On Okinawa Island, each village formed before the modern times has at least one ritual area called Kami-Asagi or Tun. Though it is often said that we must understand Utaki and Kami-Asagi/Tun as the nucleus of a village in order to grasp the construction of the community on Okinawa Island, earlier studies on their positional relation have been partial. In this paper, as the foundation of the study of Kami-Asagi and Tun, after visiting all the villages on Okinawa Island that have Kami-Asagi/Tun, we clarified their conditions classifying their positional relation to community and examining their present use.
The concern with universal design has been growing for the last several years in Japan. Some local governments have formulated universal design architectural guidelines(UDA-Gs) independently. The purpose of this paper is to make clear the difference and commonality of formulation and enforcement of UDA-Gs among local governments. Collecting data.interviews with stuffs and observation of the buildings were carried out in 8 local governments that have UDA-Gs. The results of this study are as follows; 1. UDA-Gs can be classified into two main groups in the eyes of law and characteristics. 2. There are two kinds of guidelines: one is similar to 'Hukumachi-jourei', the other is made originally. 3. Numerical standards of UDA-Gs are more sever in comparation with 'Hukumachi-jourei' and Accessible and Usable Building Law in Japan. 4. Two local governments, KUMAMOTO and HUKUSHIMA, show the user types which are classified by disease symptoms or condition of the users within their UDA-Gs.
The purpose of this study is to draw a planning guideline for the role and services of satellite pharmacies in hospital wards. This paper describes the results compiled from the answers to the questionnaire and hearings on the satellite pharmacies and the services offered there. We have clarified the following conclusions. 1) Hospitals are encouraged to have satellite pharmacies. 2) It is necessary for satellite pharmacies to have spaces and equipment for; (1) administrative work and (2) material handling and management. Also, due attention should be paid to the location of the satellite pharmacies in relation to the nurse stations, so that good communication and cooperation can be established between the pharmacists and the nurses.
The aim of this study is to clarify how the between the performing-arts center and urban situation through the case study of Gunma Music Center. The findings are summarized as follows; 1) Preceding to the project, the performing-arts activity motivate the citizens to create their own music center. 2) The concept and the characteristics of the project was defined in the initial stage of the planning. 3) The citizens have opportunities to join the project through the collection of contributions, the explanatory meeting and the local media. 4) The relationships was cooperative enough to make the planning process advanced in the history of Japan performing-arts center.
The effective factors of the thinking process by introducing the pair meeting (PM) to the early stage of space designing with the group work were analyzed comparatively on following 3 aspects, 1) 4 transition patterns through the procedures for making proposal document were found. 2) The proposal ideas that follow "Dynamic developing pattern" using the thinking domain widely and PM, and ones lead by reference to other members' ideas, were highly evaluated. 3) The topics in PM were mainly on examination of other members' ideas. On the other hand, the topics in group meeting (GM) were mainly on the presentation of self idea and general matters. This data means that the members were using the variety of meeting (PM&GM) properly. The highly evaluated proposals using PM learn some kind of ideas from the sketches and meeting topics of the different pair group, and that fact was mainly mentioned in PM. In conclusion, designing environment using PM leads the Inter-depending structure in the group work.
This paper aims at developing a helpful method for producing creative designs by manipulating referential information in the initial stage of the design process. The exercise is carried out for a product design (lightings) by two groups, each of which is intentionally provided with different levels of referential information: one on buildings (Group-A) and the other on products (Group-B). The main findings derived from the analysis are summarized as follows: 1) Four different design process patterns were found according to the 'Concreteness vs. Target-domain Matrix' adopted in the paper. What we've called the 'Dynamic developing pattern' using a wide range of the Matrix domain scored the highest points. This pattern is particular to Group-A members. 2) The quantity of sketches drawn by Group-A was twice the amount of Group-B. This tendency was apparent especially in the initial stage when gathering ideas from the given referential information. 3) The analysis on the contents of the sketches reveals that Group-A members tried to extract abstract relations within the referential information in the initial stage. They then started sketching the concrete material aspects towards the final design. The final proposals following this sketching process generally earned higher scores.
Many public housing complexes in regions of Hokkaido with heavy snow have attached roofed walkways called "Gangi" that provide walking spaces in winter. However, drifting snow, which frequently occurs in Hokkaido due to low temperatures, often accumulates in the walkways and causes problems for daily use and snow removal. In this study, the authors examined snow control measures for Gangi. In the first of part of the paper, results of a field survey of public housing complexes in Hokkaido are presented. Results of wind tunnel tests using model buildings and model snow are presented in the latter half of the paper.
The purpose of this article is to analyze the anchorpoint in the nursing home and to discuss about the spatial legibility under low vision conditions. In this study, two types of elderly low visions were reproduced by editing the image; blurred vision and misty vision. Comparing the anchorpoint of the blurred vision and misty vision, it is cleared that the anchorpoint is a little hard to converge under the misty vision condition. The spatial form and high-contrast are effective for the anchorpoint as a spatial clue under the low vision. Major eye fixation points are suspended at the spatial obscure point.
The population of Japan will change to a decrease. In such situation, it is important to pay attention where population had kept increasing. This study aims to clarify the feature about population increase and to clarify the feature of Boze island according to the population increase The following four points are understood. 1) the feture of population increasing at Boze island. 2) the transformation of Boze island related to the population increase 3)the folk customs, and the feature of residents' composition at home, in Boze island 4) Possibility that residents have removed frequently in this island Above, the dwelling system of this island is considered.
The purpose of this paper is to clear the assumptions for establishing a sustainable cultural heritage management in Taketomi Island by bringing out the model of relationship between cultural heritage and local community using tourism. As a result, we found the factor of the unbridgeable gulf of the cultural heritage and life by understanding the change in "Work" and "Role". We propose four policies for cultural heritage management, to set upon conservation of cultural heritage in Taketomi Island, to manage the informations about cultural heritage, to operate the system for taking advantage of cultural heritage, and to improve an environment for settlement, and clear the concept and the role of NPO managing cultural heritage.
This research is an investigation of consideration to the entrepreneur and the resident who lives in the house built on the old factory site. The resident is answering that the noise at the factory and going of the car in and out are anxious, and the entrepreneur is answering that it is anxious that the number of residents has increased. However, 80% or more answered that the coexistence of the house and the factory was possible. In the future, the factory must restrict the activity and the resident must deepen the understanding against the factory. Moreover, it is also important to prevent the clearance and the development of disorder in the old factory site.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the form characteristic and usage characteristic of openspace that has changed by house rebuilding. The main results are as follows. 1) The number of small-scale housing complex are increasing by house rebuilding on the detached house. 2) Moreover, the form characteristic and usage characteristic of unoccupied land and the street space in the site have changed into the detached house together by house rebuilding. 3) The function of unoccupied land and street space are growing use like parking space. That condition makes the quality of openspaces are declining instead by the increasing of traffic function.
In the previous study, a simulation model of evacuation from tsunami for the region where the refuge was easy to the upland was proposed utilizing Multi Agent System. On the other hand, numerous flat lowland cities exist in the coastline in Japan, moreover in those area the distribution of Tsunami refuge facilities is important. In this study, the model was applied to Kushiro City's urban central district as example of the coastal plain city. Several present problems in this district were indicated, through spatial evaluation of Tsunami refuge facilities.
The aim of this study is to understand changes of fire-prevention performance using transition probability matrices of building use and structure. To this end, transition probability matrices of buildings structures were constructed by comparing data at two different observation times (1991 and 1996). And fire-spreading velocity ratios of converged situation were estimated using eigenvectors of transition probability matrices when the eigenvalue was one. By comparing the estimated ratio with ratio of the situation at 1996, the areas where danger of fire-spreading will increase were detected and the tendencies of their distribution were discussed. Prom above results, targeted area was divided into 3 groups such as increase or decrease or constant. And the tendencies of situation transition of buildings structures and uses were discussed.
On this study continued from the Part 1, we've chosen two Prefectures of the region limitative type that forms the landscape by the hard measures and the soft ones for the specified region in the Prefectures, and two Prefectures of the idea active type that forms the landscape mainly by the soft measures for the Prefectures. So we've made clear the applying circumstances of the each landscape administrative measures. Still more, through the investigation of the relation with the municipalities, we've clarified the roles of the landscape administrative measures. As a result, we've found two types' roles. The region limitative type's born "the wide region role" by the hard measures. The idea active type's born "the wide region role" and "the promotive role" by the soft measures. Finally, by the result of the Part 1 and 2, we've surveyed the bearing roles of the landscape administrative measure of each 3 types as the following. The total development type's born 3 roles, that is, "the wide region role", "the leading role" and "the promotive role". The region limitative type's born 1 role, "the wide region role". The idea active type's born 2 roles, "the wide region role" and "the promotive role".
Urban development projects played significant roles in modernization of cities and have recently moved their focus to spatial issues since the quality of urban space fell in such critical condition as decline of city centers and destruction of community. However it is not clear enough how urban space should be formed in the process of projects. This paper looks at four phases of urban design such as vision of city, plan of project, design of space and enablement of design, and analyzes their mechanism through a case study on a private-initiative redevelopment of post industrial site at Miyahara, Saitama.
The Public Moral District "Fuki-chiku" which was provided for by Former City Planning Act (1919) was one of the Zoning measures to control the entertainment and amusement trades (such as bars, restaurants, etc.), the gay quarters or the red-light districts. However there was no "Fuki-chiku" district designated. In this paper, the auther tries to clarify the concept of "Fuki-chiku" and why it had not been designated. The provision of "Fuki-chiku" turning into a dead letter was caused by not only the defect of the law but also the political pressure and the social resistance.
The purpose of this research is the development of a model for locating spatial function in human space based on patterns of individual use of spatial function considering the frequency of use and the exclusive character on space. In the model, every individual use of spatial function results in items, which has its own scale in real space. Using this model, we discuss the relation of the accessibility and spatial location of functions. We also analyze the problem of individual trade-off between the increase and decrease in accessibility when one function is jointly used.
Although there are a variety of arguments and conclusions, the dimensional plan system of the Khmer architecture is not achieved collective conclusion over the years. Concerning this issue, the main purpose of this study is to indicate the construction measure of the Khmer period through the comparative analysis between Thommanon Temple Complex and Banteay Samre Temple Complex, which are suitable examples on account of the construction period, located region, and the scale of complex.The conclusions of this analysis are; 1. these two monuments are clearly recognized to be subjected to the whole number plan system, 2. the construction measure of the Angkor Wat period is estimated around 412mm.
One among the valuable historical books in Korea is "Samkuk-saki" recording the history of Sila dynasty which was contemporary with T'ang dynasty (唐, China) and Heian (平安, Japan). The academic world regards 'Oksa (屋舎)' in "Samkuk-saki" as a regulation before the reign of King HungDug (A.D826-836). But nobody knows the building code in Koryo dynasty, which succeeded to Sila. After that time, Chosen dynasty distributed the housing limit regulations concretely. Unfortunately, there are no wooden architectures left. But the substructures prior to 13th are found here and there. For studying of Korean ancient architecture, we are totally dependent on the results of archeology and the study of records. Under this present circumstance, we can't but be much interested in the substructures. 'Gye (階)' has two opinions; one is 'podium', another 'stairs'. A rich diversity of opinions is now under way. This paper is a part of an effort to clarify the meaning of Gye by a comparative study on the records, remains in that day. And, I expect this study to contribute to the study about the history of architectural laws and conservation of cultural properties.
I wrote a report about the characteristics of Bothnian block-pillar churches in the 17^<th> century in my previous paper. Many of these churches were constructed using a highly developed technique during this time. But in Sweden, the style of churches changed to cruciform churches at the end of the 17^<th> century. This trend came to Finland and many cruciform churches were built with the corner-timbered technique. Although the block-pillar churches became virtually obsolete, the technique was still being applied to cruciform churches as late as the middle of the 18^<th> century. Thus the cruciform churches developed into larger and higher structures. I will try to clarify how the block-pillar technique was applied to cruciform churches. I believe this technique played a very significant role in the history of Finnish wooden churches during the 17^<th> and 18^<th> centuries.
In Yokohama many companies exported raw silk at the end of 19^<th> c. In the beginning of 20^<th> c. some trading companies had the shading equipments that putted in the window for testing the quality of the raw silk. That equipment was invented for testing the great deal raw silk hi 1901 when the national institute for testing the raw silk was enlarged. After that the equipment prevailed to the trading companies. In Yokohama at the end of 19^<th> c. the tea trading companies used the similar equipment called "HIYOKE" for testing the quality of the tea. The equipments for the raw silk followed ones for the tea.
Firstly, the purpose of this paper is to study by the hierarchical structure method with golden section for an architectural elevation of Tokyo City Hall Complex by Kenzo Tange. In case of many of his works of Kenzo Tange, people will find golden section on them. He requests his staffs to make models from the early stage of the design, and check the design and proportion quite repeatedly. Model makings are at the beginning in 1:500 scale, next in 1:200 scale, then hi 1:50 scale, in 1:10 scale etc.. At each stages the frameworks of each scales are decided by him and by his old staffs. Therefore even if observers feel there is no les traces regulateurs or no modulor in the design process in front of Kenzo Tange, golden section is gradually decided through the feed back process. Secondly, people say that Tokyo City Hall Complex is very similar to Notre Dame de Paris, so that the author researches the reason why the opinion occurs through the study of the relationship between proportions of Notre Dame de Paris and Tokyo City Hall Complex.
The purpose of this paper is to make an analysis of Louis Sullivan's architectural thought focusing on his idea of 'mobile equilibrium.' We made clear that for him the idea is the law of all things in nature, and the principle which must be expressed in man's work of art. In the end, we explained how he expressed the idea of 'mobile equilibrium' in his work through analyzing his last work of architectural ornament.
This paper aims to analyze the characteristics of the construction of the "passages", urban shopping malls, in Paris in the 19^<th> century, which connoted the subdivision of their property through alienation. Making an analysis with primary documents such as the notarial deeds and the "Premier Sommier Foncier", we verified: 1) the temporal and geographical coincidence of the boom in construction of "passages" inside the built-up area with the boom in speculative land subdivisions outside that; 2) the similarity of the social titles of the developers of those two kinds of operations; 3) the financial management of the construction of "passages" dependent on the external capitals; and 4) the process of subdivision of the property through alienation as well as secondary speculations in the subdivided properties for the purpose of renting the shops comprising the "passage". Thus the speculative construction of "passages" could result in the subdivision for sale which implied probable difficulties in their maintenance to be executed by multiple proprietors and renters.