the vertical edge insulation of the foundation walls was also improved. Thermal comfort in the living areas of the houses and their internal temperature distribution were brought up to Sapporo's new energy conservation code levels, The cost of each upgrading, excluding heating equipment, was found to be approximately 6 million yen per house.
Deteriorating environment, for example, global warming and acid rain, is cause by large consumption of energy. In order to deal with this problem, it is very necessary to popularize a house considering environment. Especially, solar house, which has solar air collector and floor heating., has been remarkably penetrating into society in Japan. In this paper, We examine specifications of house, passive system, and operation by using numerical simulation for more comfortable house which has natural heat sources as much as possible. We suggest the guideline of plan of solar house with solar air collector and floor heating system, and confirm its effectiveness.
In order to evaluate indoor air quality and ventilation effectiveness, it is necessary to comprehend properties of various ventilation systems. In this paper we describe the results of field measurement of ventilation effectiveness for four office rooms using age of air and air exchange effectiveness. The results are as follows. (1) In the case of air conditioning system and ventilation system using ceiling chamber for return air, the local air exchange effectiveness in the room is ranged from 0.8-1.2. (2) In the case of raised floor air supply system, the local air exchange effectiveness is ranged from 0.9-1.1, however in the case of ceiling supply chamber system is ranged from 0.8-1.0. (3) The room which is ventilated by duct system, local air exchange effectiveness becomes about 0.7-1.1. When supply outlets are closed to make bad ventilated area, local air exchange effectiveness of bad ventilated area becomes 0.8-1.0, in the other hand the release area of supply outlets becomes 1.0-1.1. (4) It is possible to evaluate ventilation characteristics of office space by local age of air and local air exchange effectiveness.
In this study, organic compounds in a cleanroom air and on silicon (Si) wafer surfaces were investigated by using thermal desorption-atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectroscopy (TD-APIMS). Si wafers with hydrogen terminate and with native oxygen exposed in a cleanroom were analyzed. As a result, chained hydrocarbons such as C2-C5 alkanes were detected with higher concentrations than phthalates such as DOP and DBF from both Si wafers. And the relationship between the concentration of organic gas species in the cleanroom and organic compounds on Si wafer surfaces was discussed on the tendency of the organic compound adsorption on Si wafer surface. The adsorption mechanisms of organic compounds on Si wafers were discussed by thermal desorption spectra. Based on these results, the adsorption hierarchy model of organic compounds on Si wafer surfaces was proposed.
High-speed and accurate scanning test method is required for the leakage test of HEPA and ULPA filter used in cleanrooms. In this paper, a method to determine the parameters of scanning test is proposed considering the variance and discreteness of particle counting and the effect of the filter penetrating particle. The fundamental characteristics of evaluation of the proposed method is certified by using Monte-Carlo simulation, and the influence of the variances of parameters such as upstream concentration, measuring time, face velocity, on the result of the test is considered.
A experimental device was produced to search the thermal output of floor heating system. In this paper, the following 4 items were examined in an experiment, on the assumption that the floor heating system was used in a wooden house. 1. Supply heat flow to the floor heating system 2. Upward heat flow : Heat flow divided by the surface 3. Downward heat flow : Heat flow which is passing through the construction, to rooms beyond. 4. The ratio of upward heat flow and downward heat flow to supply heat flow In summarizing the result of the experiment, the electoric floor heating system was grouped into three types (1. A type which flooring is one with floor heating panel, 2. B type covered the floor heating panel with floorings or sheet of vinyl chloride, 3. C type which the floor heating panel is installed under the subflor, during the floor joists). The ratio of upward heat flow to supply heat flow was about 80% in A type, about 80% in B type covered with the floorings, about 90% in B type covered with sheet of vinyl chloride, about 70% in C type. A sample number of the hot water floor heating syatem was few. But its tendency was almost similar to a tendency of the electoric floor heating syastem.
In order to research the actual conditions of the urban climate in the northern area of Nagano Prefecture, certain weather data were analyzed, e.g. temperature, globe temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity, wind direction, set^*. The area were divided to 500m meshes. Then, the weather data for each of the meshes were compared with the measurement data at the Nagano meteorological observatory. The authors obtained the following results: (1) All of the meteorological data (temperature, globe temperature, relative humidity) are correlated with land use. (2) Differences were found between the weather data at the meteorological observatory and the other areas: for example, the annual average temperature at the other areas were higher than the data at the meteorological observatory; the value of this difference was about 1.5℃.
Surface temperature distributions of tree crowns were examined with thermo-couples and infrared thermal images in June and October. As to the temperature difference between the crown surface and the ambient air, thermo-couples show partially higher surface temperatures in the daytime by 8℃ at the highest. However the temperature difference obtained with the thermal images ranges from -2〜0℃ to -2〜2℃. Since the thermal images directly show the radiative temperature distribution, it is concluded the average radiative temperature on the tree crowns is almost as same as the ambient air temperature.
This study intends to clarify the influence of vertical traveling on spatial cognition and to examine how way finding behavior varies with differences in individual strategies and environmental information. A series of wayfinding experiments was conducted in campus buildings and a department store, which were chosen in terms of visual information along the route and vertical floor alignment. Pointing task was also conducted in another building on the campus to examine individual orientational skills. Analyses of the results indicate that people tend to lose orientation after vertical traveling though some of them can recover it by obtaining environmental information, and that people tend to assume a new floor plan is similar to the former floor plan when they travel from one floor to another. It also revealed that using various information according to environment is essential for choosing right route.
Wood resource has expected to circulate between the forest resources and wood consumption for buildings in some area. There are distinctive formed rural district which are called Sankyo-Son, those do not construct main part. Each Sankyo-Son has some scale grove of tree which is called residential trees (Yasiki-Rin). Those trees have function as windbreak and residents have used those for fuel and building materials. This study grasps Sankyo-Son as the minimal model of resources circulation between buildings and residential trees, and verifies resources circulation from the point of view of LCCO_2 and LCMass.
In order to stop the global warmth due to the CO_2 concentration, the energy use should be decreased. Construction industry in Japan consumes about 1/3 of energy in the whole industries and a large of resource materials. As a result, construction also discharges huge waste, about 20% of that in the whole industries. In order to save energy as well as resource, the recycle of the building materials should be urgent to be carried out. In this study, the method to calculate the energy consumption to reuse, renew and remake housing materials has been presented. By using this method, the energy consumption of building materials in three residential houses with different construction method has been compared with recycled and non-recycled selection. The result has shown for most building materials, the energy consumption needed to remake housing materials from recycled materials is lower than that to make new housing materials. The energy consumption of building materials in all case-study housing can be saved by about 10%. At the same time, the resource, measured by mass of building materials(kg) can be decreased by over 50%.
The purpose of the study is to clarify the actual planning procedure at the establishing period of the Land Readjustment Association (L.R.A. in short), and to examine the characteristics of planning process and modification of the L.R. Projects of Fukuoka Prefecture under the City Planning Act of 1919. The method of study is to compare the original plan with the local standards regarding the sizes of blocks and lots, and the executed plan. As a result, we found the plans at the establishing period of L.R.A. are extremely based on local standards, and blocks as well as lots are altered in the planning process.
This paper succeeds "The Study on Housing Environment for People with Thalidomide-induced Upper Limb Disabilities 1" and the purpose of this study is to clarify the behavioral characteristics of people with severe upper limb disabilities who manage daily activities with their feet in Japan and Sweden. The method of this study is to record subject's cooking behaviors with video tape recorder and analyzed their behaviors. We chosen 2 cases with severe disabilities in both countries, and this paper mainly explore results of Japanese case.
A hypothesis that visitors' satisfaction would be determined by the scale of science museum was tested through questionnaire surveys conducted at 16 science museums. Multiple regression analyses showed that most variance was explained by total floor area and exhibition area per exhibit. Interactive exhibits, single theme, instructors and experiment shows increased satisfaction; large-scale natural exhibition including diorama decreased satisfaction. Planning will be improved if appropriate reference is made to these key variables and factors.
Overlap phenomenon between dry and wet occur on the by-path for players when swimming meet is being held. We made clear the structure of that phenomenon and the cause of it as follows. The connection path between main-pool and sub-pool that is made as dry-zone is used by players as wet-zone. The common path is substitued as circulation to mainpool in wet-zone. The by-path from gallery that must be dry is invaded by wet because of common use between by-path and wet circulation to main pool. In accordance with these analyzation, we designed model plan for improvement.
The aim of this study is to clarify the recent characteristics of high-rise office building planning. As the result of this analysis, 1)The rental office buildings is a high rate, and these are built crowing in a city. 2)The ceiling height and floor height have increased since 1988. This shows a tendency of intelligent building phenomena. The following is to clarify the principal component about planning studies of high-rise building, and grouping its characteristic of the analysis. As a result of the principal component analysis and the average linkage cluster analysis about 62 high-rise office building, we can separate seven types. Then we analysis to clarify the difference between the buildings in the position of the company and the rental office buildings. As a result of the principal analysis and the average linkage cluster analysis about 42 rental high-rise office buildings, we can separate six types.
In this study, we clarified the property of design process, between the students whose projects were evaluated higher (a higher group) and those projects were not evaluated higher (a lower group). We presented some design educational modules (E.M.) to the students at design practice to perceive the space and analyzed the effect of E.M. As a result, the higher group is able to have many experiences in imaginary spaces with various behavior settings than the lower group. And the spaces where the higher group's images are beyond the range of sketch area. E.M. enables the higher group to be able to imagine the spaces with various behavior settings, in which the lower group could not. Both time and method which E.M. has presented to the lower group must be changed to suit the situation tor them. In conclusion, spaces are generated through procedures guided by E.M..
We obtained 9 effects of the sunlight on spatial orders caused by light composition in a space: Expanding the Horizontal Plane, Giving Depth, Dimming Direction and Distance, Marking Outlines of the Form, Generating Unity, Generating Direction, Emphasizing the Integration of the Spaces, Connecting the Spaces, Emphasizing the Articulation of the Spaces. We also obtained factors causing these effects by examining the location of the light in the space, the form of light in the space, the character of the outstanding light.
This research aims to grasp an actual condition of distribution of multiple dwelling houses compounded of community facilities and compound factors in the surveyed areas in Osaka. We analyzed existence of community facilities in multiple dwelling houses located in those areas by the theory of quantification II with for factors: the land use zoning, the distance from the nearest station, the width of front road, number of roads bordering the multiple dwelling house. It is clarified that a model expressed with the theory of quantification II can explain whether community facilities locate in a multiple dwelling house or not.
This report describes investigation and analysis of an old category II exclusive residential district and land use pattern of residential district. Even within the same use district, the land use pattern could differ greatly depending on the height and bulk zoning and relationship with stations. Also, with respect to the strip zoning system district, number of storeys of building and ratio of fireproof buildings tend to be higher, though the values there of could differ depending on contents of height and bulk zoning and district conditions.
The purpose of this study is to investigate relationship between estimation and color operation of cityscape elements by means of computer. Following methods of simulation are adopted; cornices and window frames of one color are added on each building in Sim.1, colors of walls are changed to one color at regular intervals in Sim.2, sign boards of one color are added in Sim.3, trees are added in Sim.4, and characteristic color combinations in actual streetscapes and pictures are applied to building facades. Sim.4 has high estimation. Effect of color operation with cityscape elements are influenced by color combination of facades.
The "fireproof area rate" is usually used as an indicator for the urban improvement plan for prevention from spread fire after a big earthquake. It is pointed out that it has one problem that it must restrict the contents of plan to only factors that increase it and the variety of the plan may be lost as a result. On this study, it was generalized using site percolation model and then it was demonstrated that the problem must be mitigated by making clear what attributes of urbanized area prescribe the performance against the fire spread and mutual relation of them.
In this paper, we analyzed the relation between the community's activities and municipal support system on townscape ordinance and community planning ordinance. The activity of Townscape preservation community, Townscape agreement group and Community board, mainly study, take the public information and participate in municipal environmental improvement program. In addition to, The townscape agreement group improve neighborhoods. The Community board make the district master plan. The administration support Community board by establishment of funds system, adviser system, and setting the counter position of community planning. The administration support Townscape preservation community and agreement group by combination of townscape improvement program.
Due to an increase in developments that are concentrated in urban areas, excavation in building construction has deepened and widened. Consequently, it has become more critical to consider the influence on neighborhood and public nuisance during construction. Underground works occupy a large part of construction costs and periods, thus being regarded as most important. This study presents planning of excavation works in building construction at an early stage. The authors have suggested the design models for planning of retaining supports: 1) The authors have suggested three logics for planning of retaining supports identified by three Zones(A, B and C) which are categorized by degrees of Depth and Area of excavation. 2) The authors have analyzed cases which belong to Zone A(small and medium-sized excavations) and Zone B(large and deep sized excavations). 3) Especially, in Zone B, the authors have testified the possibility of an appropriate planning method of retaining support by the logic introduced from statistical discriminate analysis.
In Zambia, the new government has promoted the home ownership scheme which involved the selling of public housing to sitting tenants. The Progromme faces the problems such as: (1) Credit finance is far beyond the reach of the low-income household. (2) Some of the legal registered tenants have not been occupying the houses. (3) Most of the sold housing are very old. The government trasfers the responsiblity of repairing the houses to the sitting tenants. The sale of public housing is reducing the amount of affordable housing in the low income housing market. It causes a increase in the number of squatter housing.
The purpose of this study is to clear the mechanism of spreading of the styles and materials concerning detached houses in Tohoku, and to clear the residents' views on Hokkaido styles in Aomori, Sendai and Yamagata. As a result, we cleared the followings. 1) Newly built detached houses in Tohoku district are greatly affected by Hokkaido and Tokyo styles continuing geographically, but they have regional differences. 2) Hokkaido styles affect the newly built detached houses in Aomori on inside styles as well as outside styles. 3) The residents in Aomori, Sendai and Yamagata are highly valuing high-heat insulating. The residents in Aomori are highly valuing M-shaped roof, but the residents in Yamagata are almost not valuing it. 4) Though the residents in Yamagata are keeping their traditional styles as before, the residents in Aomori are losting most of their traditional styles by spreading of Hokkaido styles. As a result, the residents in Aomori are feeling serious problems on their lives.
After the Meireki Fire (1657), many daimyos received new estates from the Tokugawa shogunate to refuge from fire which were located in the suburbs of Edo city. In this process, the places were chosen on the dimyos' preferences and the shogunate adjusted their conflicts. The regulation of those estates fixed only dimensions, therefore the lack of deliberate city planning caused sprawl ad affected the suburban structure of Edo.
There are fractional measurement of the column spacing dimensions which cannot be explained by the "Hasira-ma kansu-sei" theory related to the study of the 7th century Japanese temple architecture. We can explain the postspacing system of the Yamada-dera Kondo by a new theory which developed during this period, this measurement system is based upon the division of an overall dimension into equal parts, so that the dimension of the individual post spans results in fractional units. This system, the basis of this report, is termed the "so-ma kansu-sei". Also, during this period, a primitive "shiwari-sei" also existed, which can be seen in the Horyu-ji Chumon. The "so-ma kansu-sei" was the basis upon which the "shiwari-sei" developed.
Hagi was the capital of Mouri-Han and Okyaku-ya was built there. In 1863 the capital shifted from Hagi to Yamaguchi and Okyaku-ya was built also in Yamaguchi. Through the examination of historical materials, following results are ascertained; (1)Okyaku-ya was used as a city hall as well as a guest house. (2)Okyaku-ya was composed of Gozanoma (main guest room), Hiroma (entrance room as well as a court), office and cookroom.
Representative of the late Heian Period, many attempts have been made to reproduce the planning of Hosshouji Temple. However, unexplained aspects regarding land, architecture and planning remain. Using various materials regarding planning, archeological studies, and historical records, I will reproduce the Hosshoji's plan, then compare the Hosshouji and Houjouji, examining their continuity, and originahty. Both temples were very similar in terms of their pond, architecture and Buddhist imagery; particularly, their use of the Vairocana Buddha in the main hall of both temples. Nevertheless, Hosshouji emphasis of its main hall, independent of other structures, was its most unique characteristic.
An examination of two pictorial sorces (Ichienho Sashizu, Zentsuji Garanzu) in the possession of Zentsuji temple (Zentsuji-shi, Kagawa-ken), reveals the following things about the Niju-no-hoto pagoda, described in the Nankairuroki, a document dating from 1243 (Ninji 4), as having been built by Kobo-Daishi (Kukai) : ・The Niju-no-hoto pagoda is in fact the same building as the Hokkedo, and both the upper and the lower levels were square in shape. ・In addition to the square shape of both levels, the documents reveal that the interior of the building also featured a Taizokai Mandara, and that the ceremony of Hokke Zanmai was conducted there. This is in keeping with the practices of the Tendai Sect between the late 9th and 11th centuries, and considering that the name "tahoto" came to be popular also in the Singon Sect after the middle 10th century, the building also dates from this period, between the middle 10th and 11th centunes. ・Thus, from both the shape of the building and its construction date, it is not possible to accept that it was constructed by Kobo-daishi.
There are some telephone exchange office buildings which resemble "A PROJECT OF TELEPHONE EXCHANGE OFFICE" proposed by Mamoru YAMADA in design : the building of Hyogo, Fukuoka and Shimonoseki. This paper clarify that these building designs are mainly produced by Taiji MORI, Nobuo WADA and Akira UENAMI (under the direction of WADA) with the systematic design method accumulated at the Building Repair Section of the Ministry, and that their design attempts break with traditional character and provide the background of YOSIDA and YAMADA's first developements of Modern architecture. With this viewpoint, we estimate Mori's projects and his contribution to the architectural works of this Section.
Castellated Gothick buildings appeared in the landscape garden in the beginning of 1730's and enjoyed great popularity through the 18th century. The socioeconomic meaning of popularity of these building in the period from circa 1733 to 1742, in the year when mercantile Sir Robert Walpole retired from the premier, is studied from the viewpoint of the Anglo-Spanish mercantile competetion. Castellated Gothick buildings played an important role in raising hostility to Spain, arised among the English free traders while lamenting for degeneration of the Sir Robert Walpole Administration and challenging mercantile Spain to wars in order to get her colonies.
This paper focuses to figure out the ideological trend of Chinese contemporary architects in the process of modernization and socialist transformation of traditional architectural culture by means of analyses of architects discours published in "the Architectural Journal" in the 1950-1970s, which is often called as "the Period of Chairman Mao". Refering to the method of linguistics, the keywords of discours and its frequency used in architectural papers are indexed and counted by subjects, and then be classified into several categories in accordance with the axes of "social background-architecture-culture" and "architectural ontology-methodology-artistry". Through construction and transformation investigation, it is found that architectural thoughts in that period are based on the government policy, i. e., the combination of "function, economy and beauty" in architecture, and the criterion of these is socialism ideology and political propaganda. According to the movement of focuses of architects' discours following the pressure of ideology and mass movement, this period can be divided into 6 phases.
The purpose of this paper is to show how women kept company in Hanshinkan suburban ersidential area, taking the case of Takarazuka Women's Club in early Showa era. This Club was organized by Hankyu Railway Co. The member of this club was woman living in Osaka, Kobe and Hanshinkan suburban residential area. In the club, the courses of hobbies were held and lately the social gathering was formed. It was managed by the Club, and had been kept by the committee that was composed of the member and by the membership fee.
This study deals with the design methods and concepts of incineration plants from the view point of architectural design. The characteristics of Japanese large plants in 1985〜1996 have been analyzed through plans, photographs and questionnaires sent to designers of each architectures. The results of them were synthesized and 11 design concepts and variation of major design methods were shown. The main purpose of designing architectures of plants has changed from just covering mechanical system to covering the negative image of waste management, and to express images such as symbolicity, locality and familiarity which are no concern of waste management.
Amid popular attention to nighttime views, night scenery of waterfronts is very popular with people. Even so, the issue of light hazards has appeared even in the case of waterfronts, and related quarters are presumably anxious about countermeasures to be taken. This research is to verify to what degree light can be reduced, with the evaluation of night views left intact. Consequently, the following three points became clear: (1) "Walls" are composed of a great volume or light and highly brilliant rays. (2) However, "walls buttress the evaluation of night views. (3) It is possible to reduce the light on walls to about 30% of its original level, without deteriorating the evaluation of the night views concerned.
Designers generally develop their designs as processes of adjusting and reconciling design decisions explored using various types of representation models that were developed, in parallel fashion, to study varying subjects such as space planning, building bulk, or structural system. Though the most CAD allow users to define multiple representation models, they have lacked utilities that support adjusting operations among them. It is the objective of this study to propose a model of design process and a prototype CAD for schematic design stage. Reviewing a case study, the authors assessed the advantages of the system use and subjects for the future studies.