This report concerns the following up study synthetically based on the respective results of the questionnaires given by the members of American, German and Japanese orchestra at thirty Japanese halls during their concert tour. Focusing on the relationship between the acoustical impression on a stage and the specifications of a hall, it is needed to evaluate the degree of the inclination of the upper and the side walls of the orchestra shell which usually slant somewhat towards the audience. Such a stage in a multi-purpose hall is called the proscenium-type stage. The following became clear after the investigation. 1) A poor rating will be given for small sized stages. The stage volume should be not less than 1000 cubic meters for the orchestra performance. 2) The acoustical impression is good if the inclination is small, the reverse is also true. 3) Even in the case of larger value of the inclination, a remarkable improvement in the acoustical impression can be obtained if sound scattering objects are put on the inner surface of the shell.
We examined in this paper time fluctuations of sound field diffusibility in transient response by measuring the short-term directional diffusing factor and running power spectrum with direction. As a result, we found that transitions in the values of directional diffusing factor until attaining the diffused state, the time required until essentially attaining the diffused state and attenuation of sound energy at that time all indicated differing characteristics in each of the halls. In addition, it was also found that a virtual state of diffusion was attained within at least approximately 300ms in all of the halls surveyed at this time and the short-term directional diffusing factor, thereafter, indicated essentially identical values regardless of room configuration. We understood from this that sound field diffusibility is related to the time required to attain a diffused state and to sound energy attenuation, but not to the values of directional diffusing factor subsequent to the transition to the diffused state.
A Super-insulated house was constructed near Sendai City in accordance with the Canadian R-2000 manyual. Shelter performance, thermal environment, air quality and energy consumption of this house were investigated for two and a half years. This super-insulated house was very airtight compared with the other houses. The two-and-a-half-year measurement of room temperature and humidity showed that the daily mean temperature for the dining-living room and the master bedroom were 16℃〜20℃ during the winter and 22℃〜32℃ during the summer. Humidity ratio for these rooms was less than 5g/kg during the winter. The indoor environment of this super-insulated house during the heating season was more thermally comfortable, compared with that of ordinary houses in Japan. During the summer, the indoor temperature in this house was stable during the day and did not decrease at night time even if the outdoor air temperature dropped. The CO_2 concentration in this house was lower than that of the other airtight houses due to continuous mechanical ventilation. The space hiating energy consumption for this suoer-insulated house was less than that of ordinary houses in Tohoku District in which only the living-dining room was heated.
This paper proposes the "heat island potential (HIP)" as a new index to evaluate the sensible heat flux from all the surfaces in an urban area. We calculated the HIP of hillside residential development areas in Kawasaki City, Japan, which had various types of land coverage, using thermal images of downward- and side-looking airborne multi-spectral scanner (MSS) data obtained on a winter day with a clear sky. In addition, we analyze the relationship between the diurnal change in HIP and various land cover conditions, i.e., the vegetation cover ratio and floor area ratio.
The purpose of this study is to present some information about the bulling design and planning from the viewpoint of proper refuse treatment, through the questionnaire investigation to buildings maintenance workers. In this paper, 227 questionnaires were collected from building maintenance companies and were analysed. Consequently, quantity of refuse by separate collection in each building use were clarified as one of the fundamental data for bulling design and planning. Moreover, actual conditions with respects to separate collection were shown quantitatively.
Extention and refurbishment on public housing units built by the residents are addressed to examine their characteristics and significance relating the original planning method. Residents' autonomous transaction with the living environments stratify the diverse and matured place with sense of living and individuality on the uniform space heteronomously origined. The planning theory is to be shifted from prescribing and instructing the way of living to generating the living values autonomously, which follows as a logical consequence that planning and space are reserved and appropriated to the residents.
In the past several years, some estimating methods of demand on graves were proposed and contributed to the actual planning. Although they are very simple and easy to understand, we have some difficulty to adapt them in recent years since the characteristic of demand are very diversified. In this paper we propose a method to estimate the demand on graves by using the idea of the relevant tree. Using this method, we can not only estimate the amount of demand, but also classify them into some demand-types according to the characteristic.
It is possible for the Large Scale Redevelopment Project to contribute to city planning. Hatsudai-Yodobashi Block is located near Shinjuku in Tokyo, and it is one of the Large Scale Redevelopment Project, including the New National Theater, by public-private partnership. On the planning process, besides the architectural design, various kinds of planning and consulting are carried on. Architects should promote the plan, as a kind of coordinator, between the forking Council composed of many landowners and the cityplanning authority directing the project to utilize for the urban environment. The situation loads for architects very heavy work out of the range and also on economical point of view. The purpose of this paper is to point out the problems concerning how to promote to the Large Scale Redevelopment Project, and to study on the direction to establish the range of the work as the planner and designer.
Authors defined the condition of plasterer from two points of view in order to apply traditional construction. The one concerns with the position of plasterer comparing with another trades, from data of the construction trade registration and NTT address book, and the other concerns with how used. The results are as follows : The proportion of plasterer is small in the registration, and moderate in the book, and firms have small capital funds. The use of the tradition is decreasing, but the desire and use of the traditon remains in middle and samll size of firms locating in provincial'area.
Through 5 case studies, the constructional characteristics of partitions and ceilings with wood back-up structures in apartments' interior were compared. As results, the following facts have been found: the partition's back-up structure plays a central role in influencing the constructional efficiency of whole interior finish work, the construction method of ceiling's back-up structure is the one which needs improvement urgently, the relation between the Element Density and Man-Minute value of one element in ceiling's back-up structure is inverse proportional, and corresponding movement between partition and ceiling's back-up structures appears in the Man・Minute/m^2.
The present paper investigates the relation between the stylistic nature of architecture and environment in the Japanese poems "MANYOSHU" written during Japan's Manyo Dynasty 478-759. After analyzing the type of wording and the context of poem, we propose that the feeling of architectural space in Japan's Manyo Dynasty is closely connected through physical elements and symbol of environments. On one hand, in more privacy sense, the poems describes the beauty of "KACHOUFUGETSU" by using "inn" "hermit's cell" for architecture and "autumn" "wind" "night" for environment. On the other hand, in more non-privacy sense, "house" "door" "shrine" for architecture and "sky" "sun" for environment are used when the poems praise an emperer.
The scenic district of most castle-towns were planned under the application of the Town Planning Law of 1919. This paper aims to clarify a policy for the scenic district on historical environment elements. The results are next points, 1) positive practical use, 2) close relation with park, 3) application to cooperate with preservation law.
The purpose of this study is to make clear the necessary conditions for open floor use of the redevelopment building that is made by braking the force of independence of condominium ownership given guarantee with wall of partition and with access from public open spaces without traffic interruptions. These conditions are as follows. 1) separation of ownership and use 2) two step lease 3) restrictions of the independence based on the contract 4) restrictions based on management of common use spaces 5) dependence of access from the exterior of the building.
Daisen-in is the memorial cloister, which was established to commemorate the departual of Kogaku Soko who entered Daitoku-ji in 1509. The main hall was built in 1513 and is highly praised in the fields of architecture and art history, it has sliding screen drawn by Soami and kano Motonobu, etc. We have different opinion about the time when this building had been extended 1 meter of the beam direction. So this study will try to examine again the possibility of this extention, that was approved by the field architecture history, through the survey and date collected between 1959 61, when this building was taken apart for repair. According to these, we will point out the higher possibility of changed plan in the beginning of the construction rather then the possibility of having no basis for the extention.
This paper traces some of the linkages between the feudal landlord property and plots of residential quarters via the example of Takase Shin Yashiki in the Edo period of Kyoto. The land property by the feudal lords, which was prior to the urban development in 1671, depended on products of farm measured by size of land. Plots were shaped with the clear boundary lines in order to deprive the town dwellers of the planned products measured as square, when the west bank of the Kamo river which had been used as the farm land developed into the residential quarters.
The purpose of this research is to clarify the structure and specifications of theOtaru Branch of the Bank of Japan which was built in 1912.The structure of this building.the sixth branch of the Bank of Japan built in the Meiji era.is made of masonry.! compared this building with the other Bank of Japan buildings regarding specifications of the foundations,walls,floors,roof trusses and roofs. The research made it clear that this building made use not only of established techniques but of the most advanced techiniques of that time.
This paper analyses trends in Japanese bousing design in the early Showa era (1926-1945) through the activities of Takao Okada. Okada was one of the representative architects in the field of house design in this period, and his activities reflect the circumstances surrounding house design at the time. The nature of his work was marked by the following two factors : 1. Okada was the chief architect of the housing design section at the Mitsukoshi department store in Osaka. He designed approximately thirty new houses in the Kansai region before World War II. 2. Okada sought to introduce new conceptions of architecture and housing from overseas, and published numerous reports on Japanese housing conditions. His work clarified Japanese house typologies of the prewar period.
House plans which appeared in FuJin-no-Toao between 1908 and 1934 were analyzed on the dwelling style. The following results are obtaind. 1) The architects more liked western style houses than semiwestern ones. 2) The housewives had great yearning for westernization, but they had never wish rapid changes. 3) Housewives drow up plans of Japanese style houses in early years. But, it is gain in number of semiwestern style houses since middle Taisho period.
This paper is an attempt to study on the evoluting process and the spatial characteristics of the residential quater in Yagoto hills. They are commonly called "Higashiyama" and had been famous for the excursional point since the Edo era. But in the early part of the 20th century, they were turned into the treeless hills. Over against this situation, Tatsutarou Sasahara began to reforest since 1910's and developed as the the residential suburb during 1920-30's. This town was desighned with the gentle curved roads corresponding to the small lay of the land and affected by Ryotaro Kurotani's "Forest City".
This paper is to clarify the procedure of the reception oifinestra a crociera to the Roman palaces in the fifteenth century after the long residence of the papacy in Avignon. The finestra a crociera was first used in the facade of Palazzo Senatorio at the Campidoglio in the opportunity of the ornamental preparation for the Jubilee in 1450 and the imminent arrival of the Emperor Frederick HI, who came to Rome for his coronation in 1452, and soon diffused in various palaces for the cardinals and the leading officials. The finestra a crociera as a metaphor of the Holy Cross and the crossed keys of Peter also symbolized the primacy of the pope to the Council, and the Vatican control to the city. The office of the Maestri delle strode for the restoration of Rome was revived by Pope Martin V in 1425. This regulation was repeated in the statutes in 1452 and the bull issued by Sixtus IV in 1480. The power of the Maestri delle strode who were appointed by the Pope increased as the fifteenth century advanced. This supremacy of the papacy in political matters was to play an important part in the prompt control of the cityscape.
How J.N.L. Durand's design method shown in "Precis des lemons d'Architecture", especially grid plan, influenced German neoclassic architecture in the former half of the 19th century is clarified by analysis of architectural plans and theories. Coudray translated "Precis" into German, and applied through blending traditional baroque taste, feinbrenner imitated "Precis" in his own educational text of architecture. Klenze modified Durand' s system to design his works as artistic objects. Schinkel applied often grid plan with square profile like "Bauakademie", and established an integrated style including urban design. Finally Semper criticized Durand and tried to overcome neoclassic simplicity.
As for the Corinthian capital, the Academy discussed especially the total height of the capital and the proportion of heights of the three layers under the abacus. For the total height, Vitruvius' 2 modules was denied, and 2 modules 1/3, the measurement formulated in the Italian Renaissance, was admitted. But, taking the case of the pilaster into consideration, the Academy permitted a greater height, 2 modules 2/3. For the proportion of the three layers, in the first period(1671-1715), the Academy denied that of Vitruvius and admired that of the Corinthian capital of the Pantheon or the Temple of Castor. But in the second period(1734-1750), Tanevot proposed his original proportion that was different from the former two proportions.
The objective of this study is to understand where and how frequently residents go recreation around their living area, and how does the exsistance of waterfront effect on those recreation activities. Investigations by questionnaire method were conducted at 16 districts on where and how often those residents go for recreation. As a result, it was shown that residents tend to go water related open spaces rather than those spaces do not have any water related. Furthermore, it was clarified that the exsistance of waterfront ranks with extent and tradition as a criterion when people prefer where go recreation.