The measurement results for the speed of transporting vulnerable people upward a stairway in the event of a disaster evacuation are provided in this study. An evacuation training was carried out by the residents' association, nurses and hospital staff members at 2 stairways in a hospital which is designated as a tsunami shelter building. Each transporting trial was captured on videotapes to obtain the reference value of the speed for transporting vulnerable people. As a result, three parameters : weight of transporting instrument and patient, transporting experiences of evacuation supporters and the size of stairways were identified in deciding the transporting speed.
In many past fires, not a few people used elevators for their evacuation, although they were often told not to use elevators for fire evacuation. On the other hand, the number of people, who have difficulty to use stairs, has been larger year by year not only in usual buildings but also in high-rise buildings as well, since the aged people have been rapidly increasing along with improved accessibility for disabled people. Also, the potential demand of elevator use in evacuation from a high-rise building has been growing recently especially after the collapse of WTC towers on September 11th, 2001. The evacuation using elevators in case of a fire is still a controversial issue, because the safe operation of elevators is not always secured during evacuation in a fire. In the context of this situation, we developed a simplified model to simulate the operation of multiple elevators for calculating evacuation time by elevators. And, we conducted some case studies with this elevator operation model to examine the feasibility and issues of elevator use for evacuation mainly from the viewpoint of its transportation efficiency of occupants rather than fire safety aspects during the operation.
This paper clarifies the metamorphosis process of dwelling units throughout dwellers' occupation and extension in low-cost housing projects provided by the National Housing Authority (NHA) at Banpet District, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand. It has shed light on an apparent outlook on a survival strategy made by dwellers through their occupation time. Tenures showed their maneuver of space extension which could sustain low-income life activities. Apart from acting as a living habitation, the incremental self-help extended area itself could help residents generating their income within their houses, called the Income Generation Space (IGS). About 77% of houses in the research area conducted the extension. About half of dwelling units in the study area are extended for IGS. Moreover, the spatial characteristics of IGS as a multi-purpose space can serve the desire of dwellers. Furthermore, it has a capability of solving the poverty issue as an essential possibility that is needed to be implemented in the near future low-income habitation strategy. IGS has supported the dwellers' continuous occupation and could also reflect the nature of how low-income Thai people have survived through basic given living conditions.
This study elucidates how they evaluate the danger of the space based on the damaged condition of the each element that constitute the space and how the people draw an inference, when they encounter earthquakes inside the building. The evaluation-experience was conducted on the group of examinees who varies in experience-differences of earthquakes using the images of the earthquake-stricken space. This research shows that the tendency of the damage condition of the elements on images that were classified by on the ratio (refuge-rate) of the examinees that replied “sheltered immediately.’ This study derives the Fuzzy Measure, which shows the synergistic and counteracting effect when the plural elements are evaluated simultaneously, from the AHP Pairwise Comparison and choquet integral and also it makes the change of the Fuzzy Measures before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake clear.
There is two type of the quantity of plus and decrease of sense in front and reverse side of curved wall surface. Psychological quantity is same tendency. Explanation of consciousness of which the testee acknowledge curve is clear. Psychological quantity and physics volume have a plus relation and decrease relation. The testee feel short of depth rather than equal volume of rectangle. Factor of recognition is ration of the curved wall of all of see space and ration of surface of construction of space.
Major prefabricated houses manufacturers started their business around 1960s and became world class large housing companies. This study clarifies 9 major prefabricated houses manufacturers' developments at early stage by interviews with their in-house engineers and architectural designers as well as analysis of relating documents. Early prefabricated houses were developed by small number of engineers intensively. Various architecture and specialists including foreign architecture, famous architects and academics affected these developments in some aspects. Furthermore, each of early prefabricated houses had many unique characteristics in building systems. Some of them had changed in early stages, while the others still remain nowadays.
This study conducts verification experiments for a minimum measurement of restrooms for large-sized wheelchair users in a public toilet. From our inquiry, one of the most difficult task to a large-sized wheelchair user in a public restroom is to make a favorable approach to the toilet seat which requires switchback motions. This verification experiments suggested that the space should be at least 90×170cm to 110×150cm in front of a toilet seat, and this would make more flexibility about designing a public toilet for large-sized wheelchair users, especially in renovating old facilities.
Acacia, False Aacacia and Platanus Acerifolia were three main kinds of street trees planted in Qingdao before the WWII. All of these three kinds of trees were imported to Qingdao from Germany by the German governors since 1898. By doing this, the street landscape in Berlin was reproduced in its colony Qingdao. It turned out that rather than planting trees of their own countries, Acacia, False Aacacia and Platanus Acerifolia were continuously planted in the new areas of Qingdao by Japan and the Republic of China government later. The reason why the continuity of street landscape was well kept is probably because that the street trees were considered as quite important links between the new and old town. However, due to the political reasons, there were no street trees planted in the area where Chinese lived. This problem had not been solved until Qingdao was recovered by the Republic of China government. Nowadays, Cedar is increasingly planted in Qingdao's street and a new feature of street landscape is being created in the city.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify an actual condition and problems of the recyclable garbage group collection system for reduction of the household garbage, the group collection system is being executed by the child association, the elderly person association and the neighborhood association, etc. The reward is paid from the administration according to the collected amount of the garbage, and the each group has used the reward for various activities . It was cleared that the amount of the collection of the each group depends on the collection frequency and the number of households in the region. In this paper, it proposed the self-evaluation model to clarify the problem of each group, and the covariance structural model was applied to clarify the evaluation structure to the group collection system.
The purpose of this research is to develop the managerial disaster prevention diagnosis technique for small and medium-sized companies against large earthquakes. This paper examines whether the introduction of a " Fixed Assets to Fixed Liability Ratio (FA)" and a "Quick Assets Ratio (QA)" is possible as the managerial indexes which explain the concept chart of the "Business continuity plan (BCP)" of the companies. To obtain the basic information, 93 manufacturing companies in Aichi prefecture are investigated. The main results are summarized as follows; 1. FA is less than 100% and QA is 100% or more in 75% cases. 2. About 20% cases are insufficient in FA and QA. 3. The relation between FA and QA can be shown by a logarithmic formula. 4. Disaster prevention investment remaining power was shown concretely in value.
This is a study on the needs for the management service during building project for clients. Plenty of track records executed by a CMR company is investigated and analyzed from various viewpoints. In this paper, three findings are presented. 1. Architectural consultant and CMR company have to perform their service, after client understand the scope clearly. 2. There are two types of needs for the management service of the client, "full management practical use type" and "part management practical use type." 3. The client uses two types ("full management practical use type" and " part management practical use type." ) properly by project characteristics.
For the realization of the long life span of houses with suitable management, we may grasp the relationship between the life span and social factors to make the effective measures. This study established a stochastic method of houses average life span in the city with statistical data openly available, and identifies the impacts of social factors on average life span. The result made the regression model with 3 variables from Population Census or Housing and Land Survey. In addition to the result identified the impacts of social factors that ‘urbanization momentum’ and ‘urban maturity’ on average life span.
We considered the administration and changes of the direction of the architectural control, on the vassals' residences and possessions, and its actualities in the Hagi Clan, from constitution of “Ohseidasaruruzyohzyoh” downward, with several orders. The following points were obtains: 1.Hagi Clan was trying to work out to grasp residences and possessions of the vassals. 2.Some vassals' residences were poor quality. So there are several patterns of residences and possessions, and “O-Oseidasare-joujou” didn't work so much.
This paper analyzed the design process and contents of The Saito Ho-on kai Museum. •At the beginning，It was a building program of The Saito Ho-on kai Headquarters, Tsuyoshi Ogura was a jdging committee of competition. Next year it became a museum program, and design was requested to him. Design was able to be known 67 Drawings, the Saito Ho-on kai owns. • In planning, Not only an exhibition but library , hall ,etc were planned. It is positioned as a developmental process of The Museum Architecture which inherited from The National Museum of Nature and Science.
Pre Rup, erected in the Angkor period, is the Hindu temple of pyramid type in Khmer Architecture. The purpose of this paper is to find the relation of the foundation and temple layout based on measurement system in Pre Rup consists of 3 zones. When the verification result of this paper is compared with the verification result in East Mebon erected nine years ago, the temple complex become higher in Pre Rup , in the bottom and the middle zone ,the changes in the relationship between buildings and foundation is clear, but changes would not appear in the top and relationship was succeeded.
The present paper aims to report early applications of the domical vaults on a square plan supported by four arches and spherical-triangle pendentives, which remain in Levant of Roman Empire. They are made of cut stones, and the technique of which traces back to Hellenistic tradition. New measurements confirm that these domical vaults with pendentives form a hemisphere. They were probably constructed in the second century AD. A shallow dome made of cut stone voussoir was adequate to create a geometrical form, but it was considerably inapplicable to a monument more than 10 m in diameter. This method was a tentative solution before the pendentive dome was innovated in the second half of the sixth century AD.
This paper is a research to identify and characterize the Taiwanese architect Da-Hong Wang's architectural thoughts. It delivers more clear transformations through investigating into the Wang's architectural theoretical writings. Inspiring from 15 writings， this research analyze the contents and distinguish key findings into three major dimensions which are ‘Principle of Architecture’，‘Recognition of Age’ and ‘Thinking of Architectural Design’， meanwhile to extract additional lower level of issues to complete the research. By induction， all writings are characterized as the contents are categorized into defined dimension where the type of each of writings be identified. The in depth interpretations of Wang's architectural thoughts are based on these extracted findings as the analysis derives the terms with their characters and the characteristic and transformation.
This paper aims to elucidate the conception of Hiroshima Peace Park Project (1950) as the core of the city by Kenzo Tange (1913-2005) in the postwar reconstruction period. In addition to Peace Memorial Park in the Nakajima district, he planned the cultural complex in the Motomachi district connected the Nakajima district by the axis through the Atomic bombed Dome. However, Tange realized only Hiroshima Children's Library in the Motomachi district. In this process, the external and the internal factors are integrated in the concept of the ‘factory of peace’ by Tange.
The empress and the court ladies gave a birth to emperor's baby at the delivery place. This study focuses on the emperor Reigen's court ladies and the delivery places, and reveals the followings. The royal family located the delivery place according to its own rule consisting of the 3 points following: 1)At first it should be located at the residence of her parents. 2)If that was difficult it was decided by the fortune direction and precedents. 3)According to her class the noble residence and the townsman's house was used. At the case of using the townsman's house, the balance between the rule and the intent of shogunate and townsman sometimes broke down and became conflicted. Therefore the emperor Reigen shifted the rules, and led them to the new balance.
Here is analyzed the transformation of the road networks of Seoul master plans of 1966, 1978 and 1988 to reveal the characteristics of the contemporary urban structure of Seoul. In the '66 master plan, the road network was planned as a ‘ring-radial pattern’ centered on the heart of city and extended towards the outer mountains. In the '78 master plan, the road network was changed to a ‘grid pattern’ centered on the Han River and framed by the inner edge of the outer mountains, while the ‘ring-radial pattern’ still remained in the form of ring roads around the inner mountains. In the '80 master plan, it was, in turn, conceived as a integration of the previous two patterns by a cross of hyperbola-shaped roads, to adjust it to both the existing roads in the heart of city and the surrounding topography.
The railroad viaduct remained unburned in the city area burnt to the ground by Great Kobe Air Raids. People of war damage gathered at the railroad underpass before the end of the war, and the food street vendor appeared after the end of the war. Merchants increased rapidly and have begun to build the temporary shelter of the house and the store. They formed a mall while develop a fight for right before long. From August to October in 1946, an organization called the association of Korean free merchants built the mall called the Sannomiya “international market” at the Sannomiya east district. In this study, I examine the formation and the transformation process of the new mall the “international market” formed by the black market's movement.
The objective of this paper is to elucidate the characteristics that distinguish the act of designing from acts in general. The formal model of a model of deliberation in designing something and that of deliberation in doing something. It is assumed that one of the differences is that the act of designing creates a new system but acts in general do not always have to create a new system. It is demonstrated that this difference can be dealt with formal representation.