To conserve the authenticity of historic monuments, it is necessary to moderate security legislations and develop technologies for making substituting programs. In France, instead of flexibility of the security legislations application, strict alternative measures are required. For this deregulation, the French government offers three official manuals whose effectiveness has been verified in the security program for the Rouen Cathedral. This comprehensive model including not only architectural anti-fire devices but also anti-panic plans and anti-theft systems for the movables cultural properties will be applied to all opened historic monuments in France and it gives useful implications to the Japanese government.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the situation which are participated by residents in term of maintaining the environment around houses in the entire public housing, and to examine the system of how they relate and maintain the environment. To keep voluntarily the environment around house, improvement of the residential area and supplying opportunities are most important. That could support the extension and the enjoyment in their life. In the Iwanai Sakae public housing, people have overcome disadvantage of small house's planning and design by making environment around the house generally attractive. These activities will have improved the relation between site and mass by the end of this study.
This study is to analyse spatial order of the dwelling of the Newar people that resides in the Kathmandu Valley in Nepal. Recently authors are continuing the field work in the Khokana village and the Bungamati village in the southern part of the Kathmandu Valley. The purpose of the field work is to investigate the dwellings, the succession of the dwelling life and its change. The Newar believes in Hinduism and Buddhism. Moreover, peoples believe in the sprits if the dead and worship the ancestor. The way of life in original of such a mixture belief appears to their behavior and spatial recognition in the daily life and the non-daily life. According to a case field work, a part of the hypothesis that authors were able to prove is as follows: (a) In the life of the Newar, the conception of pure and impure and the ritual based on it exist. The conception of pure and impure exists under an special social form with which different jat coexists. (b) The person always shifts between the levels of the pure, the middle and the impure. It is a level of the middle that the person spends most time usually. However, the person should be in the state of the pure when religious acts such as the god service, meals, and cooking are done. It is considered that the person becomes impure when facing giving birth, menstruation and death. (c) The level of the pure, the middle and the impure is concerned spatial order that produces the composition the dwellings. In a word, the level of the pure and the level of the impure which is opposed corresponds to dual space concept such as the inside and the outside. In addition, an intermediate space exists between the inside and the outside. This space corresponds to people's behavior at a level in the middle.
This study explores an approach to optimize housing cost and affordability of the lower-middle and middle-income households of Dhaka (Bangladesh), a city that has experienced tremendous population growth and a lack of permanent housing since the 1970s. It reveals from the study that all inputs of producing housing, particularly land cost, remain beyond the reach of these groups. With a high priced housing market, a reduction of present cost can contribute sensibly to the affordability of the target groups. Possible modes of balancing cost reduction and attainability of housing costs are featured through different standards of living space; service and quality are analyzed and discussed.
Kominkan means local community hall in Japanese. We believe that it is important to analyze not only fiscal data but institutional data to study the establishment of kominkans. The purpose of this paper is to analyze both fiscal and institutional data of the parallel layout system of kominkans. There are three main conclusion of this study. They are stated below: 1. The parallel layout system of kominkan has 1) one kominkan in one junior high school area, 2) arrange local kominkans and a central kominkan in a line, 3) gross floor area is over 1,000 square meter, 4) meeting, study, and administration room, 5) practical purpose for social education administration, 6) professional staffs, 7) chief that possess the right to make a decision for education program, 8) governing council by local members. 2. Kimitsu City has established no local kominkan in junior high school that has a small student body; however, in application, other branch kominkans and staff were made available for social education program. 3. When Kimitsu City established the community centers, it did not set new utility circle, instead it was arranged within the existing kominkan circle. This method has proved effective for the parallel layout system.
This research tends to clarify the actual condition and subject based on the case research of the rental housing only for elderly people. The special rental housing only for elderly people is employed under the same system as a common residence, does not almost have regulation compared with the conventional institution, a private nursing home, etc., is with thing of flexible from and can be developed in accordance with the various services including habitation and care. It is capturing the spotlight from the private company especially. This time, it investigated in four residences (a type is two sorts). They are the questionnaire which asked that elderly housing was asked from the person who wished moving in to a resident's survey (the circumstances of moving in, and life after mobbing in) in Example A, and also a questionnaire about the physical condition of a total of 131 residents and moving-in circumstances in Example B. From the user actual condition which became clear from investigation, it was shown that it is a residence of a form completely different, respectively. Example A was a self-independent type, it begin a type corresponding to early removal needs and Example B were care needed types, and it became clear to have played the nursing home role to a user without the place to go to after hospital leaving hospital etc. The conclusion has described that the living environment maintenance after taking into consideration that it is a “residence” to the last is called for.
This study aims at examining the relationship between visual changing phenomenon and the distance cognition using cognition experiment in computer simulation environment, based on J.J.Gibson's spatial perception theory. By examining the cognition situation of 26 subjects, it showed that there were possibilities that people might cognize a distance that could not be identified directly by observing the visual changing phenomenon generated from body moving. It is also noticed that the cognition situation was affected significantly by the subjects' criteria used in distance cognition process. There are totally five kinds of cognition criteria which can be seen in this experiment when classifying by their characteristics. “Relative sinking amount” criteria, “Relative sinking speed” criteria,” Stepping analysis” criteria, “Multiple observing elements” criteria, “Direct perception” criteria. There are significant effects which could be seen in the cognition results by different criteria, especially in longer distance. For the accuracy of the cognition distance, “direct perception” criteria could be the most effective one in the cognition of longer distance.
This research focus on two big element in architecture with criticism, form element and planning element. We aim at considering about the details of relationship between these two elements in the architecture of modern terms. By consideration from the architecture side and the social side of form element, and from the phenomenon side and the planning side of planning element, we placed modern architecture. As a result, we got the conclusion as follows. In the early modern term, the relationship between society and architecture become strong, in the middle modern term, the space is formed considering human feeling as important, in the late modern term, the relationship between society and architecture become weak.
This research focuses on the feeling of depth which is provided by two-dimensional images, not by real three-dimensional space. In late years the media which projects three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional image are increasing, for example photographs, movies, computer graphic perspective images, virtual reality systems and so on. From these two-dimensional images, human beings understand the three-dimensional space which caused the images. In doing so, Pictorial Cue has big influence on understanding the depth of the space. It points judgment materials of depth which is provided by a picture, for example size of an object. And, depending on the cue, overestimate or underestimate of depth of the space that was expressed on two-dimensional images can happen. In this research, we make a perceptual experiment with two-dimensional images which present primitive pictorial cue, and analyze the relationship.
Although the experience knowledge, which is obtained by induction based on data, is important and is utilized in planning process, sometimes, the utilization of inductive inference causes a logical inconsistency. We show an example problem on the fire compartment formed by many shatters. This type of inconsistency may occur, when the induction is used jointly with deduction, and this inconsistency is called the inductive inference inconsistency. Mechanism of the generation of the inductive inference inconsistency is clarified. We propose methods for avoiding the inductive inference inconsistency.
The closing and integration of public elementary and/or junior high schools have often caused, with the merger of municipalities. In such cases, the local governments, however, have not had enough consideration on local communities. The present investigation surveyed the past and present situations of 111 schools that were closed for the past 30 years in Ibaraki prefecture and analyzed the relation of their location. Moreover, continuous relation between the process of closing/integration and the process of re-use of those school facilities was investigated in the two cases which detail documents in the processes remained, especially considering the effects of the closing schools on the declining rural communities
This research takes one of the most important Chinese cultural city and the Chinese capital, Beijing, as an object of study. We grasped the formation process of the historical environment conservation system and made clear it's present structure. From the development of the conservation system on regulation, planning and projects, we divided the formation process into five periods and grasped the special feature of every period. Especially, we analyzed the problems of the conservation system on historical cultural city, conservation districts, historical relics and architectures that have certain degree of historical values. Finally, the relationship of governments, citizens and specialists was made clear.
In general, it is supposed that the construction of the new roads in rural areas is a major factor to induce the landuse conversion of farms located adjacent to the construction sites. However, the substantial factors of farm conversion and its relationship of road construction are not yet clarified. This study aims to analyze the pattern of the farmland conversion around the new road construction sites and to realize the influence of road construction and other factors through the case study in Ukiha Region, Fukuoka Prefecture. As the results of the discriminant analysis on the previous examples of farm conversion, we clarify the relationship between pattern of farm conversion and road construction factor and that the influence multiplied with the location factor strengthens the trend of farm conversion.
This study aimed to clarify the qualification and the actual condition of the existing urban green. This paper focuses on the connection of formative components of Urban Green. First, Green which appears on aero photo is indicated by Surface, Line, and Dot. Those form green inside and around of blocks. Secondly, the connections of blocks decide the Green Volume by the information of greens of the blocks. Third, from the relationship of Green Volumes decide Urban Green Volumes. Fourth, Urban Green Volume is interpreted using local topography. As a result, this study has demonstrated the urban green methodology as a new method to estimate the form of urban green.
This study aims to clarify the background of establishment and the development of policy about Hawker Centres in Singapore, and also the change of space of Hawker Centres. This study was analyzed on following 4 conclusions. (1) Hawker Centres were built to solve a problem of Hawkers who caused public health and a traffic problem. (2) Hawker Centres were designed building plan and section to maintain good hygiene environment. In addition, Hawker Centres are continued to improve the hygiene environment by “Hawker Centre Upgrade Programme” and various management policy. (3) Constructions of Hawker Centres were grounded on land-use planning. And Hawker Centres have various functions with different in location (Newtown or Industrial area or Inner City area). (4) Today, not only are Hawker Centres evaluated as a social welfare facility and a tourist facility, but also play important role as urban facilities.
This paper aims at clarifying the selection of constructors or sub-constructors or architects and the commitment to them in housing management and maintenance. Interview surveys to the residents were used in three suburban housing areas. For analyzing, the trust theory was quoted. The following results were obtained: 1) The causes for selecting and making commitment to constructer, etc. are the appreciation for the ability, the good human relationship, the trust caused by common human network and so on. 2) Some advantages of the commitment were confirmed. Most of them would work validly with the stronger or longer commitment.
This paper explores the differentiation of housing trajectories among Japanese women with particular reference to their marital status. Japan's home-owning society is explicitly organized around the normative model of male-breadwinner family. However, increasing numbers of married women with considerable incomes tend to facilitate their own home ownership as well as household housing acquisition, while never-married women and those divorced, who are often non-regular workers with low incomes, are largely excluded from the property ownership based society. This implies a decline in the traditional family model of Japan's homeowner society. The paper concludes with an analysis of women's housing stratification with marital status and economic position as key variables.
Property management (PM) service has been becoming the essential service for office buildings in the age of building stocks. In this study, we investigate how PM affects the rent of office buildings. 51 office buildings which are of small and middle scale in Shinbashi Area are selected for analysis. Criteria based on “kansei” judgment (the subjective judgment) of evaluators are proposed as the basis of evaluating the degree of maintenance and upgrade. Their values are derived by the field work and are integrated into the ordinary building specification and site environment data. Decision tree and rent prediction analyses are carried out. Through these analyses, we will show findings such that standard deviations of kansei judgment which are roughly discretized are important factors for rent prediction, and so on.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the present state of employment of mentally-disabled persons for building cleaning work and disincentives of the employment by the questionnaire survey to the building maintenance companies. Thousand seven valid answers were gotten. They are classified into 4 groups. Group1 is companies that have never employed mentally-disabled person for these 10 years. Group2 is companies that have employed them for these 10 years, but now not. Group3 is companies that employ them now. Group4 is companies that employ more than 3 mentally-disabled persons now. The questionnaire answer data relating to the present state and disincentives of the employment are analyzed according to this classification. The problems concerning the employment of mentally-disabled persons for building cleaning work could be grasped.
On the ceremony space of the Tai(対) of Jotomon-dai(上東門第) and Ononomiya-dai(小野宮第), the following points were clarified: 1.The kind of a ceremony held in the Tai(対) of Jotomon-dai(上東門第) different from Ononomiya-dai(小野宮第). 2.The ceremony space in the Tai(対) of Jotomon-dai(上東門第) becomes independent from the Shinden(寝殿), and the ceremony space in the Tai(対) of Ononomiya-dai(小野宮第) is united with the Shinden(寝殿). 3.The difference of the ceremony space in the Tai(対) of Jotomon-dai(上東門第) and Ononomiya-dai(小野宮第) is caused by the difference of a building used as a room of the master of both residences.
For the rebuilding in the Eiroku era(1563), a contract price was determined in each of principal phases of the project of the Shoden. The contract prices for buildings other than the Shoden were separately determined for those buildings. For the rebuilding in the Tensho era(1585), on the other hand, the total contract price was fixed first and was then taken into consideration for determining the number of buildings to be constructed and other items.
This paper study on the transition of Noh space's formation in residence from late Meiji to Early Showa era. In meiji era, the Noh stage was built at the courtyard which was called sirasu in front of main building in the nobility or Noh actor's residence. This style's Noh space which was called nougaku-goranjou was used to be entertain Meiji Emperor. But from taisho era to showa era, it was developing to new style, that surrounding the stage auditorium was built and it was called nohgakudou. That the auditorium was extended to sirasu, at the side of stage which was called wakishoumen, as a result, the roof was built on the sirasu, it means courtyard of sirasu became to an indoor space. This paper focus on the new L style auditorium to investigate what transfiguration happened on the space of nohgakudou.
The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the revival process of the regional decoration on the exterior walls of Soviet Uzbekistan architecture, especially in the housing complexes that evolved in the city of Tashkent, the capital since 1930. This area of Uzbekistan includes many historic ruins; architectural decoration is one of the main features of the traditional buildings. This decoration was gradually utilized while the nation searched for a Uzbek national style. Following the non-decorated Dom-Comuna in a constructivist style, traditional decoration was partly used in housing complexes with Stalinist Classicism by the handiworks of the traditional decorative masters, called ‘usto’. Since 1973, this decoration covered very large parts of façades and the side-wall of the standard panel-style housing complexes. The technique, color and style of wall decorations originated from traditional Uzbek decoration such as ganchi, pandjara, and mosaic tile.
As a contribution, this paper is aimed as 2 points mentioned bellowed: (1)To understand more clearly the development process of Structural Technique of wall and roof parts in Khmer brick architecture. (2)To clarify the Characteristics of Construction Technology, for example the weak point . cause of collapse, in order to contribute to the conservation and restoration work of Khmer cultural heritage. Based on investigation's results, this study makes it possible to contribute partly in reconsidering the chronology of Khmer historical architecture. The result of the development process of Structural Techniques and the Characteristics of Construction Technologies in Khmer brick architecture could be classified in to three periods of time. The last period from late 9th to late 10th century could be considered as the rational technology period of Khmer's Brick temple architecture.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the planning of the Nereid monument. Through the analysis of the dimensional proportion of the building, the following conclusions were given. In the planning of this building the proportional relationships between the dimensions are simple. The planning started from the decision of the internal dimensions of the naos as 9 feet by 11 feet (1 foot = 0.310m). Many dimensions are defined by the successive system of proportion. Many of the plannig dimensions in the Nereid monument are complete figures, suggesting that the construction aspect was taken into account at the planning stage.
This study aims to figure out the increased amout of spending in the decorations of the Paris Opera by comparing the estimated cost with the final expenditure. We will also try to locate the reason of the increase and to analyse Garnier's efforts to reduce the cost of the decorations such as the bidding system. The studies show that the increase of the cost came mainly from design changes of the decorations during the construction and reveal that Garnier's idea of respecting shapes and harmony rather than materials is seen in his cost reduction strategies.
The aim of this study is to clear the aspects of spacial images by studying the relation between visual axis, emotional states of hero and spacial images that are affected by them in Kobo ABE's works. We selected the works on the subject of visual axis from his works this time. In our investigation of the relations between visual axis, emotional states of hero and spacial images, we found that spacial image of the hero were affected not only by visual axis and emotional states of hero but also by character which are gainsaid by the position of day-to-dayness in his story. Furthermore, Kobo ABE expresses suspicions to day-to-dayness and the aspiration for character which are gainsaid by the position of day-to-dayness in his story.
The intention of this paper is to make a thematic explication of the structure of William Morris's architectural thought through inquiring into the problem of following “Nature” and “History” in his theory of creation. The analysis consists of two chapters as follows : Chapter 2 illustrates the method of following “Nature” in pattern-designing through analyzing his concept of “conventionalizing”. Chapter 3 illustrates the methodological attitude in following “History” through analyzing how Morris grasped the Gothic Architecture and the Gothic revival movement.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the theory of house design by Mamoru Yamada, especially through the design of “Tsurumi residence” in 1931. Before designing this house, Yamada had been in Europe to participate in the international congress of CIAM and to visit several housing projects in 1929-1930, which was reported as an article “Minimum size of living house” in 1931. And after designing Tsurumi residence, he wrote about the past, present and future of Japanese houses in his another article “House of tomorrow” which was published in 1943. In this study, through the consideration of the relationship between the design of Tsurumi residence and contents of these two articles written by him, his theory of house design and his methods to make house comfortable were extracted.
The objective of this research is to disclose the formulation process of the Jiang Jie-Shi's “Nanjing Capital City Plan” in 1929 through examining the preliminary scheme after the publication of “International Development of China” by Sun Yat-Sen in 1919 to “Nanjing Great Capital City Plan” in 1928. The intention of this paper is to analyze the interrelation between the two plan of Nanjing Capital City Plan in 1928 and 1929 prior to the morphological analysis regarding Nanjing city structure. The analysis consists of two chapters as follows; Chapter 2 explicates the detail of the development process of Capital City Plan by Nanjing City Authority before 1929, based on the unpublished materials. Chapter 3 examines the interrelation between two plan of 1928 and 1929 focusing on the design and construction process of Zhongshan Road originally planned as Sun Yat-Sen's funeral procession Road.
Tohgo Murano is one of the most important architects in modernization of Japan. Nishiyama Memorial Hall is his masterpiece by the expression with a free architectural style in the later years of him. The characteristic of his works is the expression that a free curve was used for. The beginning is seen in this work. In addition, it has clear construction of three cores and Vierendeel truss. Murano produced oil clay models and examined the design of this architecture continuously. By analysis of his architectural drawings, this research checks his design process along a progress chart, and clarifies that accrual situation. It is a part of research which clarifies his design intension by verifying design process of Murano.
This paper is one of the researches to characterize and identify the architectural theory of Rudolph Schindler. This paper investigates the contents, types and their transformation of his architectural theoretical writings according to their referred issues. Analysis deals with 18 writings works and derives followings; Three major issues, such as ‘Recognition of Age’, ‘Space Architecture’, and ‘Principle and Technique of Spatial Composition’ and lower level of issues are extracted. Every theoretical writing is characterized owing to extracted issues. As for types of his architectural writings, theoretical one, methodological one, and intermediate one are derived and identified. Then analysis proceeds to investigate the transformation of his architectural thinking according to extracted issues, and derives the terms with their characters.