The scientific study of the sitting postures was developed rapidly by Europe and America since 20th century, showing various practical standards. These practical standards are universally base on idea which considers standing posture as right posture. On the other hand, diversification of sitting posture on dining table/chair is occurring by the spread of LDK format in domestic houses. Therefore, it is important to pay attention to the change of sitting posture on chairs. Meanwhile, sitting on a chair for a long time in specific posture causes bad influences on human body because of continuous pressure on specific part of body. It is known that scattering body pressure and contracting muscles, such as reseating actions are effective in preventing such bad influences. Base on above, this study defines ‘Various Sitting Style Adaptability’ as availability of reseating action and various sitting postures on chairs. The objective of this study is to clarify characteristics of sitting postures on chairs and reseating actions. This study is comprised of questionnaire survey, act observation survey, verification survey on contacting parts, supporting parts, and reseating actions. The results are as follows. Table 2 shows results of the questionnaire survey. States of each human body parts on sitting postures on chairs and contacting parts on reseating postures are clarified. Table 3, 4 and Figure 4 show results of the act observation survey. Elders had convergence tendency in sitting posture distribution, while non-elders had dispersion tendency. Figure 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 show results of the verification survey of contacting parts. In terms of relationship between table and arms contact, men had tendency of wide range and short time, while women had long time of specific part. In terms of relationship between sitting surface and femoral region, men and women had same tendency; the larger sitting surface, larger contact area of femoral region. Figure 17, 18 show results of the verification survey of support parts. Same for men and women, people contacted back part of support part with lower position, front part of support part with narrow distance. Figure 20, 21 show results of the verification survey of reseating actions. About the table, both men and women had tendency to contact part which is approximately 30mm away from edge. About the sitting surface, men contacted front part of sitting surface with wider width, while women had no correlation between contacting part and width of sitting surface. About the support part, both men and women had tendency to contact front of part with narrow distance.
This study aims at clarifying the characteristics and change process about such space usage as houses and agricultural facilities have been exploited to conduct the activities excluding production in accordance with the agricultural diversification which manages restaurants and private guesthouses, etc. in addition to the agricultural production. As to the survey targets, 31 farming households in Tokachi Subprefecture, Hokkaido prefecture have cooperated with our surveys. The survey period is from February to December in 2015 and we have conducted interviews and field surveys of those farming households during that period. We will adjust the characteristics and change process in making farming houses and facilities freely available as clarified according to the research. The used circulations created by the start of service business could be classified into six patterns according to approaches from roads and space circulations. The cases which space circulations specializes in service were approximately 60% and the cases which approaches from roads specialize in service were half or less. The cases systematically set in accordance with the contents of service business and the situation of land use among the cases which share used circulations together can be seen. In the cases which service circulations are completely detached, sites excluding sites of farming households tend to be used. In addition, in the cases which circulations have been changed after starting service business, the originally unforeseen circumstances such as the business scales enlarged or contracted due to the alternation of generations and the usage of the empty space resulting from the enhanced function production have happened. As to function layouts in sites, there were half or more farming households which had formed service space through setting the rooms related to diversified business with a focus on easily accessible places such as places located beside roads, etc. There are not only the cases which have given priority to service space and gradually increased it but also the cases which have eliminated it on the contrary among the cases which have changed function layouts during the period from the start of service business to the surveys. There are a few cases which have systematically adjusted function layouts and so it is a reality that they have tackled the actual circumstances on an ad hoc basis while ensuring new space is hard due to limited site areas and existing buildings.
1. Background Small-scale multifunctional long-term care for the elderly, or takurousho, started in Japan in the mid-1980s, and expanded nationwide during the 1990s. In takurousho, both institutional and non-institutional services, including visitation, overnight stays, and long-term stays, are offered. In 2006, a new institutional service offering “multifunctional long-term care in a small group home” was started to support in-home living for the elderly requiring substantial amounts of care. This service was originally centered on providing services for the elderly who commuted to a day care facility; however, based on individual needs and the wishes of those requiring long-term care, visitation and overnight stays, but not long-term stays, were offered. To date, no studies have investigated the use of multifunctional long-term care services and the architectural space in day care facilities.
2. Purpose The purpose of this study was to clarify both the actual use of multifunctional long-term care services and the architectural space in a small pioneering care facility. We focused on the following two issues: the actual use of multifunctional services and the use of the architectural space in the facility.
3. Research Methods We selected Takurousho Y, a pioneering care facility in Fukuoka, Japan, as the target of this study. We collected the records of all the elderly who used the facility over a 20-year period from 1995 to 2015, and discussed these elderly records with the care staff. We also carried out observational research at the facility in 2002, 2003, and 2015, and conducted interviews with four users' families in 2005.
4. Results We found that over 30% of users who attended the facility for less than 1 year made use of only a single service, whereas those who used it for 2 years or more made use of multiple services. This finding suggests that patients who make use of multiple services tend to be more stable long-term users. In addition, the long-term users who felt a sense of stability tended to want to stay longer and be looked after by the same staff. In fact, about 10% of the long-term stay users died in the facility, which thereby served as their “final home.” When the families of the users needed to make abrupt changes in the care services the users were receiving, the care staff conducted interviews and made the corresponding changes in the type or frequency of the service. Furthermore, no differences were found between the old facility (2002) and the new facility (2015) in the actual use of the architectural space; the layout and usage of the rooms in each facility were similar. The short- and long-term stay users interacted with day care users in one living room during the day, and then spent time in a different living room closer to the bedrooms at night. This spatial separation between the public and private zones provided a sense of stability and security to the users. Finally, Takurousho Y does not follow a daily schedule or organize group activities. Care and activities are offered based on requests from the users. Therefore, the living rooms had movable furniture for flexible use of the space, allowing users to spend their time according to their own interests. In conclusion, we note that long-term stays were one of the important multifunctional care services provided based on requests from the elderly users and their families in Takurousyo Y, and the space had been set up to adapt the care accordingly.
The authors conducted a questionaire to municipal elementary school homeroom teachers to know their general impression of the degree of their children's concentration and the factors which could distract children's concentration during classwork. In this study, the data of 229 classes in 15 municipal elementary schools in Z-city, in Tokyo metropolitan area, are collected, and sorted according to the openness of their classrooms into 5 types as written below. 【FO】 Full-Open Type : classrooms with no wall between the classroom and the corridor. 【SO】 Semi-Open Type : classrooms with some movable partition panels between the classroom and the corridor, and cannot be closed completely. 【SP】 Sliding-Panel Type : classrooms with sliding panels as the partition between the classroom and the corridor, and can be closed completely. 【RW】 Removable-Wall Type : classrooms with removable walls between the classroom and the corridor, and are usually closed completely. 【ST】 Standard Type : conventional type classrooms with the wall between the classroom and the corridor First, the authors examined the influence of the 5 major factors to the degree of children's concentration during classwork. As a result, the followings were found. 1. The degree of children's concentration is influenced by the classroom plan type as well as by the numbers and ratio of the children in a class who are in need of special supports, and is neither by the teachers' teaching experience nor by the total number of the children in a class. 2. The degree of children's concentration does not simply correlate to the degree of physical openness of the classroom to the corridor, but is significantly lower in the type 【SO】 classrooms equipped with some movable partition panels for partially closing the classroom from the corridor than in the classrooms of other plan types. The authors further analyzed the frequency of conceivable factors' occurrences which distract children's concentration during classwork. As a result, it is found that the frequency of those does not become higher in proportion to the degree of physical openness of the classroom, except for the case of distraction by sound. The authors therefore conclude that; 3. To avoid the distraction by sound from outside the classroom, settings of physical devices for sound insulation and/or sound absorption would be effective. 4. To avoid the distraction by the sight stimulation, settings of physical devices for cutting off partial view of children would not be effective enough. The seat placement with children's back against the corridor and/or with appropriate distance from the corridor would rather be effective. 5. Distraction by the members' behavior of the class could be caused by the vagueness of the boundary and also by unevenness of the distribution of opening along the boundary. Further detail investigations are required in the future.
The maintenance and management of community centers in urban areas have become more difficult in recent years as many local councils have diminished in size due to the low participation of younger generations. With a focus on the city of Kawasaki in Kanagawa Prefecture, where each and every local council sets up and runs its own community center, this study investigates the number of registered households in each local council and its implications for facility use. This study aims to formulate strategies for local councils to execute the long-term self-management of their community centers. The study has verified the number of registered households and community centers in each local council or neighborhood association based on information obtained from all the administrative wards in Kawasaki. We then matched the results against regional characteristics to establish a relationship between the scale of the neighborhood associations and the distribution of community centers. Furthermore, we also conducted on-site research by surveying operation reports and interviewing administrators at each chosen facility in order to clarify their usage, configuration, management, and ownership. By comparing these with the number of registered households, we were able to identify some of the main factors that may encourage facility use. Our results showed that: 1) usage is influenced more by multi-purpose facility rental to the general public than by local council meetings; 2) rooms larger than a certain size (60 m2) and the presence of an administrative office encourage facility rental; and 3) the facility is better sustained when owned by a third party (foundation).
Underground spaces connected with railway stations gather a large amount of pedestrians. Clarifying pedestrians' movement in underground space is important for flow control and evacuation planning. Based on a traffic flow survey data, this paper aims to estimate pedestrians' movement in underground shopping streets. There is difficulty in estimating Origin-Destination (OD) matrix directly from flow count data when trip assignment proportion is not determined. This paper firstly adopts a network simplification approach to obtain the link-couple flow count constraints, and address multi-path trip assignment proportion. Next, an entropy model is developed to estimate the OD matrix which represents the trip demand between entrances and exits. Using the estimated OD matrix we discuss the trip distribution tendency at different time intervals. Also, we demonstrate pedestrians' spatio-temporal distribution in the shopping street network based on trip assignment model.
Introduction In a previous study, the evaluation structure of Japanese design professionals and laymen for interior wood were investigated. In consequence, 4 types of evaluation structures and the tendency of the evaluation were revealed. Following the study, the tendency of the evaluation of Finnish design professionals and laymen for interior wood were investigated through the analysis of the evaluation structure in this study. Material & Method This study also included 12 different wood samples (4 different species: Finnish spruce: Picea abies, Finnish pine: Pinus sylvestris, and heartwood and sapwood of Japanese cedar: Cryptomeria japonica and 3 different finishing: plain surface, wax coating and oil finishing). This research was also conducted using evaluation grid method. As a first step, 40 participants (10 people each from architect, interior designer, normal worker and student) divided wood samples into 5 groups according to their preference of the interior wood for living space. Following that, each group was evaluated and the factors for the evaluation was asked until the participants stopped answering. From the result of the interview, 7 core categories and 33 detailed categories were obtained as the evaluative elements. These elements were analyzed by mathematical quantification theory class III and cluster analysis. Based on the result of the analysis, the evaluation structures were investigated. Result & Discussion According to the result from cluster analysis, 5 clusters were obtained. The 1st and 5th cluster were consisted of design professionals. In the 1st cluster, the needs for characteristic and adaptive wood to surroundings were observed. The feature in 5th cluster was seen as originality and functionality of wood. On the other hand, the 2nd, 3rd and 4th cluster were by laymen. In the 2nd cluster showing the tendency of normal worker, the feature was regarding familiarity and harmony of wood. In the 3rd cluster mainly consisted of students, the students evaluate ordinariness and visual aspect of wood. The feature of 4th cluster common in the laymen was ordinariness and physical aspect of wood. As a result, the tendency of the evaluation structure was clearly divided by the design professionals and laymen in case of Finland. The features of the structure for the professionals were observed as calmness by the condition of grain pattern and added value for space by natural aging and versatility of wood. The difference between architects and interior designers was that architects paid more attention to durability and quality. In addition, architects respected versatility of wood in space. On the other hand, interior designers emphasized harmony of wood with light including the natural aging aspect. Both architects and interior designers also put the value on environmental friendliness of wood. The features of the structure for the laymen were related to harmony with surroundings by familiarity of wood, modernity by novel color and safety by naturalness of wood. The feature of the evaluation structure by the students was on novelty of wood by visual aspect. The normal workers, on the contrary, required comfortability by the harmony and familiarity. Conclusion Considering the difference between the professionals and laymen, 5 types of evaluation structures were revealed. The clear differences were seen in the structures of the professionals and laymen. In a future study, a comparative study on the evaluation structure of Japanese and Finnish design professionals and laymen will be conducted to examine the effective measures for utilization of domestic wood and guideline to design wooden architecture.
Reasonable guidelines based on actual evacuee's behavior lead to fine estimations of evacuation time and advanced designs of evacuation passages. Actual evacuee's behavior, however, depends on various factors such as passage width and crowd density and it is difficult to predict the crowd characteristics in real situations. Recent studies have described each pedestrian's reaction to his circumstance as a mathematical model and simulated the crowd evacuations using these models to reproduce the real evacuation in an actual space with complicated configurations. The validation and refinement of these models require detailed information of real evacuee's behavior. Image processing technique of video image of evacuation experiments is an effective way to extract pedestrian movement. Some of the early works, however, include the error of position measurement due to body height differences between pedestrians and require frequent manual operations to recover the loss of pedestrians. This study conducted a large-scale crowd evacuation experiment with 96 pedestrians walking in several fundamental passages or configurations: a straight path, an O-shaped path, an L-shaped corridor, a straight path with a bottleneck, an opening in a wide space, and merging to a path. The each layout emulates a part of real evacuation situation to examine the evacuee behavior. This paper proposes a novel image processing method to extract pedestrian movements in a crowd from video images of the experiment seen from above. Each pedestrian wore a cap with two different color labels (color markers) indicating the pedestrian's body height. These multiple markers also have redundancy to find the pedestrian position. This method detects color markers and makes trajectories of pedestrians by clustering of neighboring markers and tracking them through the sequential video frames. The color combinations of clustered markers indicate the information of the body height of each pedestrian to obtain more accurate coordinate transform. This method successfully tracked the pedestrians to make their trajectories. The positioning error was estimated as under 40 mm and the preliminary experiment supported that. This paper shows one of the results of the merging experiment. Over 99 percent of pedestrian's position data was automatically calculated without manual operation thanks to the redundancy of multiple markers and the marker clustering. Ordinary statistical quantities such as flow rate can be calculated from the data. In the merging experiment, the flow rate through an opening decreased due to turning after the opening and merging with pedestrians in the path. Detailed pedestrian behavior revealed that the walking direction and the walking speed were strongly linked to the interaction between other pedestrians such as distance and the relative velocity between pedestrians. The analysis of each experiment will be reported in future articles. This method has an advantage in robustness against the pedestrian position loss. This method may have applicability to actual situations such as experiments of evacuation from theaters and stadiums.
Considering the relationship between the environmental load and the environmental quality is very important in design of the ecological housing. Moreover, the importance of study from the viewpoint of lifecycle is increasing. Then, this study focuses on the relations between LCCO2 and daylight environment by sun control louvers at the window of living room model. In this case study, effective factors to decrease LCCO2 differ mainly depending on the materials of slats. In addition some materials indicates the relation of “trade off” between decreasing CO2 emission and keeping suitable daylight illuminance.
Sweden is famous as social democratic welfare state. This status had started to turn to neoliberalism and privatization in various administrative measures after 1990's, not only education, medical, social services but also housing policy and housing provision. Reffering to the history of housing policy, this country had established housing safety net for all citizens, including the elderly, the disabled and low-income person. Referring to those current situation in Sweden, the purposes of this study is to verify the function of safety net after housing policy and market were deregulated and privetalized. To achieve this purpose, I attempted literature reviews, statistical survey referring to statistical yearbook published by Stockholm country council and Stockholm city and interviews with researchers and city assemblyman in Stockholm. From the results of statistics sturvey, it become clear that a large part of housing stock in 2011 were cooperative ownership, the proportion of elderly people and household receiving welfare allowance were gradually decreasing in the central part of Stockholm. On the other hand the housing stock of public rental housing were still large number and the income level of those area were lower than household in west and south part of Stockholm. Accoring to the interviews, I found that following situations. suburbs in west and south of stockholm faced stigmatized situation. Specially many young people have fallen no education and unemployment, and many comercial and medical facilities have withdrawn in Jalvafeltet. In the central part of Stockholm, elderly household could not keep their lives, even though they have recieved housing allowance. From the results of analysis, it becomes clear that conversion of housing policy in Sweden has led to the emergence of housing segregation in Stockholm, and safety net for the elderly in Stockholm had became dysfunctional.
The present study investigated the natural environment, including factors such as food and landscape, as a case study for dried potato production in Hitachinaka City, Ibaraki, Japan. The specific regional production environment and production behavior involved in agriculture and food production was considered. The production environment included the subsistence history, terrain, climate, soil, and land use. Production behavior included food production processes and agricultural living conditions. In addition, a community-building method based on the natural environment was developed considering these elements to preserve the cultural landscape. To achieve this, agricultural land use was assessed, and a questionnaire was developed to interview farmers and related organizations. Surveys revealed that the environmental factors considered for suitable production and cultivation conditions included the sea breeze from the Pacific Ocean coast, dry and sunny winter, black soil, drying space for potatoes, and subsistence of sideline and core businesses. From the survey, the important factors for production behavior included the slicing and arranging of potatoes, cultivation of Tamayutaka seeds, seedling cultivation in Satsumashiro, hanging out in sunlight, collaboration between farmers and short-term employers, and steam rising from the workplace on winter mornings. Finally, it is important to clarify the terroir of these foods and the landscape. A community-building method for effective dried potato production was developed based on survey results to include human resource development to relate food production and the landscape, to construct a collaborative platform to share images of food and scenery, to consider a regional coordinator, and to study information transmission techniques.
The primary purpose of this research is to get a hold of the polders that are embanked from the flood control project. And the secondary goal is to show how the flood control projects influence the living environment by grasping the overall situation on the population and number of houses at the Kihocho, Mie Prefecture after the project is being performed. First of all, Japan suffers from the flood damage frequently every once in a while. People are fighting the flood since centuries ago. However, flood control is still a major problem today even with proper technology and equipment due to the increase of precipitation these couple of years. Then, the government of Japan founded a flood prevention organization in December 2015 to help people to change their way of thinking towards flood disaster. To begin the investigation, a bibliographic and hearing survey is performed throughout the flood controls project that completed around the nation. After that, an actual investigation is performed around the basin of the Ainoya River in Kihocho, Mie Prefecture after the disaster. Finally, another bibliographic and hearing survey is conducted to capture the data of the population and number of houses in Kihocho. As a result, the numbers of population and houses increases after the flood control project is performed, and on the other hands, the population decreases as the flood strike. And the data shows the growth in the number of houses after the flood occurs in the year of 1997 and 2011. Next, by focusing on the landform, the damage from the flood is lower on the highlands. However, when the damage from the flood occurs during an unpredictable situation leads to a decrease in the number of households. And the lowland area that suffers great damage from the flood also tends to have a significant reduction in the number of houses. We have confirmed that many homes in the region are being rebuilt and also raising their levels to prevent the damage from the flood. Therefore, it is critical to get prepared for yourself instead of depending heavily on the flood control by the government.
The Echigo-Tsumari Art Triennale's target is to revitalize a declining rural region in the Niigata prefecture, Japan, through art. However, the assumption that culture can lead to long-term social regeneration is somewhat tenuous but nonetheless remains an area of worthwhile analysis. This study seeks to review such possible connections between the festival and its local context in the hope of unraveling different kinds of successful patterns of revitalization. From the perspective of the urban planner, this study on the repurposing of 11 no longer used elementary schools in the municipality of Tokamachi questions whether the festival has been properly allocating its interventions according to the opportunities offered by the local context. This evaluation is based on the graphic representation of complex radar charts juxtaposing a selected number of quantitative measurements indicating the amount of input the festival has brought in each case, against the demographic and geographic aspects of the communities in which they are located. The resulting assessment determines the suitability of each school's repurposing, by establishing which have been overinvested, underinvested or have been repurposed in harmony with existing levels of local opportunities. This critical understanding of Echigo-Tsumari Art Triennale's involvement aims at helping organizers, artists, and other decision makers in selecting more integrated options and scenarios for future creative repurposing of these former schools.
In the central city area, as city function transferring to the suburbs, declining of city function and increasing of vacant store are continuously proceeding. Thus, the activation of the central city area is planned for realization of ‘the compact city’. The private organizations such as private enterprise or rightful claimant of the ground are carrying out the area management, by means of city environment maintenance and events which generates activeness. Meanwhile, ‘Urban Renewal Corporation’ system which includes deregulation of business running in public spaces such as road, was created. For that reason, it is expected to secure steady profit to private organizations appointed by ‘Urban Renewal Corporation’, by running business actively in the public spaces, However, many organizations are facing problems in securing business profit.
The objective of this research is to grasp reality of area managements that operated by ‘Urban Renewal Corporations’. Realities in the running, securing continuity and utilizing ‘Urban Renewal Corporation' system on operated businesses was surveyed. The results are as follows. Table 3 and Figure 4 show the results of realities in running business. There were 2 types of organization; 1. Which mainly operates ‘event’ businesses 2. Which mainly operates ‘private facilities used’ businesses. Figure 5 and 6 show the results of realities in the securing business continuity. There were 2 types of organization; 1. Which secures profit by operating businesses 2. Which relies on subsidy. Figure 7 and Table 6 show the results of realities in the utilizing ‘Urban Renewal Corporation’ system. There were 2 types of organization. 1. Which utilizes multiple systems 2. Which does not utilize system.
It is necessary to use ‘Urban Renewal Corporation’ system on profit businesses, to maintain business continuity on area management operated by ‘Urban Renewal Corporation’.
After the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) in 2011, Japanese provincial coastal cities have started to discuss about Tsunami disaster mitigation plans, for example, migration to upland areas and land use control considering Tsunami disaster and related issues. Such action is important to maintain sustainability of these cities. Land use change of urban area is mainly that of residential areas, therefore, this information is important when making land use plans considering Tsunami disaster mitigation. The purpose of this paper is to show the residential location trend considering Tsunami risk in Tokushima Urban Area (TUA). TUA includes 9 municipalities and 2 urban planning areas, one is Tokushima East Urban Planning Area (East-UPA) and the Aizumi Urban Planning Area (Aizumi-UPA). Recently, many houses and big commercial facilities are appearing at the Aizumi city because Aizumi-UPA does not have a zone division system. According to the estimated area of Tsunami inundation of Tokushima prefecture in October 2012, central built-up area of major cities of TUA has Tsunami risk. These area include urbanization promotion zones and their population is increasing. Therefore, when a large earthquake strikes, it will cause considerable damage to both property and life. We used building certification data in order to obtain residential location trend. This data includes many components, and we selected the time of certification, address, the area, the use, the floor number and the construction category (new construction or extension) from the building certification data. We analyzed the relationship of residential location and Tsunami risk by these data using GIS. We calculated the ratio of new residential location by 500 meters mesh from 2010 to 2013. These results shows the urbanization in west area of TUA. Change of the gravity of residential location distribution at the same time period was migrating to west area. According to the relationship of Tsunami inundation depth and the number of new houses, it was seen that about 40% of new houses was located in non Tsunami inundation area. But about 25% of new houses was located in the area with 2 to 3 meters Tsunami. According to the relationship of the distance from coastal line and the number of new houses, the number of new houses over 6km from coastal line was increasing, but the number of new houses under 1km and the 1 to 2km from coastal line was unchanged. From the results it was evident that, the larger the depth of Tsunami, new houses was not located. But there are house owners who did not consider tsunami risk. Next, we executed multi-regression analysis to show the factors about new residential location. Objective variable is the area of new houses. We used the following data as explanatory variables. The distance from clinic, elementary school, super market, trunk road, the area of the urbanization promotion zones and the Aizumi-UPA, and the distance from coastal line. These data was arranged by unit of 500 meters grid cell. From the results of the analysis, we showed two points, first, the distance from living facilities and the area division system are the major factors of new residential location. Second, new residential location has moved to inland area since 2011. Lastly, we classified the area using the residential location trend considering Tsunami risk. From the results of the classification, we showed the concept about land use control and promotion in TUA.
There was a big discussion about how the subsidy for damaged building demolition works for recovery. One opinion is that public support for building demolition aceeraraed the debris removal in the impacted area, and it resulted in early recovery. The other is that it increased the demolition of repairable housing, and recovery housing needs became larger. However, there were no exact data about how many repairable houses were demolished in the recovery process. And this paper clarifies the number of demolished repairable houses from the cross data analysis of holistic disaster database on Nishinomiya area, where one of the heavily impacted community from the 1995 Kobe earthquake. Nishinomiya Built Environment Database, which is relational holistic disaster recovery database on damage, response and recovery about the 1995 Kobe earthquake about Nishinomiya. Using this database, physical damage status of demolished housing was acquired. From the analysis, we found out that 81% of severe damage buildings, 51 % of major damage buildings and 21.5% of minor damaged buildings were demolished in the process of recovery. It means that many repairable housing were demolished in the recovery process. The effects of subsidy for a building demolition are not clear. However, by comparing relations among a building age, physical damage, and building demolition, there is the trend that older repairable houses were demolished. And we can say that the subsidy gave the positive impacts to building demolishing. Demolished housing became major sources for the debris of the 1995 Kobe earthquake, and 14.5 million tons of 20 million ton were from the demolished buildings. Using newly acquired data sets about relation between a physical damage and building demolition, the possible range of debris amount at the time of the 1995 Kobe earthquake were estimated. When the reparable housings were not demolished, 5.5-7.5 million ton of debris were reduced. And it also reduced the needs of 30,000-80,000 buildings recovery.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the reality of the reviving of shrine ritual in order not only to rethink ongoing projects implemented under the word “Earthquake Disaster Reconstruction” but to think post-earthquake rebuilding of town in future tsunami-prone areas. The results are the following: (1) Damage and Post-Earthquake Movement of the Shrines Hit by Tsunami: Most of the shrines hit by tsunami have been rebuilt or rehabilitated by the time of the survey. In some cases, the shrines got support from outside. (2) Relationship between Shrine Rituals and Folk Cultural Assets in Yamada-Town: In Yamada-town, the shrines play an important role in sustaining the folk cultural assets. (3) Movement of Ohsugi Shrine Annual Festival Before and After the Earthquake: Ohsugi shrine has been rebuilt until two years after the earthquake. After further a year, the annual festival was held with the traditional content. (4) Processes and Problems of Reviving of the Groups of Folk Performing Artists: Most of the groups of folk performing artists participated in Yamada Festival a half year after the earthquake, and have finished getting an almost full set of equipment until four years after the earthquake, the time of the survey. (5) Processes and Problems of Reviving of the Group of Mikoshi Bearers: The group of mikoshi bearers was reorganized for its reviving a year and a half after the earthquake. After further two years, it participated in Yamada Festival in the traditional format once again. When the group of mikoshi bearers was reorganized, the chief priest of Ohsugi shrine became the top adviser of it. Carrying mikoshi in the annual festival is not the same as before in several points because rebuilding of dwelling environment is not going along smoothly. (6) Relationship between the Rebuilding of Town and the Reviving of Shrine Ritual in Yamada-Town: The rebuilding of dwelling environment and the industrial recovery reached major milestones at almost the same time as the reviving of shrine ritual. The buildings for the sake of industrial recovery have been used as bases of the group of folk performing artists and the group of mikoshi bearers. We consider that disaster victims could feel that Reconstruction is going along if annual events were held with the traditional content without suspension. In that sense, it can be said important to hold annual festivals with the possibly same content as before the earthquake since the early stage of rebuilding of town. Although restoring and carrying Mikoshi require a high amount of funds, we infer that support for reviving should be provided as soon after earthquake as possible. Besides, we found that it is especially necessary to make a point for each group to get bases commensurate with its size in likely place. We also argue the importance of the role played by the chief priest of shrine in rebuilding and sustaining of town to contribute to sustaining the groups of folk performing artists, the group of mikoshi bearers and therefore the community based on above-referenced groups. Interestingly, the reviving of shrine ritual reached major milestones to coincide with the shifts of dwelling environment from shelter to temporary housing, or from temporary housing to disaster public housing. Not only in Yamada-town but in general reconstruction, it is hoped that as well as being a memorial for victims of the disaster, shrine ritual would be revived while linking it organically to rebuilding of dwelling environment and industrial recovery to which it is indivisibly related.
Currently a type of outdoor advertisement, which cannot be truly defined as outdoor advertisement, is partially constructing the street landscape of commercial districts. In this study this type of advertisement is labeled as “semi outdoor advertisement”. Taking the commercial district of Ginza as a subject of research, this study will enable one to understand the character and display methods of “semi outdoor advertisement” in urban landscapes by comparing it to conventional outdoor advertisement.
To arrive at a representative comparison the following 3 steps are carried out: (1.) Based on the elements of streetscapes, the 179 streets of the Ginza district are categorized into 8 different types, which can promote clear understanding of Ginza's spatial structure. (2.) By conducting a mesh analysis of the street facades as well as research on the existing conditions of advertisement installations, the amount of existing outdoor advertisement and “semi outdoor advertisement” will be quantitatively revealed. (3.) By sampling all advertisements in the streetscapes, several groups were extracted, according to their forms and information.
Based on this research, advertisements in streets differ in forms and their information, which can be recognized as the difference of scenery within Ginza. Those analyses can be suggestive in order to understand regional characteristics created by streetscapes. In addition, it was revealed that near about half of the advertisement constructing streetscape within commercial districts are “semi outdoor advertisement” which cannot be regulated as outdoor advertisement. These “semi outdoor advertisement” will get more influence in streetscape and cannot be ignored, since they are increasing disorderly. These changes transform the urban informational environment, by changing the characteristics of media information and installation of advertisements.
Therefore towards the streetscape maintenance in present commercial districts, it is necessary to position “semi outdoor advertisement” as the candidate of streetscape design control. In order to be able to control the design of commercial districts this study also makes evident the imperative to develop guidelines, which regulate the use of “semi outdoor advertisement”, to maintain the landscape. Furthermore, from the perspective of landscape conception, additional guidelines to make adequate use of the merits of “semi outdoor advertisement” will be necessary.
In the future, we should deal with not only outdoor advertisement but “semi outdoor advertisement” in law and cityscape ordinance and hold design discussions about “semi outdoor advertisement”.
Wetland conservation has been promoted in Taiwan since 2000s, our analysis about the wetland conservation policy in Taiwan focus on the following 3 parts. 1. The system of designation of “National important wetland” change into “important wetland”. They are divided into “international level”, “national level” and “local level”. The first designation of 75 national important weland, although didn’t has legality, it triggered the “national wetland revitalization plan” and attract civil organization or research institute or municipality to get involved in the wetland conservation. In the new system of designation of important wetland, Local meeting and public inspection is obliged in the new system for designation of important wetland. What's more, the new system allows the designation of “temporary important wetland”, which shows strong flexibility. 2. Taiwan passed the Wetland Conservation Act and started the implementation since the beginning of 2015. After reviewing the process of the legislation of Wetland Conservation Act and the framework of this legal system for wetland conservation, it shows that CPA performed strong leadership on promoting wetland conservation and also built up international partnership positively. It takes about 5 years for establishing the Wetland Conservation Act. The characteristics of this act is as following: (1) Single authority for wetland affair is secured; (2) Institution of designation of important wetland and proposal of important wetland use and conservation plan is established; (3) critation for appropriate use according to “Wise use” is established; (4) Financial resources for wetland conservation is secured; (5) Punishiment and encouragement for wetland conservation. What's more, public participation is well secured in the Wetland Conservation Act system. 3. Important wetland use and conservation plan should be proposed by national government and local government for each important wetland according to the Wetland Conservation Act. The main effect of this plan is as following: (1) Control for development and environment damage; (2) Restriction of property rights; (3) Charter-business inside the plan area; (4) Restriction of public construction and development nearby the wetland. CPA is in charge for the development-oriented plan-urban plan and new town plan, and conservation-oriented plan like wetland and national park simultaneously. The international and national level important wetland might be effective for municipal level plan, however, the effect of local level important wetland plan depends on the policy of municipality. We also expect the important wetland use and conservation plan might be more emphasized and given priority inside the planning system of CPA. 4. However, there are also some issues including: (1) Negotiation and confliction with other departments. (2) Limit of Wise Use. We consider that the timely integration and establishment of “Ministry of Environment Resource” may help to solve the first issues. On the other, the construction of clear standard of Wise Use according to different type and scale of wetland might be essential to solve the second issue. 5. Finally, we suggest that Japanese government should consider: (1) Establishment of Wetland Conservation Act which includes the original standard of designation of important wetland in Japan other than the international standard of Ramsar Conservation. (2) Constructing of responsible department and strengthening the function of wetland affairs inside the Ministry of the Environment, Japan.
In this some decades, the way of using public space is changing from automobile oriented perspective to human oriented perspective and the use of public space with its perspective became popular. In japan, municipality's permitting authority for utilization of public space became dramatically widespread by deregulations of the low about public space. Now we need to make an evaluation method of people's activity in public space as livable space. In this study, we aim to establish “the activity evaluation method of public space by the human oriented perspective” by referring to evaluation method for existing pilot projects research and analyzing and organizing the result of activity evaluation research of “IKEBUKURO East Green Boulevard Sidewalk cafe pilot project in 2015 Spring”.
The following five points became clear from this study. First, we identified some problems for pilot projects in Japan; for example, single year's budget framework and short-term restricted program. Second, The conventional evaluation method was by questionnaire and traffic survey only. First: In the pedestrian traffic volume increase or decrease, accurate users' condition in open café can't be grasped. Second: Whether this pilot project contributed to improvement of space cannot be evaluated from the activity aspect since the conventional questionnaire survey can't do an objective observation, survey, although it can show user's satisfaction and what they ate based on user's subjection. Third: Correlation of each user's attributes and actual use condition is not clear. Third, The western's evaluation method for public space improvement program by Jan Gehl's do not only activity evaluation, but also a suggestion for improvement of public space by mapping activity in public space and connecting that activity data with urban space structure, including pedestrian traffic volume survey, activity survey, questionnaire survey that are three survey called "public life survey" overall. Forth, There is nearly twice the difference in sample, number between questionnaire and activity survey. Questionnaire survey is not applicable to grasp user number but applicable for qualitative data, such as satisfaction and thought of users. On the other hand, an activity survey of our study can gather all user data and also have user activity data that can only get from this objective observation, survey, and can analysis multiply through various data that is get by one time. Fifth, conventional evaluation method can show user number from the traffic volume survey, but from our research, deferent findings came out. The tendency of increase or decrease of pedestrian traffic and number of open cafes user are not necessarily match and increase of pedestrian traffic is not necessarily to correspond to volume of use of public space from the result traffic volume survey and activity survey.
Various measures are being implemented and examined to improve the emergency medical system. Among the measures is the ambulance and medical helicopter policy. Medical helicopters constitute a system that allows emergency medicine specialists and nurses to board helicopters and travel to emergency locations, receive patients at rendezvous points, and administer emergency medical treatment while transporting patients to hospitals. Ambulances constitute an emergency medical system in which emergency medicine specialists and nurses can ride directly to emergency locations. These modes of transport are different, but the main result expected of both is improvement in lifesaving rates by speeding up the initiation of early stage medical treatment by doctors and nurses. Positive results have been reported for both, but based on an assessment of regional collaboration beyond medical care zones and the effects thereof, there are issues with planning techniques. These consist of conflicts between social demands and the quantitative planning techniques used for medical helicopters and ambulances. Additionally, there are few examples of the operational effects of medical helicopters and ambulances and selected locations being quantitatively examined based on geographical conditions; the disseminated investigation methods are inadequate.
In contrast to previous studies, this study is a quantitative investigation into the deployment planning of connected institutions, calculating the operational effects of medical helicopters and ambulances. A framework in which regional collaboration beyond medical care zones is actually being investigated is used as an example.
The subject of this study is the frame of Kansai emergency medical cooperation plan, keeping in mind the regional collaboration cutting across medical care zones. Four indices of operational effects were used: shortened time until start of medical treatment by a doctor, improvement in lifesaving rates due to shortened times, and the multiplication of each of these with the reachable population. Calculations were based on previous studies of road distance and emergency medicine taken from prepared GIS data (fire stations, hospitals, rendezvous points, road systems, and population distribution). The deployment plans investigated involved changing rendezvous points to landing fields, and adding tertiary emergency hospitals as bases for medical helicopters and ambulances. The findings from this study are as follows.
1. Improvement from changing rendezvous points to landing fields tended to level off around the top 100 locations. 2. The effect of adding medical helicopter bases was relatively minute. 3. Improvement from adding ambulance base hospitals tended to momentarily level out at around five sites.
Based on the above findings, we presented an efficient deployment plan for changing the top 100 landing fields into rendezvous points and then gradually establishing ambulance base hospitals in the following order: Hyogo Brain and Heart Center, Tokushima Red Cross Hospital, Nagahama Red Cross Hospital, Fukuchiyama City Hospital and Tokushima Prefectural Miyoshi Hospital.
The construction cost of a condominium is more expensive than a detached residence. Therefore, it is necessary to keep the condominium in a good condition and use it as long as possible. But someday it will be necessary to rebuild that condominium and we need to develop a new rebuilding system that the resident can agree to rebuild it by decreasing a financial burden of the residents. And for that aim, it is important to convert the rebuild one from the condominium to the rental apartment (from the ownership to the use). The rebuilding by the general incorporated association as the civil trust can secure the continuity of the business and eliminate various risks under construction and manage the rebuilding housing. This system is basically not to increase the number of the dwelling units and also can keep the conventional open space. The support fund by the administration will be repaid and that repaid fund will be reused as the support for the rebuilding of another condominium. In addition to this, this system also will be able to make another fund support for the rebuilding of other condominium by using their own fund. The administration is also able to let this rental dwelling units have the function of the public housing and this will be the incentive to do a public support for a condominium rebuilding. After rebuilding the condominium, it will be the nonprofit rental housing that the civil trust organization owns. And at time of the end of the trust, that organization will continue as the general incorporated association. This system will be the independent sustainable housing system managed by the residents.
The national university is requested to implement the measures to realize a low carbon society through life cycle of buildings. The design period of planning and preliminary design is short, and the detailed design work start without sufficient consideration on energy saving measures. It is expected to improve design process and energy saving measures, which take into account the operation phase, for the facility users do not perceive that the experimental equipment are energy saving objects. The national universities hold 8,460,000 m2 buildings that passed more than 25 years and being needed to implement renovation, and it increases by 600,000 m2 a year. The purpose of this study is that grasp the actual design process and to clarify the promoting measures for carrying out energy saving in the national universities. The study covers following contents; (1) Clarify current condition of energy saving measures by investigating the organization of facility planning in the national university. (2) Clarify current condition of renovation project by conducting a questionnaire survey on the facility planning department in the national universities. (3) The hearing regarding energy saving measures to the universities that promoting energy saving measures, specified devised points and problems, and clarified obstructive factors and requirement of energy saving promotion. This study concludes followings; (1) It is not taken into account following issues; target setting, monitoring, consideration on energy saving at early design stage, participation of facility operators and consideration of energy saving measures. (2) The ratio of establishment of maintenance division is 40%, implemention of energy monitoring is 30%. It shows that establishment of the management work is not enough in the national universities after turned into national university corporation. (3) Creating a design guideline regarding to energy saving is one of the factor enhancing energy saving measures at the renovation projects in the national universities based on clarifying consideration items, obstructive factors and requirement of energy saving promotion. The further study is being intended and it will cover that detailed content of design guideline and a management system which apply the design guideline in the design process appropriately.
By employing a search theory, we had analyzed influence on matching between demander and supplier of logs by the changes in the trend of housing starts. Reflecting the number of housing starts to be increased in 1950's, resources of many forest in Japan had been decreased rapidly by unreasonable disafforestation. The strong demand of logs could not be met enough, even if between demander and supplier of logs spent time for trying to match together. Import of logs were opened by the Japanese government, because of the strong demand not to be met by domestic short supply. Against import of logs to be opened completely, we presume the relationship between forestry and industry of housing would keep as before. Later the number of housing starts were decreased, especially by the depression from 1990 and the graying of recent society in Japan. According to the number of housing starts decreased, the lumber demander left from the market of logs in Japan. Thus most of the relationships between demander and supplier of logs had been cut for the lumber demander leaving from the market of logs. Thereby, even if large capacity to gather lumber was necessary, the capacity of lumber supplier would be significantly dropping because of not using the capacity for a long time. The lumber demander prefers to trade with a foreign country for a large selection of lumber and logs being available. On the other hand, domestic forestry as the log supplier has declined. For the world economic booms from mid-2000, the demand of lumber and logs became stronger than before. Though the domestic demand of lumber increased in Japan by higher price of import goods, Japanese supplier could not gather domestic lumber. Japanese government carried out some policies towards that situation. By these policies, Japanese supplier could gather domestic logs. But a self‐sufficiency rate of logs in Japan did not improve even though demander of wood being able to make matching to some part of supplier of logs. It is because most of demander of logs didn't keep selecting Japanese lumber and logs for being unable to secure both the quantity of the domestic lumber required in the long term and the quality in these policies. Thus the existence of the intermediary who grasps the situation on the demand side and the supply side of the logs together, and can perform matching well is necessary. We think it is necessary that Japanese government promotes human resource development of the intermediary who grasps the situation on the demand side and the supply side of the logs together, and can perform matching well.
The most characteristic of Danish Housing Policy is the idea that the housing is the basis of the social life. The rent of private rental housing has also been restricted to affordable rates. In addition, the residental organizations are participating in the management of the private rental housing. There are no public housings in Denmark and there are social housings as the role of public housings. Social housings in Denmark are the housings that residents themselves establish a housing organization with the financial support from the state and multiple authority, construct and manage a rental housing. Social housing are the housings that social housing organizations have as non-profit rental housings in which the members become the tenants. Social housings are built and operated by the housing organizations. There are two types of housing organizations, one of them is a residential social housing organization and the other is a non-profit management company. The minimum unit of social housing organization is the department. Management of the department is carried out by the Board of Directors that have selected by the general meeting of tenants. The budget and management of the department must be approved by the general meetings or by the vote of tenants. The department has the autonomy, also are financially independent of the other department and the social housing organization which it belong to, and has no risk to be affected by the financial collapse of the other department of that organization. A non-profit management company is a social housing organization that must has the resident representatives committee and that committee must be the highest authority of that company. Therefore, the social housing organization and non-profit management company are the integral social housing organization. The social housing in Denmark, in the construction and maintenance, management, funds, has a sustainable mechanism. In addition, the voice of the tenants is reflected to the management of the rental housing. The social housing model of Denmark will be an important suggestion to our housings in Japan.
An ordinance abolishing the qualification system for daikushiki (tōku, tōdai and kodakumi) was promulgated to Ise-Jingū in the 15th year of the Tenshō era (1587). Nonetheless, Ise Jingū preserved this system. Our previous study concerned the first two categories of title while the present study features the category of kodakumi, especially the careers of carpenters who retained the title of kodakumi. Kunugi is the Ise-Jingū carpenter whose professional activities can be traced to the earliest period. This family possessed the title of kodakumi for Naikū since the 6th year of the Kanshou era (1465) (just before the beginning of the Ōnin War) up to the 2nd year of the Entoku era (1490). The family's activities are not known thereafter and before the 3rd year of Tenshō era (1575) in which a shikinen sengū was performed. However, the family Kunugi is known to have resumed its activities from the 1570s up to around the middle of 17th century. Records exist for the activities as kodakumi in the years of the Bummei era (late 15th century) of the families Ishimatsutayū, Kubokura and Nishikawara. The family Ishimatsutayū, in particular, is known to have regularly been engaged in professional activities from the 3rd year of the Bummei era (1471) until the first years of the Tenshō era. In the course of the Tenshō era, a cadet branch known as Ishimatsuyosaburō was created from the family Ishimatsutayū. The family Fukiage started its career in the 6th year of the Eiroku era (1563) for the shikinen sengū of Gekū. The families Kawasaki, Urata, Okada and Tamukai started its career in the 3rd year of the Tenshō era (1575) for the karidono sengū of Naikū. The family Iga started its career in the 13th year of the Tenshō era (1585) for the shikinen sengū of the Shrine. Nonetheless, following the promulgation in the 15th year of the Tenshō era (1587) of an ordinance abolishing the qualification of daikushiki, Ise Jingū allowed these carpenter families to continue their careers. More than half of these families were replaced by new kōshō families for the shikinen sengū of Gekū in the 14th year of the Keichō era (1609) and in the 6th year of the Kan'ei era (1629). Some of the carpenters of the families featured in our study had at least one daikushiki title for Naikū and Gekū. In fact, Kunugi Mitsushige had two titles of kodakumi for Naikū. Iga Morihisa had the title of kodakumi for both Naikū and Gekū. Iwabuchi Hiroyuki had the title of tōku for Gekū and that of kodakumi for Naikū. Such carpenters really existed.
This study undertaken in order to reveal the historical process and technical characters of the joint technology in timber frame structures in Japanese traditional house. These joint technologies called shikuchi in Japanese. This study puts in focus on horizontal member used in Japanese traditional house, called sashimono, and analyzes these shikuchi joint to pillars of framework in Early Modern houses, it reveals these historical changes and some local characteristics. In this study, defined 13 joint elements, we analyzed the sashimono joint that has described in the restoration report on early modern house in eastern Japan.
This paper clarifies the relation between discourses on architectural works and the theory of tradition in the activities of Seiichi Shirai (1905－1983), focusing on his descriptions of his architectural works. In the present situation of criticism on Shirai, an investigation of his true intentions and to present the viewpoint that an interrelationship can be created between his images, which are generally considered to be isolated, is required. Additionally, the author has performed comprehensive researches on Shirai's theory of tradition, hence, this paper is based on these conclusions. Concerning Shirai's descriptions, his statements like the theory of the people, seen in the debate on tradition in 1950s, continued after 1970s but with changing the target to people involved in the construction of his works. It can be said that this is an expression of his thinking background rather than an important aim in his designs. Systematically comparing Shirai's descriptions of architectural works with his writings on the theory of tradition, the plan of “Temple Atomic Catastrophes” (1955) was the most representative project directly related to the statements in 1956 as the establishment term of the theory. These statements appeared in the essay “The Jomon style” which argued the importance of grabbing the inner potential of an object without being misled by its external form, and also in “Rice meal” which explained the concept of “Yo (utility)”. After this, Shirai spend years with no descriptions when announcing a new work. It is remarkable that this term and the development term of Shirai's traditional theory (1957－1971) mostly overlapped. One of the reasons for this is that Shirai's intention to create something that exceeded consciousness was inconsistent with the act of explanation. In addition, Shirai's descriptions for his stone works, “Kai-syo-kan (Computation center for Shinwa Bank's head office)” (1975) and “Seki-sui-kan (Serizawa museum of fine arts)” (1981), built after the development term, displayed the awareness that it was possible to share classics of the world as the objects inhering in himself under the creative consciousness of freeing time and space. This meant the concept of “Eurasian style” itself as the theory after the development, and this was also seen in the project “House of Kureha” (1965), which is the representative work of Japanese style. Although Shirai's idea of combining heterogeneous elements in one space was noticed from the end of 1960s, based on his statements, his awareness of the internalization of world classics should be emphasized. Thus, the contents and the development of Shirai's descriptions of architectural works are closely connected with the development process of his theory of tradition. Based on this conclusion, it can be highlighted that the study of the development of Shirai's traditional theory is an effective measure for connecting Shirai's isolated images today.
The purpose of this research is to review and analyze the transformation of the urban structure of Tokyo resulting from the developmental activities by the kashichi-haisyakunin, who are tenants of the kashichi, which means common riverside spaces, during the early meiji period. In particular, this research targets the regions surrounding the riverbank of the Kanda River, which include Kagura-kashi, Ichibei-kashi, and Iida-kashi. In a previous study on this riverbank, the author remarked that the spatial structures existing in these kashichi had been formed by the kashichi-haisyakunin. That is to say, they were private developers of those riverside spaces and were new tenants of the kashichi since the meiji period. Their activities were associated with the process of transformation of regions surrounding those kashichi. Accordingly, this paper aims to focus on their activities in the surrounding regions as well as the riverbank. In this study, the characteristics of the kashichi-haisyakunin is classified into three types: adjacent, periphery, and distant. The classification is based on the positional relation between the kashichi and their location. Additionally, each type was evaluated for the differences in the behavior of the landowners and the developmental activities at their respective locations in order to confirm the land ledger and kashi register from the meiji period. Through this analysis of the activities of the kashichi-haisyakunin, the following characteristics were revealed. First, in the case of adjacent type of kashichi-haisyakunin, which involved several tenants renting the kagura-kashi and ichibei-kashi, the tenants sought to use the adjacent riverbank and were involved in reconstructing the spatial structures in the surrounding region, such as the Kagurazaka area, while using the waterfront and commercial land integrally. Second, in the case of periphery of the adjacent area, which involved several tenants renting the iida-kashi, the tenants emerged be a newly risen landlord class. Thus, they rented the land of the kashichi and acquired land from the periphery of the town adjacent to kashichi. Consequently, the spatial structures in those areas were transformed and a new relation between the land and water was established in the urban structure. Finally, the distant type of kashichi-haisyakunin, which involved commercial tenants renting kashichi, the tenants tended to be companies, such as a timber and rice merchants, that used the river to transport goods. Furthermore, there is also a stock farm, which was converted from bukechi (a district inhabited by the samurais during the edo period). That is to say, they constructed an intimate relation between the kashichi and the production areas or the supply centers for merchandise, using the structure of a channel in Tokyo. It was then conducive to reconstruct the urban structure resulting from the relation between two distant regions Such interactions between the kashichi-haisyakunin's activity and the transformation of the regions surrounding those kashichi show that the urban structure of Tokyo had been reconstructed during the early meiji period. Therefore, these results suggest that the kashichi-haisyakunin was an independent player in the urban transformation, performing roles such as a developer, a newly risen landlord class, or someone engaged in water transport.