Since the 1980s, Chinese housing complexes have included closed boundaries that surround each site, such as fences and walls, to maintain and manage the open space (OS) of the housing complex and avoid security problems. However, this causes urban issues, such as increased traffic because streets in housing complexes cannot be used as public roads and reduced urban street activities because the traffic is inconvenient for pedestrians. However, such boundaries may help to promote residents’ OS use in the complex. Therefore, to solve these urban issues, it is necessary to clarify the complex boundary’s effect on residents’ activities in the OS before developing open communities. The purpose of this study is to propose a boundary improvement plan that can sustain residents’ active OS use and create activities on the streets by clarifying the relationship between urban street activity and the physical characteristics of the boundary.
We conducted a boundary survey on housing complexes built in Tianjin since the 1980s. We clarified the boundaries’ physical characteristics in three aspects: site conditions, external layers structure, and access to the site. We performed cluster analysis using the boundaries’ physical characteristics as factors and categorized the complex by boundary characteristics. We extracted the complex to be surveyed from each of the resulting “clusters.” We determined activity characteristics by analyzing residents’ sense of personal belonging in those OSs and streets. After analyzing the relationship between activity and the boundary’s physical characteristics, we considered certain elements necessary for better boundary planning.
1) The boundaries of Chinese housing complexes can be categorized into four types, each with different spatial characteristics.
2) At the boundary with high visibility, it is difficult to create activities in the housing complex’s OS. However, at the boundary with low visibility, activities in the OS are promoted when there are many gates. Conversely, if there are few gates, the OS is more likely to be used for storage, which discourages activities.
3) If the residential building is close to public roads, residents are more interested in OSs and streets. Mixing applications at the perimeter leads to increasing numbers of non-residents in the streets; consequently, social surveillance will further increase, which will encourage residents to interact with each other and create communities.
4) Regardless of the level of security, entry and exit restrictions set by the management company may cause residents to lose their awareness of social surveillance and lose interest in OSs and streets.
There are various problems in the living environment of the elderly in suburban area, which are losing farmland due to urban development. It is expected that there will be differences between regions (differences of housing and life for the elderly). The objective of this paper is to clarify and evaluate living environment, especially space formation of dwelling for elderly people in Yan Ta District of Xi’an(6 community/ village). This article focusing on the suburban area in Xi’an aims to compare with the urban center and rural areas discussed through the previous papers, based on field studies.
The major points this paper clarifies are as follows.
1. In Yan Ta District, the structure of the shequ (community) are very different. They are combined with: community where most state-owned enterprise residential areas are concentrated, community where is a high-rise residential area which redeveloped from "village in city", community where apartment residential areas and undeveloped old residential area are coexist in half, community where is undeveloped villages that lost farmland. It was found that the disparities about area scale, the number of people, and the aging rate existed among communities.
2. There is an advanced shequ establishing the regional neighborhood facilities, where the welfare facilities, the home care center and home life service are well managed by private sector pater with community, although it is costly to use them. As a whole, welfare facilities are almost underdeveloped, and especially care facilities for the elderly in communities are not enough. Also, the location of the residents' committee in the area is biased.
3. With regard to daily life problems, the first problem that is health and medical treatment. And it can be seen that there is disparity among districts. The third residential environment problems, such as no elevators, facilities are inadequate, inconvenience of toilets, presence of steps etc. Although it is not seen in central area of the city and rural area, it was found that the relationship with the children was not well and the dependent contradiction increased in village of suburb area.
4. Housing issues vary by company district. Although the area is small, steps in the toilet, undeveloped showers and bathrooms, and aging facilities are common to the shequ ward, the housing properties of the newly redeveloped shequ ward are improving. In a corporate district where state-owned enterprises and public works complex are concentrated, there is a problem that there is no elevator in middle-rise apartments. There are small-scale single- story houses in company districts where state-owned enterprises, public works estates and old residential areas (built-up areas) coexist, and there is a problem of aging equipment. Villages where land is planned to be converted from farmland have many problems with bathing and toilets. The problem of housing naturally causes great inconvenience and hindrance to the lives of elderly people and caregivers with independence levels II and III.
As mentioned above, it was clarified that there are different problems in the living environment and dwelling of elderly people in the suburban area (Yan Ta Ward), following the urban area and rural status of the historical city Xi'an, depending on the composition of the company ward. I would like to write a separate paper on the problems of the elderly facilities and institutionalized elderly in each area we surveyed.
Krupp Company had built many housing estates for their workers since mid-19th century. For example, “Westend”, “Kronenberg”, “Shederhof”, etc. in Essen. These had been developed in strict grid pattern. But at the end of the 19th century, “Altenhof” was developed in a more freely layout with picturesque cottages. Thereafter more housing estates in freely planed layout had been built. The main objectives of this study are to clarify the detail of these housing estates and to get some suggestion of its effects on their residents.
While, Krupp Company established another steel mill in Duisburg and engaged coal mining in communities in Ruhr region. For these, Krupp Company built housing estates such as “Margarethenhof”, “Dahlhauser Heide”, “Emscher Lippe”. Garden-city movement was introduced in Germany, so the Garden-city type site-plan was adopted for these housing estates. The housing form adopted traditional farmhouse as a model. Semi-detached houses connected by each shed and their emphasis of gables made scenery like rural village. In Dahlhauser Heide and Emscher-Lippe, house plans were arranged in reasonable way, and it could be said a pioneering trial of the planning rationalization after the World War I.
On the other hand, as industry was developed, many farmers from east Prussian region emigrated to work in Ruhr region. These unskilled workers had to engage in lower wage jobs in factories. Many of them lived in group by their original region and brought up vegetables and domestic animals in backyards. There was the fact, however, that residents in these estates discussed in this paper had a lower turnover rate than those of in other housing estates.
Raymond Unwin wrote in his book “Town Planning in Practice” that “we have neglected the amenities of life. (….) There is needed the vivifying touch of art which would give completeness and increase their value tenfold; there is needed just that imaginative treatment which could transform the whole.” The Garden-city type site-plan could attach this vivifying touch of art to these housing estates.
It can be said that the layout and housing form of these housing estates provided comfortable living environment. And many of residents have been farmers from east Prussia and were familiar to these farmhouse-like form of houses and village-like scenery. Therefore, the effects of the layout and housing-form of these housing estates would be suggested as follows:
- The Garden-city type layout provided comfortable living environment and housing form and scenery in these housing estates eased residents’ mind and fostered their sense of belonging.
- House Plans of these housing estates arranged with reasonability were pioneer of the planning rationalization.
- Also, these housing estates could be said forerunners of the “German Garden Village for workers”.
The use of ICT is becoming common in architectural design. It is expected that the increasing use of simulations and various AI technologies will lead to further improvements in the evaluation of spatial performance during the design stage. This study develops a data-driven agent model to simulate consumer shopping behavior in a large-scale commercial facility, with the ultimate aim of identifying the optimal store arrangement and passage shape. The subject commercial facility is a shopping center with 232 stores and 68,640 square meters of floor space. Four stories of the facility are above ground and one story is below. The data obtained from the facility and used in the model included (1) the number of entering/exiting visitors, (2) the purchase histories of membership cardholders, and (3) the number of visitors passing various points in the facility’s passageways. The membership cards of shoppers gave the authors access to 300,000 to 400,000 purchase histories of approximately 100,000 cardholders per month. To model consumer shopping behavior, the transition probabilities of moving between stores were generated from the available purchase histories. The results are as follows.
Two types of stores were identified by analyzing the 215×215 matrix of store-to-store transition probabilities generated from the available purchase histories. The first type includes stores targeted by visitors whose have a clear purpose upon entering the SC. The second type includes stores where visitors tend to make purchases as a result of shopping around rather than having a clear purchase objective in mind immediately upon entry to the facility. The between-store transition probabilities involving stores on the same floor tended to be relatively high, especially in the food court area and the area where similar clothing stores was clustered. On the other hand, the transition probabilities involving stores on different floors tended to be relatively low, particularly the probabilities of going from the first basement floor, the third floor, and the fourth floor to the second floor.
The simulation was generally successful in reproducing macroscopic phenomena such as the number of visitors staying and leaving the SC by using the number of entering visitors and the between-store transition probabilities as input data. The exit-selection probabilities showed a high degree of reproducibility under the assumption that the exit used by leaving visitors would be the same as the entrance they had used. The ability of the simulation to reproduce passage use was rather low when it was assumed that the visitor would select only the shortest route to move from one store to another. However, the simulation results more closely approximated the measured values when the route selection parameters for some of the passages were adjusted.
This study aims to reveal the value of Nara Juvenile Prison other than the important cultural property architecture. Nara Juvenile Prison was established in 1908 as one of the five Meiji prisons and was renamed Nara Juvenile Prison in 1946. It is a special facility that has been used at the same site for 109 years until it closed in 2017. Furthermore, in 2017, the Nara Prison Building, which was built in the Meiji era, was designated as an important cultural property, and other parts have been demolished, and it is currently being renovated as an accommodation facility. The prison architecture as a cultural property building tends to attract attention, but it is important to evaluate the architecture, including the juvenile prison era, which occupied 70 years of the 109-year history. From the perspective of “school”, we have investigated the adaptation process of the school-like activities and spaces in the prison architecture through literature surveys, field surveys and hearings. This research deals with the rare case of prison architecture, and is highly unique in the following points. One is that we were able to understand the actual condition of Nara Juvenile Prison through a survey just after the closure, and the other is that we can understand the relationship between prison function and space by referring to the field of law. The following is a summary of each chapter.
In Chapter 2, we organized general juvenile prisons based on the Ministry of Justice literature. And as a representative of general juvenile prisons, we conducted a field survey at the Kawagoe Juvenile Prison to understand the relation between activities and spaces. Chapter 3 clarified the history, land transition, and floor plans of Nara Juvenile Prison, and showed that it was a special facility that changed from prison architecture to juvenile prison. It revealed that the Nara Juvenile Prison provided superior educational guidance compared to other juvenile prisons and that the prison function was adapted in relation to the local community. Chapter 4 clarified in detail the actual usage inside and outside the prison through an interview survey. The target of the survey was 12 persons including those involved such as Former instructor, Former prison officer, Former volunteer counselor and local residents. The results obtained in the previous chapters were put together to present the multi-layered value of Nara Juvenile Prison.
As a result, we could find the school-like activities in many spaces that were not designated as the important cultural properties and depict the formation of the environment and the detailed spatial composition connected with the activities, which are valuable materials. The prison architecture had spaces that could flexibly respond to "school-like" activities and its unique environment was related to its treatment based on the educational philosophy from 1946, its spatial configuration that was not seen in prisons after the end of the Taisho-era, its location on a hill in Nara City, the fact that Juvenile inmates were mostly first-time offenders, and security was good, and its acceptance by the local community.
For the elderly living in residential areas on the urban fringe, easy access to public and life services is important. In this paper, we made it clear principals’ tolerance of (A) time, B) users, and C) position to general classrooms) for community use of surplus classrooms in elementary schools (total 22 uses from I. circle use, II. social gatherings use, and III. community services).
Analysis 1: 36 combinations of the three variables(A), B), C)) are obtained by cluster analysis, and we use these combinations as Tolerance ID (TID) for each use.
In I-1. quiet circle, except for (1) meeting, more than half of principals belong to (a) another building/ (b) afterschool/ (b) community organization members (TID8) or (c) registered persons (TID10), and the remaining 30-40% belong to TID19- (a) another building, (c) same floor_separate/ (d) weekday during class/ (b) community organization members, (c) registered persons.
In II. social gatherings use, TID1-incompatible in school building is less than 30% in (10) tea party, just under half in (11) gathering w/ eat. 40% of both remainder are included in TID3-(a) another building/ (a) holiday/ (b) community organization members, (c) registered persons.
In III-1. public service, the proportion of TID1-incompatible is more than 60-70%, but (13) residents’ association office is half and the remainder is less than half in TID13-(a) another building/ (b) afterschool, (d) weekday during class/ (d) general residents.
Analysis 2: By cluster analysis using two-dimensional discriminant measures obtained from multiple correspondence analysis with TID as a nominal variable, 22 uses are categorized into five usage types. I-1. quiet circle, except for (1) meeting and (2) study, makes 1st Gr. All I-2. circle w/ sound makes 2nd Gr. III. community service, except for (13) residents’ association office and (18) community library, makes 5th Gr. In addition to this, 3rd Gr is made by (1) meeting and (10) tea party, and we named this 3rd Gr as “conventional meeting use”. (2) study and (13) residents’ association office, (18) community library added to II. social gathering use make 4th Gr and we named this 4th Gr as “transitional community use”.
Analysis 3: By cluster analysis using object scores obtained simultaneously in Analysis 2, we got the six groups (Group A-F) of tolerance clusters (CL) of school principals.
Group A shows TID1-incompatible in school buildings at (12) gathering w/ alcohol and (13) residents’ association office in 4th Gr and all uses in 5th Gr.
Groups B and C show, in all uses in 1st Gr, TID19-(a) another building, (c) same floor separated/ (d) weekday during class/ (b) community organization members, (c) registered persons. Groups B and C are characterized by a relatively high level of tolerance. Furthermore, these groups also show, in 4th Gr and 5th Gr, high tolerance such as TID11~13, 18-(a) another building/ (a) holiday (d) weekday during class, or (b) afterschool (d) weekday during class, or only (d) weekday during class/ (d) general residents.
Through the principals of schools such as Groups B and C, which have a high tolerance toward community use in school building, we wonder if it would be possible to verify the community service uses during weekday classes and in separate buildings.
In this study, a questionnaire survey was conducted on challenges at the time of establishing and the actual architectural conditions of group homes for people with disabilities (GHD) in the Kanto region. As a result, the following matters were revealed:
1) The type of ownership of land and buildings and the percentage of use of newly constructed buildings differed depending on the location of the GHD.
2) When the land and building are owned by the managing corporation, or when the building is newly constructed, the size per user of the GHD tends to be larger.
3) Depending on the disabilities mainly targeted by the GHD, the role of the GHD and the problems the managing corporations face differ.
4) The GHD, which are mainly targeting at people with intellectual disabilities, are often play roles as permanent residences and are required to have more space and to be barrier-free.
5) For GHD, which are mainly for people with physical disabilities, it is important to have sufficient floor space, and finding land and buildings for the GHD is a serious problem.
6) The GHD, which are mainly for people with mental disabilities, are often playing roles as temporary residences before living alone in apartments, etc., and the understanding from the neighbors is a major issue.
The purpose of this study is to grasp the current situation of disaster prevention measures in special elderly nursing homes. A questionnaire survey was conducted in special nursing homes nationwide, and received responses from 1685 facilities. All facilities were classified into four types, based on the number of disasters in each of three phases, then further subcategorized into ten types. In addition, the whole country was divided into ten regions, then further classified into four groups following the conduct of the principal component analysis and cluster analysis for eleven disaster prevention response items for all facilities. Next, all facilities were analyzed from the mutual relationship of “Disaster Prevention Response”, “Type”, and “Group”. The main results revealed are as follows.
1) An overview of disaster prevention measures at facilities nationwide shows that “Understanding hazard maps in the preparatory stage before a disaster occurs”, “Formulating a disaster prevention plan at night in the planning stage”, “Fire prevention training”, “Practical training” were carried out at a high rate. On the other hand, the measures were not sufficient toward “Formulation of BCP”, “Conclusion of evacuation support agreement”, and “Securing of emergency rations for more than four days”.
2) It turns out that there is a difference in the number of disasters for each facility at three phases: “Disasters that may occur”, “Disasters including in planning”, and “Disasters assumed in disaster prevention drills”. Excluding fires, many of the facilities toward the disaster prevention measures, gradually reduced the number of target disasters in the three phases.
3) When all facilities were classified by type, based on the degree of change in the number of disasters by phase,
it was possible to classify into four types: “Type A: Reality-based”, “Type B: Possibility-based”, “Type C:
Priority-based”, “Type D: Irregular-based”. “Type A: Reality-based” type, in which the number of disasters does not change with respect to the number of possible disasters, is the most common, then followed by “Type-C:
Priority-based”, in which the number of target disasters decreases, accounts for almost all. Besides, “Type A: Reality-based” and “Type C: Priority-based” have less “Disasters assumed in disaster prevention drills” than “Disasters included in planning” occupy roughly a half of the total.
4) The whole country was divided into ten regions, and the principal component analysis was performed on eleven disaster response items, and two factors were extracted per region. Furthermore, each facility was classified into four groups, based on the cluster analysis. As a result, the four regions of Kyushu, Kanto, Hokuriku, and Kansai were related to “Type”, “Group”, and “Disaster response items”.
5) Taking the Kanto region as an example, the seven prefectures in the Kanto regions were divided into two main groups, based on the content of disaster response. Tokyo and Kanagawa prefectures have high levels of “Factor 1: Plan/Training”, and “Factor 2: Practice/Response”. In the other five prefectures, the level is low on “Factor 2: Practice/Response”, and the disaster prevention drills are conducted by reducing the number of disasters per phase.
6) Similar to the Kanto region, due to the influence of local government conditions, as well as the conditions of the climate and the location, the regional characteristics are likely to be created, by not only the regional characteristics, but also at prefectural level.
In recent years, the need to utilize vacant houses and buildings has been called for, and there are many examples of space regeneration through renovation and DIY. However, it is difficult to fully utilize the ideas for utilization of space found in the design process, and in order to expand the possibilities, it will be important for users and clients, who are the key decision makers in the construction process, to be deeply involved in the design process. On the other hand, VR(virtual reality) technology has been attracting attention in recent years, making it possible to think about design while experiencing the ever-changing design objects. It has potential to enable non-experts to become deeply involved in the design process by experiencing rich virtual images of spaces.
In this paper, we focus on the characteristics of VR, which allows the architectural space itself as the design space and aim to clarify the characteristics of design thinking by non-experts in VR environment. The purpose of this study is to understand how the process of dialogue among multiple subjects sharing the design space in VR develops.
we developed a design space system that utilizes VR technology. Specifically, we created a design tool that allows multiple subjects to experience a design target space close to real feeling, and to consider design proposals by adding various operations within that space. Next, we conducted design experiments for non-experts who do not have experience in architecture or other design fields, assuming that they are architectural users or clients, and analyze the process of dialogue between the subjects during the design process.
In this paper, “situation” refers to the implicit information that subjects can capture unconsciously in a VR space, which includes not only the dimensions, but also the materials and textures of spatial elements, the atmosphere and so on. The design space model of VR was set up by positioning the “situation”, the “subject”, and the “object” in the “design space” of VR. We described situations in which the subjects interact with the objects and other subjects, and analyzed the process using the model.
In the design experiment, through the workshop to devise usage and renovation plans for a private house with a garden, we analyzed in detail the interaction between the design subject and the object and the interaction between the subjects in VR space. As a result, we clarified two things as follows.
(1) Through the analysis of the situations and objects perceived by the subjects in the VR space, the possibility of a design process that is carried out by repeated evaluation and efficient iterations, that is, by “thinking while making”.
(2) We extended the model of design space in VR space to include other subjects and set up three patterns of design space models mediated by “objects”. When the “situation” is shared between them, we presented the possibility to minimize the discrepancy between design entities. When the “situation” is partially shared, we presented the possibility of the design process in which complex decisions are discussed from multiple perspectives between the subjects. Furthermore, when the “situation” is not shared, we presented the possibility of the design process by multiplying the advantages of each tool by extending the scope of the design space to the discussion using tools such as drawings.
In Hiroshima Prefecture, there are warehouse called “Hanya” which have earth and stone masonry walls and are used for the production and storage of ash. In this study, we investigated the constitution and use of ash houses to clarify the architectural characteristics of Hanya. Sixty-five shacks were found mainly in Miyoshi City, Hiroshima Prefecture, and most of them were found along the Mihara River in Miwaka Town and Aribara Town, and in Ueda Town.
We conducted a survey, interview, and literature research. As a result, we found the following.
(1) The ashes are created by piling up tree branches and fallen leaves, covering them with earth and burning them. It was built in a corner of the site away from the main house and in the fields, with the intention of building a fire inside. Many of them have been built more than 50 year ago. The role of the ash house has changed from burning and storage of ashes to almost a storage room.
(2) The most basic form was a single-story house with a gable-tile roof using the wooden-frame construction method. It has been confirmed that there are some cases of sheds and two-story structures based on this form. In all the warehouse that used the difference in elevation, the higher part of the ground was used as the entry point for bringing in grass, branches, etc. and for people to enter and exit.
The most distinctive feature is the wood framework, which consists of column tilted inward and a horizontal member "Sashimono", and a wall under Sashimono is constructed earth and stone masonry.
(3) Earth and masonry walls are constructed using materials from the neighborhood. There is vertical timber inside the wall to support the load from upper the wall or to be used as a guide during stacking. The height of the wall matches the height for burning ashes. In other words, it matches the height at which a human being can stack things without scaffold. There are two ways to stack the earth and stones, ① the stones are sparse in both size and stacking, and ② the stones are smaller at the top of the wall. Earth-stone masonry wall surfaces, especially outdoor wall surfaces, may be coated with a top coat.
In 1895, since Taiwan was colonized by Japan in the Japan-China War, the public capital was improved by Japanese people by improving public facilities and introducing modern city planning. Roundabouts were established in the various locations of Taiwan during the Japanese rule. A modern city plan, called urban improvement, which was not seen in Japan, began in Taipei and was later united in the whole city. Roads planned in the Tainan urban improvement in 1911 greatly contributed to the urban development of Tainan, it still plays an important role in Tainan's urban structure.
This study aims to clarify the characteristic and the planning of roundabouts in Taiwan under Japanese Characteristic and planning of roundabout in Taiwan under Japanese rule in terms of Park System from following three aspects
1. The position of Tainan and planning of roundabouts in the urban improvement of Taiwan.
2. The details in planning of roundabouts in the urban improvement of Tainan.
3. The characteristics of roundabout in urban improvement in Tainan.
The results are as follows
1) Roundabouts in Taiwan under Japanese rule were planned in the 8 cities (Taipei, Hsinchu, Chiayi, Tainan, Pingtung, Beigang, Kaosiung, Douliu) by using maps of urban improvement of Taiwan. In roundabouts, trees, fountains and statues are arranged and play a role as a place of relaxation and a city core. Planning of urban improvement in Tainan started in 1911, but it took a long time to carry out.
2)There has been alleys, temples and shrines in Tainan, which has some colonial backgrounds. By comparing maps before and after the urban improvement, it turns out that almost all of them have been in existence at the present time. It is clarified that roundabouts planned in urban improvement of Tainan are established on the basis of the existing old urban structure in Tainan.
3) Characteristic in the space of roundabouts in Tainan is composed of the space overlapped with alleys which have been in existence before the urban improvement. Also, roundabouts play some roles as the park and the city core of Tainan. It became clear that public buildings were densely located around Kodama Park. This is probably because the bronze statue was installed at Kodama Park in 1907, and public buildings were built one after another around Kodama Park, becoming the center of the city.
This study aims to clarify the impact on urban fabrics of the “tourism gentrification caused by simple accommodations” in the central area of Kyoto City by investigating the case study of the Shutoku District from 2015 to 2019. This area was chosen because it had seen the highest rise in land prices and number of simple accommodations in the last few years. The results of the impact allow us to study city planning regulation for gentrification. In particular, the following three points were clarified in this study.
First, Chapter 2 clarifies that gentrification caused by simple accommodations occurred from 2015 to 2019 in Shimogyo Ward, Kyoto City. Specifically, the roadside land price (RLP) and the number of simple accommodations increased throughout all of Shimogyo Ward during the four years following 2015. In addition, the rise in RLPs positively affected the density of simple accommodations, and the density of simple accommodations negatively impacted the population changes.
Second, Chapter 3 clarifies the changes in urban fabrics due to tourism gentrification caused by simple accommodations. Specifically, although there were many simple accommodations due to renovations of KM (Kyo-Machiya) by landowners in Kyoto City and OVS (Overseas) at the beginning of 2015, simple accommodations resulting from dismantling KM and rebuilding them as BLDG (Buildings) had increased since 2017 among landowners in companies in other parts of Japan besides Kyoto Prefecture. It was found that the tourism gentrification caused by simple accommodation made a significant change in the urban tissues.
Third, Chapter 4 clarified the changes in the entire urban fabric, including simple accommodations from 2015 to 2019 in the Shutoku District. In particular, Chapter 4 clarified three points. First, the diversity of buildings has increased as the number of simple accommodations increased. However, since 2018, the number of vacant lots/parking has increased. Second, Chapter 4 verified the results of Section 3.3, clarifying that “Persons” who live in Kyoto City and Chinese tend to renovate KM, while “Companies” outside Kyoto rebuilt KM as BLDG. In addition, it was clarified that the “Reno. (Renovation)” of KM is used not only for simple accommodations but also for houses and similar domiciles, though “Rebuild” to BLDG is limited to hotels or simple accommodations. Finally, Chapter 4 clarified that simple accommodations were built after the land had been sold multiple times and then dismantled and left as vacant parking lots for multiple months, as a result of which there was no chance to build simple accommodations while the land resale was repeated.
The deterioration of the children’s play environment has been a problem for long time. While children’s how to play are changing, the reduction of outdoor play spaces is an important issue. The purpose of this paper is clarifying the playability (especially focusing on attractiveness of features) of non-institutionalized play spaces such as local streets (roads less than 4m wide) for 2nd grade children, targeting historical city area, Nishijin, Kyoto. In this paper, play is defined as the behavior of children toward the target according to their curiosity and its process. Based on the above, intention for play means attractiveness of features of spaces for children. Therefore, in collaboration with Nishijin Chuo Elementary School, as part of the 2nd grade class-time, we held a research, machi-tanken, walking streets with children to find funny things in the school district, and recording their discoveries and actions.
This study has novelty in that it uses playability indicators for non-institutionalized play spaces, and it discusses the relations between target spaces and children’s behaviors with considering the background of the spaces. These viewpoints are important for discussions to preserve the non-institutionalized play spaces and envision an urban scale children’s play environment improvement. In addition, this study has uniqueness and novelty in that discussing spatiality for children’s play by referring to the developmental stage of 2nd grade children.
We analyze the video and children’s questionnaire descriptions paying attention to their discoveries, walking speed and their make-up comments. Make-up comments mean children’s words they found anything and called the name different from itself or verbalized the atmosphere of its location.
As a result of machi-tanken, the following points become clear in this paper.
1. The walking speed of children was relatively slow on narrow streets and the distribution of discoveries were dense.
2. From the questionnaire, it become clear that children found the alleys fun, and some of them enjoyed calling the loophole nature of the alleys warp.
3. It is clarified that the narrowness of the width of route (e) encourages play in the small shrine in the alley and in the situation where there are various items within reach of the children’s eyes.
4. It is clarified that there are also cases where children’s spatial experiences are expressed through the make-up without specific discovery points. The example is warp.
This research mainly shows that the narrow width and the loophole nature of the alley spaces are intention for play working effectively for their play in the spaces.
After China has been transformed from a planned economy to a socialist market economy since 1978, the Chinese farmers’ market has supported people’s daily life as an essential facility for providing agricultural products. However, the number of farmers’ markets was decreasing from the late 2000s because of the penetration of supermarkets. Although nowadays the option of shopping becomes more diverse, it is still playing distinctive roles in local society. Therefore, the sustainability of the farmers’ market merits discussion through the investigation of its characteristics. This paper explores the originality of the farmers’ market by investigating the pattern of its spatial features and observing people’s various activities and relations there. The included case study utilizes the example of Shahekou District, Dalian, which features distinctive farmers’ markets. Through classifying the spatial patterns quantitatively and describing people’s activities, the results obtained are as follows.
1) The spatial features of the farmers’ market
The building of recent farmers’ markets constructed after the 2000s is similar to typical large scale grocery stores seen in China and mostly located in the high-density building area under development. On the other hand, the building of most farmers’ markets constructed from the 1980s to the 1990s is composed of stall-type buildings and surrounded by mid-rise residential buildings or schools. These old type markets are mostly locating in the undeveloped area with good access to public transportation where the plot pattern is relatively complicated. The scale is a middle or large class comparing with the recent farmers’ market. From the results above, the old type farmers’ market composed of stall type buildings is more familiar to local users and residents and tends to generate extra changeable space flexibly. These spatial features seem to facilitate informal communication and foster a sense of community.
2) People’s activities and relations in the farmers’ market
The factors that affect customers to choose the farmers’ market or supermarket are related to their shopping styles and age. While the young generation trusts the product of supermarkets, they are worried about the quality of food in farmer’s markets and demand to improve the shopping environment and food security. Especially in the old farmers’ market such as the subject of this survey (Shalong Market), however, various social-economic activities could be found because of the closer social relationship between customers and sellers there. From the results of the questionnaire and observation, people’s activities in the farmers’ market could be defined as “Exchange of Economic Information”, “Improvement of Life Quality”, “Medical and Educational Support”, “Cultural Activities”, “Support for Old Customers”, and “Health Maintenance”.
After 30 years from the introduction of a socialist market economy, the farmers’ markets present potential of become a mature social interactive platform. The function is not just shopping but also includes "Support of Urban Life", "Build Mutual Support in Local", and "Create Community of Residents". Although these aspects of the farmers’ market are usually ignored, it is essential for its sustainable development in the future to remain the function as a "Commercial + α Facility ".
In recent years, inundation damage caused by concentrated torrential rain that has become severe enough to exceed the drainage capacity of discharge rivers and sewers has frequently occurred, and in particular, the importance of measures against inland waterway flooding in cities nationwide has been increasing. It is effective to construct regulating reservoirs widely dispersed throughout the catchment area of a river as a countermeasure against inland waterway flooding. Therefore, it is very important from the viewpoint of flood control planning to determine parameters such as the storage amount of the regulating reservoirs constructed with a development.
In the past 30 years, the annual number of development projects in Japan has been almost flat at around 20,000, and there is a movement to make existing regulating reservoirs permanent. It is necessary to further promote multipurpose use of regulating reservoirs for advanced use of limited national land. There are broadly two ways to promote multipurpose use of regulating reservoirs: (a) Spreading the benefits of multipurpose use from the point of view of the constructor, (b) Guiding multipurpose development from the governmental standpoint by ordinances and standards. However, few previous studies have examined the latter method.
We collected information on reservoir and development guidelines for 175 local governments with development permits, and investigated multipurpose use of regulating reservoirs. Analysis of the responses to the surveys provided the following information:
(1) With the increase of small-scale development and promotion of flood control measures, it is expected that the number of especially small regulating reservoirs will increase nationwide.
(2) While most of the small regulating reservoirs are used for "parking and bicycle parking", they are not used for as multipurpose as the larger regulating reservoirs.
(3) More than half of the multipurpose regulating reservoirs constructed after 2000 are used as parks, and we have confirmed examples of maintenance in small-scale regulating reservoirs of less than 500 m2 and clarified that they can be constructed regardless of the size of the regulating reservoir.
(4) In areas where the purpose is to increase the value of the surrounding land or to secure park space, the public and private sectors should work together for multipurpose use.
(5) Two local governments have mandated multipurpose use, and 24 local governments have recommended multipurpose use by specifying mitigation measures, but, more than 60% of local governments do not clearly describe multipurpose use rules in their development guidelines, and some local governments have restricted multipurpose use.
(6) It is considered that an effective multipurpose use promotion means is for prefectures to prescribe standards for multipurpose use, and disseminate information on how to manage regulating reservoir parks.
In cities where population growth is not expected, it is becoming increasingly important to study future operations for Urbanization Control Areas (UCA) development activities and building activity controls. UCA has a wide variety of land uses, including those for maintaining natural environments such as agricultural land, green spaces, and forests, as well as vein industrial land, scattered residential land, medical care, welfare, and educational facilities. Therefore, comprehensive study is necessary. There are many existing settlements before the setting of Area Classification, and it is important to secure sustainability as a "left-over" residential area.
The purpose of this study is to consider the control of existing residential areas in UCA, taking as an example the efforts of Sapporo City, which is promoting residential construction in the Development Area of Position Designated Roads (DAPDR) of UCA by utilizing the District Plan.
As a result, the following points became clear.
In UCA, new housing constructions are not allowed in principle. Under such circumstances, it was clarified that the examination process leading to the implementation of the DAPDR rescue measures that ensured rationality and fairness through the precise operation of the City Planning Act while maintaining the consistency with the higher level plan.
After the District Plan was stipulated, the number of houses and residents increased in almost all DAPDRs.
Many cities have created Location Optimization Plans to maintain the population density of the Dwelling Attraction Area. Therefore, how to maintain the living environment in a small, low-density residential area on the outskirts of the city is an important issue. The points clarified in this study show that it is possible to maintain a living environment even at a low density by planning and implementing a detailed population allocation plan. This is a valuable finding.
In the future, it is necessary to understand the reasons for new residents to choose their place of residence and the evaluation of the living environment at a level different from that in the Urbanization Promotion Area. In addition, it is necessary to consider more effective population induction measures and applicability in other districts and cities based on the tendency of preference for residence.
In this research，examines the possibility of land use control used in conjunction with Location Optimization Plan (LOP) to reduce sprawl in Loose Regulation Area(LRA), based on an understanding of the reality of suburbanization in Non Area-divided Cities.
The method of this research is to conduct a questionnaire survey of Non Area-divided Cities created and published as of May 2019 to understand their attitudes toward the use of LOP and other factors, and then analyze cities that have land use control in their LRA, (including an analysis of population change from 1995 to 2015 for residential guide area acreage and City Planning Area, Zoning Area, LRA, and DAA using GIS), especially those cities that are considered to have land use control with the intention of discouraging sprawl-like development.
As a result, the following points became clear.
With the exception of a few cities, the majority of cities have not reviewed their land use planning systems in conjunction with the preparation of LOP, and LRA tended to make little use of land use control methods and had weak recognition, while aiming to maintain the status quo of their living environment.
Population trends reveal that suburbanization is still in progress, with the majority of cities in the LRA having higher population ratios, and the lack of control of sprawl through land use control methods in the LRA is thought to be a factor in the progress of suburbanization.
On the other hand, in some cities, land use control methods have been developed in conjunction with the LOP, such as the Dwelling Control Area to prevent the conversion of land into residential land in the LRA, strengthening the regulations in the Specific Usage Limitation Area, and clarifying the existing regulatory basis through the city’s own ordinances.
Based on the above, we believe that the preparation of a LOP in Non Area-divided Cities is a potential anti-sprawl measure for
1.The LOP should be used as an opportunity to clarify the issues of urban change and the direction of guidance, and the corresponding land use control system should be introduced.
2.Strengthen the rationality of the traditional method of maintaining land use order by establishing DAA.
In Non Area-divided Cities, it is difficult to define the nature of land use in LRA, and there are many cities where the population has become more dispersed.
Even though there is a concern about population outflow to LRA and sprawl due to residential development, we have to be cautious about land use control, but we should take the preparation of the LOP as an opportunity to strengthen the regulation and consider the use of land use control methods.
Interviews were conducted in twelve cases of gaiku-koen or city block parks in Nagoya. The purpose of this study was to measure children’s satisfaction as their assessment of parks and to explain its factors through multiple regression analysis. Prediction through a ten-variable equation was possible at a high rate of precision (the degrees of freedom adjusted R-square 100.0%). Focused intervention to adjust variables in accordance with their importance as assessed by standard partial regression coefficients should be proposed to effectively enhance satisfaction. The primary factors of satisfaction were 1) spatial planning in terms of spatial organization or the number of zones, the composition of play structures and their number, and three area variables (i.e., effective area, slope greenery inaccessible and ground), 2) surrounding environment as described by land-use patterns and school adjacency, and 3) date factors in terms of outside events and the day of week in conjunction with season.
It was thus proposed to enhance the level of children’s satisfaction through guidelines for spatial planning: securing enough zones, increasing satisfaction-increasing areas (i.e., slope greenery accessible, effective area, etc.), restraining satisfaction-decreasing areas (i.e., ground), increasing the number of play structures while restraining satisfaction-decreasing ones and restraining play structure component index as the number of play structures weighted according to play structure component coefficients. However, the planning manipulation of play-structure variables would not realize a major change in satisfaction.
Play structure component coefficients used to define the play structure component index maximizing the interpretability of satisfaction regression might allow to assess the value of each category of play structure from the satisfaction-maximizing point of view (e.g. climbing mountain 4.1 and Tarzan rope 2.7). Installation of popular but satisfaction-decreasing play structures might be acceptable if preferential selection of satisfaction-increasing ones or planning manipulation of other variables to enhance satisfaction is made.
Spatial planning, in sum, was closely related to children’s satisfaction in parks, supporting the hypothesis that children’s satisfaction would be enhanced through guidelines for spatial planning. It was also confirmed that guidelines for enhance children’s satisfaction would largely be compatible with guidelines for increasing children users and those for increasing the capacity of parks to generate play.
For analyses in this study, it took one year after another year of preparation to gather the data from on-site observation and interview surveys. The number of cases, twelve, derived from ten parks in Nagoya was sufficient for the systematic analysis of factors, provided that further study to increase parks as well as cases will be made for identifying more contributory variables. Our list of future issues also includes the development of more comprehensive guidelines incorporating criteria for social exchange in parks.
This paper focuses on the location of technical knowledge and discusses the key points in the design process. To this end, we developed a description method that makes it possible to locate technical knowledge. We have also discussed the essential points that need to be understood for the development of the construction industry.
First, the perspectives provided in this paper are based on clarifying the location of technical knowledge and responsibility. As a result of varying backgrounds and business customs, what should have been a simple relationship started to include unnatural bias. From this, we can indicate the implications of the problems related to quality assurance of the design contents. Indeed, it is difficult for the main architect to take responsibility for the work that requires extensive knowledge of architectural design. However, it is necessary to clarify who has technical knowledge and who is responsible for the design.
Second, the location of technical knowledge changes. Technical knowledge will gradually change over time. Moreover, the layering of the design division of labor makes it difficult to indicate who will create the design information and who will approve it responsibly with its content. If the content and characteristics of knowledge and the relationships between the designers change, it is necessary to pay close attention to the uneven distribution of technical knowledge. It is necessary to add the considerations obtained from the previous chapter while describing the uneven distribution of technical knowledge, focusing on the types of construction that have caused serious problems and resulted in the recent accidents.
Thus, the points which could not be clarified in the discussions that did not focus on technical knowledge, may now be clearly recognized. Hence, we will continue to apply this description method to each construction, giving priority to constructions that affect safety, and add investigation and analysis.
Construction is a made-to-order production and it contains project-wise characteristics. In the future, the concept of this paper can be used while examining the important parameters of each project, such as complexity, uncertainty, and novelty.
In this research, for the purpose of presenting a method for evaluating the efficiency of processing and assembly for reinforcing bar construction in an integrated manner, the work performed by technicians is quantitatively analyzed, and the work time, operation analysis, and labor cost are described. We think that the results of this research can be basic data for improving the efficiency of rebar construction.
Looking at the labor efficiency of the entire manufacturing process, the largest value is wall 4.93 (h / ton). Next, beam (thin) 4.27 (h / ton) is the largest. This is due to the large number of reinforcing bars and the number of tags that are both cut and bent, so it can be inferred that the setup work time is long in both the cutting and bending processes. The labor efficiency of setup is larger for thin reinforcing bars than for thick reinforcing bars. It can be inferred that the reason is that the thin reinforcing bars have a larger number of reinforcing bars and the number of tags for both cutting and bending, and the setup work time is longer in both the cutting and bending processes.
The efficiency is 0.8 (man-day / ton) for the beam, followed by 1.6 (man-day / ton) for the slab. The construction time of the beam is about 2.6 times that of the wall, and the efficiency is 0.8 the beam, which is about 2.2 times more efficient than the wall. Although it takes a long time to assemble the beam due to associated work such as distribution of reinforcing bars and movement of equipment, the weight per reinforcing bar is heavy, so the numerical value on the efficiency is evaluated efficiently. On the other hand, in the assembly of thin reinforcing bars such as walls and floors, the efficiency of numerical values on the efficiency is evaluated low despite the large proportion of main work.
The working time is 1/3 to 1/5 of the construction work, and the time per weight is about twice that of beams and columns for walls and floors. Based on these results, it is possible to point out the effectiveness of prefabrication at the manufacturing stage in order to improve the construction efficiency of walls and floors. For floors, increasing construction efficiency leads to a reduction in the number of temporary workers who are called as support, so it is thought that the effect of passing on the work time to the manufacturing stage is great. However, since it is expected that temporary storage and transportation efficiency will become issues, the need for technological development in these areas can be presented as an issue.
As a result of comparing the working hours per weight for each part, it was clarified that the distribution in manufacturing and the distribution in on-site construction site are different, and that improving the efficiency of thin reinforcing bars is a common issue in manufacturing and assembly. Since the instructions for manufacturing are based on the foreman's rebar list, the efficiency of the rebar construction may be affected by the foreman's ability to supervise the entire manufacturing and assembly. How to evaluate the integrated efficiency of such a single project and the efficiency of parallel manufacturing of multiple projects in a manufacturing plant is a future issue.
In “Kugi”, it was noted that there was the nail with multiple actual dimensions for one nominal length of Japanese nail. According to Honto (estimation date) in 1803, the actual size of “hira-kugi” was about 90% of the nominal length. In addition, the actual length of “kashiramaki-kugi rui” was about 80% of the nominal length. Furthermore, the actual length of “kenchiku-you-kugi” was about 30 to 40% of the nominal length. In fact, it is not clear whether such a nominal length was used in “kenchiku-you-kugi”. And it is not clear in the past how nails that actual dimensions were about 90% or 80% were used together with “kenchiku-you-kugi”. The purpose of this article is to clarify how the actual size of Japanese nails, which is different from the nominal length, was distributed and established. The following points are clarified.
The example of adding letters such as “dai” in front of the nominal length of the nail is from ancient times in “Kenchiku-daijiten”, but the actual example is from the end of the 16th century. In the distribution of nails from ancient times, the “ren-kugi” that could be seen from the Heian period to the early Edo period were not seen after the middle Edo period. Until the early Edo period, the “ren-kugi” was used for nails of less than 3 sun, but since the middle of the Edo period, the description by the nominal length has come to be seen even for nails of less than 3 sun. In early modern times in Japan, there were nails with a nominal length of 90%, 80%, and 30 to 40% of the actual length for one nominal length. As you can see, the price of nails is widely distributed, and some price ranges were shown. The nails, which account for 30 to 40% of the actual length, have the same size system as “ren-kugi” used until the early Edo period, and it is considered that the nominal length was addressed to them. As a result, one nominal length has a plurality of actual size nails coexisting, and the actual price has shown a wide range. In addition, even after the middle of the Edo period, the numeral “wa” used in “ren-kugi” was used in part in the distribution of nails. Although “ren-kugi” was also used for nails of more than 3 sun, there were also cases in which one bundle was uniformly set to 100, not based on the idea of “ren-kugi”.
From the above consideration, it became clear that it’s difficult to immediately know the actual dimensions of the nominal length nails described in the literature since the middle of the Edo period. This is because there were at least three types of real-length nails for one nominal length in this era. Therefore, in order to know the actual length with respect to the nominal length, it is necessary to make a comprehensive judgment in consideration of where the nail is used and the price at the same time. By the way, after the Meiji Restoration, Western nails flowed into Japan. Since Western nails were distributed by using the numerical value in which the dimension based on the actual dimension was replaced with shaku-sun, the relationship between the nominal length and the actual dimension in Japanese nails was also corrected.
The purpose of this research is to clarify the actual condition of the last word “Tei” (亭) of the residence name that can be seen in the noble diaries from Heian to the early Kamakura period in Japan. In this paper, in addition to the noble diaries featured by Hoshi et al., “Suisaki” “Sankaiki” “Gumaiki” “Kanchuki” and “Sentogoishiburuiki” are newly considered. It is also necessary to compare “Tei” (亭) with “Tei” (第).
Summarize the following research results.
① In the 10th and 11th centuries, I reaffirmed Hoshi et al.’s claim that “Tei” (亭) are few and “Tei” (第) is heavily used. Also, “Tei” (第) was said to be used for the residence of high-ranking nobles, but according to “Shoyuki”, it was also applicable to “Tei” (亭).
② Hoshi et al. claimed that “Tei” (亭) was heavily used from the middle of the 11th century, this was confirmed in this paper. Furthermore, As seen from the cases of residences “Tei” (亭), the court rank of residents was widely as “Tei” (第).
③ The around 1100, namely from the latter half of the 11th century to the first half of the 12th century, it was a transitional period from the last word “Tei” (第) to “Tei” (亭) of residences, Since then, “Tei” (亭) was used more often than “Tei” (第).
④ In the 12th century, “Tei” (亭) was supposed to be dominant, but in “Daiki” and “Gyokuyo”, “Tei” (第) is also used. And there was a difference in the tendency depending on the diaries.
⑤ In the 13th century, either “Tei” (亭) or “Tei” (第) was not dominant, but both were used in the same way.
⑥ In “Gonijomoromichiki” “Chuyuki” “Denryaku” “Sankaiki” and “Gyokuyo”, the owner’s residence uses more “Tei” (亭) than “Tei” (第), or only “Tei” (亭) was used. Specially “Gyokuyo”, that was thought to have used “Tei” (亭) selectively.
In the 13th century, it is unusual for sticking use “Tei” (第) and not use “Tei” (亭) at all in “Inokumakanpakuki”. “Kanchuki” has the same tendency. May be influenced by the personality and writing habits of the writer. It is necessary to conduct detailed verification and analysis around “Tei” (亭) “Tei” (第) or the other residence words, and further expanding the times.
I compared, to the extent possible, documents related to the Yoyogi National Stadium with those related to the Kagawa Prefectural Gymnasium, in order to identify the similarities and differences between the two buildings. Specifically, I compared the design process of both buildings in terms of architectural planning, structural drawing, and ductwork.
The analysis yielded six findings.
First, in designing sports facilities, Kenzo Tange’s office emphasized spatial openness, spatial directionality, and spaces for creating a sportive atmosphere. The office followed these design principles when designing the Yoyogi National Stadium and Kagawa Prefectural Gymnasium. However, due to significant differences in the size of facilities and site areas, the finished forms differed markedly from one another. In the case of Yoyogi National Stadium, the auditoriums were designed in a crescent shape to ensure continuity between the first (larger) and second (smaller) gymnasiums.
However, in the case of Kagawa Prefectural Gymnasium, the structural elements were concentrated in the central site area to maximize the openness of the ground level.
Second, the analysis revealed elements that were common to both buildings: Both buildings used rare forms, combining a suspended roof with curved auditoriums, which had few comparable examples anywhere in the world. These common features testify to the painstaking efforts of members of Tange’s office and Yoshikatsu Tsuboi’s laboratory in researching suspended roof designs around the world.
Third, the two buildings differ in terms of the boundary conditions of the suspended roof. The roof of the Yoyogi National Stadium features lateral and longitudinal asymmetry. The roof itself forms a plane combining circular form with a sinusoidal curved form; sections of this roof are then raised high on two pillars, with the weight of the roof pressing down upon the main cables to distort the shape of the roof. By contrast, Kagawa Prefectural Gymnasium’s roof maintains a hyperbolic paraboloid form.
Fourth, in the case of Yoyogi National Stadium, the team placed top priority on synthesizing the concave surface of the suspending direction and convex surface of the holding direction, and on integrating the roof with the auditoriums. For the Kagawa Prefectural Gymnasium, the team focused on creating prestressed beams to evoke the image of a Japanese boat.
Fifth, the two buildings also differ in terms of the design for the eaves and soffits of the auditoriums. The eaves in the Yoyogi National Stadium form a smooth, ribless curve, while those in the Kagawa Prefectural Gymnasium emphasize a latticed design. Sixth, in both buildings, the team aimed to integrate ductwork with structure, and provided spaces for duct piping within the buildings. This approach was particularly apparent in the Yoyogi National Stadium, which used large nozzles for ventilation.
The purpose of this study was to reveal how difficult it was to realize large structures of reinforced concrete hyperbolic paraboloidal (H.P.) Shells in the earthquake-prone Japan of the 1950s. The analysis examined the design and construction of the Sunpu Kaikan, focusing on the roles of Kenzo Tange, Yoshikatsu Tsuboi, and the staff of their architectural laboratories. This study brings out the following four points.
First, the designs of the Hiroshima Children’s Library and Ehime Prefectural Culture Center in the early 1950s helped Kenzo Tange and Tsuboi gain six insights. These were: curves that can be expressed by simple mathematical formulas, methods to prevent shell deformation, the relationship between shell and supports, the cost for construction, construction information, and acoustics arrangement. Tange and Tsuboi made significant use of these insights while constructing the H.P. shell for the Sunpu Kaikan.
Second, while Tange and Tsuboi took keen interest in the shells created by overseas architects such as Saarinen, Stubbins, and Nervi, we found that they were trying to create shells that would match and surpass them. While Tsuboi has worked with general contractors to compile the “standard specifications for the construction of shell structures,” Aoki published a journal article outlining the shortcomings of the Sunpu Kaikan construction, similarly to Nervi. This attitude contributed greatly toward the subsequent development of large-scale architecture.
Third, while designing the Niigata City Gymnasium, Miyagawa accurately understood the issues with the reinforced concrete H.P. shell of the Shizuoka Convention Hall and thus, proposed a steel framed H.P. shell. We also found that Tsuboi highly admired the fact that the shell of the Niigata City Gymnasium was not damaged by the 1964 Niigata Earthquake.
Fourth, through the completion of the Shizuoka Convention Hall, Tange and Tsuboi were able to visualize the difficulties in construction, the construction costs, and the labor involved in the constructions of the huge H.P. shell. Their teams were aware of the limitations and the problems of reinforced concrete, and thus, decided to take on the challenge of designing a suspended roof structure for the Yoyogi National Gymnasium.
Tsuboi focused on creating a balance between a large span and cost, exploring new possibilities for the designing of spatial structures by drawing ideas from bridge-building techniques.
Circle, square, and triangle can be found in manifold human activities: ornament, painting, formative art, plaything, engineering mechanism, and so on. In architecture, a simple geometric figure determines an architectural form beyond differences in regions, era, scale, and building type. Our research focuses on architectural planning composed of a circular form (referred to as the “circular plan”), which includes many examples and examines it as a model of architectural geometry to highlight the relationship between geometry and contemporary architecture.
To clarify a structure of classification and an existence of regularity in contemporary architecture that comprises a circular plan, we conducted Cluster Analysis, Correlation Analysis, Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) using qualitative data related to presence-absence of compositional elements and quantitative data related to size.
Below is a summary of the findings of this study:
1. Explication of the statistical relationships between compositional elements within a circular plan, by using Correlation Analysis and Cluster Analysis.
2. Clarification of the five morphological types established in contemporary architecture with a circular plan by using MCA and Cluster Analysis.
3. Discovery of the latent structures that define the morphological classification based on tendencies of similarity and difference in compositional elements;
a. Centrality and Noncentrality of the compositional elements.
b. Continuousness and Discreteness of internal space.
4. Explication of the correspondence relationships between the size of a circular form and morphological types by using CCA.
5. Examination about samples that are composed of several different morphological compositions.
This paper aims to study the characteristics of houses with covered walkway structures locally called Dalan in the Asheqan wa Arefan quarter of Kabul Old City, Afghanistan. It examines their locations, distribution, access, the number of stories, plan types, space usages, and analysis of reasons for their construction and destruction. The house locations and their accessibility networks are indicated based on a satellite image followed by detailed field surveys conducted between 2018 and 2019. Conclusions are drawn for the conservation of Dalans as part of cultural heritage in the historical landscape.
After Vrancea Earthquake of 1977, Romania faced the hardest period in terms of conservation of religious heritages as Ceauşescu’s socialist regime came to concentrate on the construction of gigantic Casa Poporului in Bucharest. The oppression against the Orthodox Church culminated with the imprisonment of clergies and the destruction of church and monastery buildings. Not a few reports or papers have been published on this vandalism, but use of secondary materials or misreading of the original information has made them incorrect. This paper aims, before everything, at the correction of the reality of the church destruction by finding reliable sources and documents, including the interviews to those who were engaged in these missions. Critical survey of the removal of religious buildings and the systematization plan with socialist ideological connotation is another goal.
The urban planning of Bucharest throughout the 20th century originated from the masterplan of 1935, in which the Royal Palace, the Patriarchy, and the Parliaments were separately allocated in outstanding places with splendid architecture. However, the socialist regime has underlined the priority of socialistic public buildings while converting the palaces into museums and oppressing the church activities. The climax is the transfer of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate to one single Parliament Building, Casa Poporului, to replace actual Arsenal of the Army. In the course of the discussion between Ceauşescu and the architects and engineers, represented by Anca Petrescu, the idea of the Politico-administrative Centre enlarged its dimension, which covers both Uranus and Unirii districts, counting more than 400 ha. Historical monuments, both religious and secular, within this operation zone were to be completely removed while the Patriarchy Complex on the Metropolitan Hill was exempted from the operation. As a result, 17 churches and monasteries were either demolished (totally and partially) or relocated due to this vast systematization operation in the Politico-administrative Center. In addition, another 15 religious buildings were removed by other types of operations such as redevelopment for housing, enlargement of avenues and river/lake modification.
However, the removal of church buildings was not the invention of Ceauşescu government. They had been removed on the occasion of big public projects like the construction of the new Royal Palace or new axis avenues even in the pre-war royal period. In the historical center of the left bank, the renovation of the former New Palace to public museum obliged the demolition of churches for the sake of garden planning. Still the scale of the operation by Ceauşescu was overwhelmingly huge. The case of Enei Church next to the university was exceptional as it happened most probably by an accident of the removal operation of neighboring apartment blocks damaged by Vrancea Earthquake, but the impact of this happening was so strong to Western media that a simplified scheme of Ceauşescu’s anti-Church attitude was amplified through media.
The demolition of former Vacareşti Monastery happened on a completely different level as this complex was categorized the most valuable historical monument of Brâncoveanu architecture. Although its conservation work started in the 1970’s, the operation was overturned to the complete demolition. This attitude of anti-historicism explained another aspect of the regime. Systimatization Policy thus took the position over heritage conservation, but it is limited in one huge district of Bucharest. Relocation technology is the result of compromise between the regime and the church.