In this study, we aimed to find potential possibility and problem of installing and modifying of movable storage furniture by non-specialist. The study selects one of renovating dwelling unit at "KYUDOGAKUSHA" as a case study. "KYUDOGAKUSHA" was designed by architect Takeda Goichi in 1927 and renovated in 2006.The results are as follows; 1)Even though non-specialist were untrained, they easily install and modify by using systematized moveable storage furniture. In addition, to increase the assembling efficiency, the study found that it is necessary to improve “End-Panel” and bolt and nut. 2)It is clear that some types which we called “Island Type” of Movable storage Furniture's layout can facilitate the residents' installing and modifying efficiency.
This study discusses the caretakers called “Gardien(ne)s” in private apartment houses in the French metropolitan area. The aim of this paper is to analyze their historical and statutory situations, and their functions. The results are as follows: (1) The origin of this profession was as a gatekeeper called “Portier(ère)s” or “Concierges” for aristocratic residences, and they were popularized in 19C. (2) At present their obligations, rights and basic jobs are decided by the labor contract, and their main jobs are decided according to each apartment houses' Syndic from those in the labor contract's job list. (3) The majority of them are live-in Gardien(ne)s who work more than 4 days in a week. Their office space where is called a “Loge”, often adjoins their living space. (4) The Gardien(ne)s recognize basic works are to clean common spaces, to distribute dwellers' letters, the surveillance strangers' comings and to ensure the elderly dwellers' safety. Additionally, they can answer dwellers' requests, such as housework or care for the dwellers' children temporarily with some perquisite by the traditional convention, even if these requests are not in the job list.
High-rise and high-density complexes in urban areas have abundant outdoor spaces, many regional facilities and rooms for common use. We found that these common spaces have been changed their uses in the past three or four decades in order to meet the needs. Especially, a lot of common spaces have been turned into facilities for children and elderly. We easily understand that the elderly facilities have increased because aging is a marked progression of the high-rise and high-density complexes. While, it is remarkable that in spite of the decreasing children in the complexes the children facilities have never been disused, in fact, they have increased. The children's facility in the complexes have been attracting children and their parents in their neighbor areas.
In this study we analyzed characteristics of activities of junior-high-school teachers, and got some insights of the teachers-room. Teachers' time is severely restricted. Particularly, in the 10-minute-free-time they must manage many tasks, as the school building plan intends. When teachers' working space is under much attention of students, individual guidance and grading is difficult. When the teachers' rooms are separated, teachers need much time to move, so it is difficult to rest and work in the 10-minute-free-time. Also, they have less communication, and have more trouble under sudden accidents on students.
This research has aimed to clarify the function, uses, architectural space and architectural form of the beach hut and to understand the relation between them to hold an architectural plan in the beach hut. I chose the beach hut located on the beach in Kanagawa as the case study. As a result, the function and the uses of the beach hut become various. Moreover, the rest room is the most important function for beach hut. The beach hut has been changed into facilities with a lot of functions. It was clarified that an architectural form tended to become combined composition along with it because of the combination and topology of element of composition.
This paper aims the planning suggestions of the reception space from residents' and visitors' requirements and claims in nursing homes. They require the environment as their"house"'s one through reception. So we investigated the actual situation of reception in nursing homes. We questioned visitors and observed to nursing homes, on the reception places, reception behavior. (1)The staffs help of reception is important.The supportive settings must be near for reception spaces. (2)The table space for reception is necessary in the residential room. (3)The table layout of the dining room must match all residents' dining and one family's one. (4)The living room must have setting differnt from residential room.
This paper analyzes how citizen spaces are used and what are the intents and the conditions of the construction of citizen spaces based on articles in architectural journals. The following are the findings of this study. 1. Citizen spaces of city halls tend to become larger with the times. However, the ground areas of the city halls do not change, therefore city halls tend to become taller with more levels and the citizen spaces are located near the entrance. 2. In the colder areas, citizen spaces of city halls tend to be constructed inside and those in warmer areas tend to be connected to outside areas. The characteristics of city halls vary by region. 3.Citizen spaces of city halls are designed to stimulate communication. Bigger city halls need to satisfy more diverse demands regarding the citizen spaces and the citizen spaces are expected to play a major role as a place of communication in the community. 4. Citizen spaces of city halls vary with the design requirements: however, creation of easy-to-access and comfortable citizen spaces that serve the needs of the citizens as a place to promote communication is in demand.
This paper aims to clarify the framework and characteristics of opera houses in present day Italy. The analysis is based on two original databases, one on opera performances and another on theatres. The main findings are listed as follows: 1)The main categories of the theatre for opera as prescribed by law are Fondazione Lirica and Teatro di Tradizione ; 2)The theatres that come under the categories supplement each other and cover all of Italy; 3)There are marked differences between representative theatres in both categories, in terms of organizational structure and frequency of opera performances; 4)Two frameworks of opera house can be established by the categories.
Conversation spaces of sign language signers were analysed according to the four following aspects: 1. Analysis of the position between 3 sitting signers. The most suitable position for conversation is equilateral triangle of about 2000mm in the vicinity length. 2. If the next mutual distance is 900mm or more, the conversation is at least enabled. 3. When talking on the long chair, signers' back to form the triangle. 4. It is important in the utterance that the operation of the ability be not limited.
This paper looks at the current state in Japan of small-scale elder care facilities—basically, day-care type facilities—and the effect that the spatial characteristics of such facilities have on the elderly during their stay. First, we gathered information on the overall condition of these facilities by questionnaires and hearing surveys. Secondly, after an observational survey was conducted, we compiled a summary of the users' daily life and activities and the facilities according to their spatial characteristics. Finally, after analyzing the relationship between the spatial composition of these facilities and how the elderly spend their time there, we discovered various types of room usage and organized this information by the relationship between spatial composition and user attributes. Consequently, we found the following:1) Small-scale elder care facilities provide flexible services according to users' physical conditions and family needs. These are additional services to home care support services. 2) These small-scale facilities are distinct in character because many, differentiated activities can be observed at the same time. This is because there is wide variety in the location and type of these activities as well as the size of the group. 3) The daily life and activities of users at each of these facilities resemble each other irrespective of the type of building or service, but the room or space where users choose to stay and feel comfortable, and how they spend their time in that place, varies according to the spatial composition of these facilities.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the forms of assembly of plural station squares in central Tokyo in terms of spatial compositions with surroundings. Initially, combinations of station squares around a station building are analyzed. Secondly, connections between those squares are analyzed through common elements such as passing streets and buildings which can be seen from several squares. Finally, 4 forms of assembly are clarified: unity of similar squares, one-sided integration of squares by building scale, connection of dissimilar squares with common railway tracks in canal bed, and indirect connection of squares with common distant high-rise building.
It is important that we associate with those who are not intimate with us. To clarify where contacts with these people take place, we paid attention to acquaintances of different generation for children and youth. The purpose of this article is to clarify where children and youth contact with acquaintances of different generation. The survey of this article is questionnaire to university students. This article clarified following things. Many people whom children and youth contact are considered to be "hosts of the place", who are always at the place, who cherish the place, and who play some role there. Because "hosts of the place" are always at particular place, if children and youth want to meet them, they can go there. And even if children and youth don't intend to meet them, they meet them inevitably when they go there. And many contacts with acquaintances of different generation take place not at public places but at semi-public places.
This study is aimed to make clear tendency of the housing stock and appearance of houses of the suburban rural area in Tokai vill. of Ibaraki pref. after the war. 4 household types, namely the full-time farm, the part-time farm, the non-farm(local people), and the non-farm(people moving in) households are made use for analyses. The main results are as follows: 1) Housing stock was made mainly by the farm household at first after the war, and from the period “1965-'74” onward, 2 non-farm actively started to stock housing, and the part-time farm followed on. 2) With appearance of houses, the farm household constructed traditional farmhouses for a while after the war, and then, houses attached formality with a roof form of Iri-moya before the “1965-'74” . From the period onward, 2 non-farm households build urban houses with the roof of Yose-mune. 3) Non-farm households prefer natural and traditional factors of house regardless of their urban appearance. 4) Houses recently build by the branch of the farm household are urban type houses, too.
The aim of this study is to make clear the spatial composition and formative process of reclaimed villages by a case study on Ryokai Area facing the Ariake Coast in Yanagawa City. On the Ariake Coast, there are a lot of reclaimed villages located on the same geographical condition, but shapes of these villages are many and various. We attempt to clarify a primary factor of the variety of reclaimed villages, therefore we analyzed the relationship between process of reclamation works and village composition on Ryokai Area. As a result we realized a cause and effect relationship among several factors technical development,agricultural policy and dwelling system.
In this paper, we analyzed the change of site use in case study areas. We found the six patterns of change: 1) Demolition, 2) Integration of lots, 3) New construction, 4) Rebuilding, 5) Splitting of land, and 6) Re-splitting of land. Then we categorized the patterns of change in every five years to find the eight patterns of change: 1) from demolition to being vacant, 2) from Integration of lots to being vacant, 3) From vacant space to new construction, 4) From Integration of lands to new construction, 5) re-building, 6) Splitting lands to new construction, 7) vacant lot to splitting lot, and 8) integrating lots to re-splitting, then new construction. With this patterns of change, we displayed the each change reflects each characteristics of the area.
In this study, by doing an on-spot investigation of town area of Zhuzhou city, we tried to grasp the actual situation of Happy Farmhouse tourism in Hunan Province, China. First, we reviewed the histories, then summarized the characteristics of Happy Farmhouse in town area of Zhuzhou City, and classified them into certain types. Third, we did a questionnaire survey of urban dweller visitors and tried to make clear how the urban dwellers make use of and think of those Happy Farmhouses. Last, we did a supply investigation of Happy Farmhouse owners. As a result of this study, we find most citizens have strong interests in Happy Farmhouse tourism. But there still exists problems need to be improved.
This research is concern with destruct condominium by the redevelopment technique based on the Urban Renewal Regulations in Taiwan JiJi earthquake, and compares redevelopment front and back and study a cause of the loss in building mass rebuilding. It searches for the factor to the loss in building mass rebuilding from the price of land and the support system of 921 fund association.
The “City of Quito” in Ecuador, is one of the first properties inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1978. However, through the analysis of the Nomination Dossier and ICOMOS Advisory Body Evaluation of the “City of Quito”, several ambiguous items related to the name, limits and buffer zones of the property could be found. This ambiguity makes difficult to discern if the entire “City of Quito” or the “Historic Center” is the concerned World Heritage property. This study is aimed to analyze the planning maps, Nomination Dossier and submitted maps related to the inscription of the “City of Quito”, in order to determine the name, limits and buffer zones of the World Heritage property, and in addition to determine the changes on the planning maps until the present. Based on the analysis, this study has concluded that it would be better to revise the name of the World Heritage property to “Historic Center” instead of “City of Quito” according to the Legal Status of the Nomination Dossier. As a result, it would be better to revise the limits and buffer zones according to the current planning maps of legal instruments.
The term "Keirou" proposed in this paper is defined as concatenation of specific town-scape experiences earned by locomotion ascribed by various scenic keys in the city. This research aims to establish the description method of town-scape structure of the city with its base of castle town using the concept “Keirou.” As a result, followings were clarified. 1) Description of Conceptual system of Keirou and its displaying procedure were earned. 2) Description method of scenic features of the town corresponding to its surrounding mountains were clarified. This was earned by first understanding the intimate distribution of “Yama-ate Keirou”, the Keirou with its scenic key of mountains, for each surrounding mountains of the cities. 3) By structuring each Keirou groups, features of each three categories of Japanese castle town based city were manifested in order to typify the Keirou structure.
It is known that domestic woods are with higher cost, lower quality, longer lead time, comparing with imported woods. It is because the supply chain system of domestic woods is in the form of so-called ‘product-out’ system. So it is necessary for this system to be changed into ‘market-in’ system. In this paper, the authors focus on design information and lumber product information in a timber housing project. A scheduling model about design and procurement of the project has been developed. This scheduling model makes it possible to improve quality of lumber and to reduce its stock, which will shorten the lead time of the whole project.
Construction projects are undertaken by the general contractor and a multitude of the subcontractors for brief periods of time on a site. It is the general contractor who has the freedom to define the scope of work for each work and to select the subcontractor based on the particulars of each project. Therefore, it is very important for the general contractor to make properly arrangement based on the situation in each project. In this research, the authors made a survey of several construction projects; aim at discuss the scope of work of the construction project of China, and make clear the relation of distribution of responsibility among the general contractor and the subcontractor.
Since the middle of the 1990s, young people have been experiencing unprecedented difficulty in obtaining stable employment, in forming an independent family and in climbing up the ladder of housing. This paper looks at the housing condition of the young generation. The housing system in post-war Japan has assumed that the majority of people lead a standardized life-course. However, the paper demonstrates the fact that while young households with a conventional life-course pattern ascend up the housing ladder towards home ownership attainment, single people and those living in their parental home are largely excluded from the ladder system.
In this paper, I report the results of the life time estimations about Japanese buildings and houses. The estimations are based on the data from the ledgers of buildings for fixed property taxes at the years of 1997 and 2005. The average life time of the detached residential houses was 43 years at 1997, and was 52 years at 2005. The average life times of other types of buildings were also estimated, and which were found to becme longer compared to the previous estimations.
During Edo-Era inspectors were sent throughout Japan several times. In 1838 inspectors were sent to Kumamoto-Han and used private houses for stay and rest. Through the examination of historical materials such as plans, following results were ascertained; 1)Inspector's room, followers' rooms and storeroom were required for stay and rest in private house. 2)Most of the private houses were composed of 3 or 4 rooms. So room was divided into different spaces to meet the requirement.
This paper is an analysis of the origin of wooden lattice in the upstairs wall about machiya (town-house) of Kyoto in the Edo period. In previous studies, the wooden lattice was compared to tea-cottage window. However, this paper points out the origin of the wooden lattice was window of wooden warehouse in 16th century, and this design was imitation of same lattice window or Sama (opening in the wall) in the barrier of castle which was constructed by feudal lord.
The purpose of this paper is to consider how the general contract of the Otaru Branch of the Bank of Japan had been concerned with the contract system in the second half of Meiji era and the first unification of the contract form in Japan in 1909. The first contract form was proposed by the Institute of Japanese Architects that the president was Kingo Tatsuno who was an architecture adviser on the Bank of Japan. The material in this paper is derived mainly from the documents of a new building on the Otaru Branch. I analyze the subject under three headings: (1)The list of the bid requirements and the bill of quantities; (2)The contract documents and provision of the general contract; (3)The contract price and temporary payment.
In this paper, first I clarify the formation of the theory of theatrical reform and the state of construction of improved theaters that were based on reforms in theatrical performance. Then I consider the influences on architecture of the reform of theatrical performance. Through the question of the Imperial Theater performance (a reaction to the 1911 request for a Noh performance at the Imperial Theater), which was a debate in the world of Noh, I examine, through the opinions and dissatisfactions of relevant figures regarding Noh theaters, the influence of the reform theaters on Noh theaters.
This paper examines the debates on Noh theater reform that formed the core of Noh reform during the late Meiji period. Specifically, it considers the Noh Theater Reform Committee, in which Yamazaki Seitaro and Got Keiji participated, and analyzes the content of the committee's discussions. In particular, improving the kensho (spectator seating) became the main issue, and comparisons were always made with reformed kabuki theaters. Ultimately, the opinions of the Noh Theater Reform Committee became ideals furthering the adoption of nested seating in later Noh theaters.
This paper refers to the conservation study on the ‘Can Chanh Dien’ main palace at the ‘Can Thanh Cung’ court located in the Forbidden city of the Nguyen dynasty. The ‘Can Chanh Dien’ was constructed in 1804 as a main working hall for the successive emperors and their cabinets during the Nguyen period (1802-1945), which was destroyed by the fire in 1947 under the Indochina War (1945-1954). Based on the site investigation, the references from the historical documents and the black and white photos, the present status and transformation of its remained foundation has concretely clarified in this paper.
In this study, we aim to conceptualize the thematic organization to suggest modern architectures and to figure out it. We focus famous seven criticisms for modern architecture that written before 1960. To examine tendencies of architectural terms, we performed correlation analysis, cluster analysis and correspondence analysis. In consequence, we derived concept images of criticisms. As a result, we grasped multiple categories formed modern architecture. Thereby, we brought out basic axes and characteristic axes of concept images.
This paper deals with the process through which the amount of separation between buildings gradually decreased, which then became the basis for property line demarcation in Kyoto. At the end of the 16th century in Machigashira-cho, there was still space between buildings, and no fences. In later years, smaller houses were extended to the neighboring gable wall, or new walls were built right up along the side of neighboring houses. In either case, renovations were done by connecting crossbeams to the corner posts. Such renovations led to the loss of separation between buildings. In other words, the property lines are the result of building up to the very edge of existing neighboring houses.
This paper aims to clarify the idea of Leonardo da Vinci for urbanism in the final two decades of the 15th century in consideration of the initial activation phase of the circular canal system of Milan. I focus on the "go up" navigable canal system in the circular canal for understanding the locational advantage of the area of S. Marco on the land transportation system and try to clarify the process of activation of the circular canal system in the cronological analysis based on materials stored in the archives of Milan and the manuscripts of Leonardo da Vinci. In doing so, the next four points become clear; 1) Reverse transcription of the land transportation system inside the circular canal generated by the "go up" navigable canal system 2) Radial distribution network generated by the central marketplace "Piazza dei Mercanti" inside the trace of the ancient waterway "Nirone (Grande or Piccolo Seveso)" and multiple distribution system composed by the "Sciostra (landing stage on the canal) - Terraggio, Contrada and Nirone (street) - Corso or Verziere (Piazza for marketplace)" in the peripheral area between the "Nirone" and the "Naviglio Interno" 3) Locational importance of the port of discharge "Tombone di S. Marco" for the "Piazza dei Mercanti" and its radial distribution network 4) Interpretation on the phase of connection between the "Naviglio della Martesana" and the "Naviglio Interno" in consideration of the lock gate "Conca di Missaglia" and the rectilinearlized plan on the final section of the "Naviglio della Martesana" indicated by Leonardo da Vinci
Nowadays in the Electric town of Akihabara, Tokyo, due to the redevelopment which is in progress, there are multiple difficulties in exploring the town, such as diversion between the electric town and the redevelopment area. In this research, in order to share the locality knowledge and to promote various experiences in the town, we developed and operated a social bookmarking service system that records the spots which a visitor has visited combining the cellular phone and the QR code based on the GIS and let the users exchange the record. As a result of this study, we revealed the impact of the design factors developed based on the arguments mentioned above, to the knowledge acquaintance and the exploration using co-variance structure analysis.
This discussion raises a few questions on the understanding of design of residential environment for ALS patients. 1) The unsuitable understanding of the contents of the referenced preceding study about the study of residential environment. 2) The explanation to unclear example of the duplication part of item of the survey. 3) The problem on that your results of the visiting investigation aren't provided to enough for reader.
Most studies, however have not focused global image. It is reasonable to suppose that have not systematic research in environmental design and planning for ALS. The following are procedures in studies by questionnaire and interview. We examined the data taken from a wide range of ALS groups. The interview experiments serve to strengthen it follows from the questionnaire. The result of our experiment clearly shows that is important existence of a care worker. Although this may be true, there were too many question items. The primary consideration in this study should be complement interview. The classification of a room name was the state of affairs in the room aiming at sleeping is used from the start, or not. It is reasonable to suppose that the ADL is performed at the bedroom as a physical disability becomes serious, from the investigation both of questionnaire and interview.