The public housing estate that was widely used after World War II gave a moment of design and material's modern method to conventional housing. It may be relatively easy to compare more than one African countries public housing estate and to understand the character of each because they have certain amount of commonality in period, material, idea of design, and stock. Next, the issue of management method with long-term use will be shared. Targeting all of the above, this research clarifies how the public housing estate was constructed in African cities in a colonial environment and how it has changed more than 50 years since independence. This paper focuses on Baobab estate in Dakar that was the capital city of French West Africa. Baobab estate was developed during the early period by SICAP (Société Immobilière du Cap Vert), a government housing supply agency since 1950, and is one of the largest estates. The field survey was conducted in 2014. For our analysis, we used the documents that were kept by SICAP and the current physical environment of the estate recorded in residential areas. In chapters three and four, the feature of the original design of Baobab is described. (1) Block plan: it was an independent plan, and various common facilities including a garage were laid out. Infrastructure was in place during development, and most of the units were equipped with a bathroom. (2) Dwelling plan: there were three types of dwellings; terrace house, semi-detached, and detached. Apartments were not included. There were 10 standard plans, eight of which use 凸 shape for verandas that were variously connected. Two of these plans had a variable planning. (3) Building system: it used modern material or parts like concrete block, precast concrete panel, and louver. The finishing method was elaborately crafted. (4) Construction activity: SICAP managed production of building elements and construction by directly hired workers. Then, high uniform quality was ensured. In chapter five, to understand the change in physical residential environment within 60 years, dwelling units' shape, use, and ownership were recorded. With difference in locations, there was a difference in the expandability. The inclined block plan caused extension or subdivision into an irregular open space. Half of the units occupied the first floor as the highest floor was the fifth floor. The units above the third floor were reconstructed. Further, 60% of the housing unit occupied the original building including two to three units that were extended or reconstructed. Almost every unit used the place as a dwelling; however, some of the units combined the dwelling with a shop. In terms of ownership, 80% percent of the owners resided in their houses and very few gave it on a sublease. In conclusion, this paper discusses the reason for the current situation according to the original design's features and physical changes. Since 60 years have passed, the households who moved in during the initial stages of the development are required to give a reaction for the change of life such as moving out, inheritance or multi-family residence. The extension and subdivision may be carried out by the following factors. Currently, appearance, use, and residents are the various configurations that should be considered. The factors suppressed by the changes may be the following. First, the quality of the original design is high and kept as a bone. Second, the residents can encourage living environment because of the dominant proportion of owners residing. This area expected to develop under the policy, and some plots have started developing. It needs to develop rules regarding the making of the areas for evaluating the original planning between French and other African cities.
Introduction Lately, a case that parcel out the land into small plots become increasing, especially in large cities in Japan. A crowded residence area and a narrow site that a device with a design is needed are very common. Therefore, we should devise methods for increasing living comfort in a small house, and consider about the space based on personal space, privacy and the like. The purpose of this study is to investigate the method of usage of small spaces (about 10 square meter) that is divided horizontally above and below. Such space is effective on a crowded space, perhaps.
Method For this study, we designed and made a original loft space with wood. That set up at enviromental psychology laboratory, SHINSHU Univ. The floor space is about 10 square metre, and we are able to move the floor that is divided horizontally above and below from 950mm to 1550mm (5 level). First, subjects experienced the experimental space about 15 seconds and evaluated their impression on 7 topics (spacious, oppressive, comfortable, calm, anxiety, fun, like) for each space. Then, subjects answered which space is more appropriate to each behavior (eat some food, change one's clothes, study hard, relax, sleep).
Result and Discussion The results were summarized as follows: 1) Subjects had a preference for the upper space and the space of higher ceiling (over 1400mm). 2) The space that feel more appropriate to behavior depended on ceiling height and position (above or below). For example, the lower space is more appropriate to study hard. On the contrary, the upper space is more appropriate to relax. 3) Plenty of ceiling height (over 1100mm) was necessary for change one's clothes, and lower ceiling (under 1100mm) were preferred to sleep. 4) Subjects estemated the upper and lower space equally when the difference of ceiling height was under 300mm. 5) The behavior and condition (the space of ceiling height) which indicated stronger relationship were a combination of "relax/study hard" and "1100mm/1400mm", and "sleep/study hard" and "950mm/1550mm".
Conclusion As the tendency of the whole, subjects prefered the higher ceiling, but that preference was not stable. Most people prefer spacious room, the more the ceiling become high, the more subjects estimate comfortable, although there is appropriate size for the purpose and something. Consequently, the lower ceiling is not always denied. We will continue to investigate about the relationship between the volume of small space and behavior, and attempt to devise methods for increasing living comfort in a small house.
Approximately four and a half year has passed since the Great East Japan Earthquake happened on March 11th, 2011. Many people are still living in temporary houses. In this article, we regard Miyagi prefecture as an example of the most damaged area, and analyze the difference of users' awareness and sphere before and after the earthquake. The purpose is to arrange and grasp the image of new library. We conducted a survey of all users at 4 libraries, Higashimatsushima, Kesennuma, Minamisanriku and Natori, which are located in the coastal area. Higashimatsushima City Library, having had no damage, started to operate again with the existing building. Kesennuma Library started operating at an early date, closing the damaged section. Minamisanriku Town Library moved to another site and started operating in a temporary wooden building due to the severe damage from Tsunami. Natori City Library was demolished after the disaster, and rebuilt a temporary wooden facility in the same site. Users' sphere shows the similar tendency both on weekdays and weekends. As for Kesennuma and Natori, many users come from nearby. As for Higashimatsushima, they come from a distance of about 6km and as for Minamisanriku, some people come from 20km away. At Kesennuma, user's staying time get longer because students study. The other libraries have smaller number of users staying for a long time, so there is only about 30 to 40 minute of time differences between the weekdays and weekends. On weekends the majority are the children and students, and on weekdays house wives and elderlies. However, signi cant differences between weekends and weekdays couldn't be seen in users' purpose and awareness. The 60% of users are from the ooded area in Higashimatsushima (where the large area were ooded) and Minamisannriku in which they suffered from a great damage of Tsunami. The large part of Natori was also ooded , but users from ooded area are less than that of Higashimatsushima. In Kesennuma, 34% of the library users who lived in the ooded area are still in the temporary housing. 25% of the citizens moved into other places due to the damage of the disaster, but many of them still continue to use the library. The frequencies of use increased in all 4 libraries whether the people live in the ooded place or not, before and after earthquake. Some of them have never used the library until the disaster, and increased the number of people are visiting to seek out for some comfort. It was dif cult for users who suffered damage from Tsunami to use libraries immediately after the disaster. On the other hand, many people say that libraries should have reopened sooner. For getting back a normal life in an unfamiliar environment, it is necessary to have some place to visit in public space. It is important for libraries to play a role not only as the place to read books, but also as the place for people to get together.
According to authors' paper of “Relation Between Urban Planning and Reorganization of Public Library ‘Idea Store’ in London, corresponding to the Local Problems and Needs”, it is confirmed that Tower Hamlets (TH) Council renewed local libraries not only according to the policies relating to the public library services, but also according to the policies relating to the London's urban planning and Tower Hamlets' community plan. And it is because of this cooperation between reorganization of public libraries and urban planning, that Idea Store (IS) can correspond to the TH's local problems and needs. Continually, this paper aims to clarify the relation between location, architectural space and arrangement of programme in IS by following three steps.
The first step is to analyze the location of every IS and features of Wards which they locate in to make clear of the quality of area that IS serve. Even health and employment are two serious problem in TH, but there is also significant inequalities within each IS's surrounding environment. Clearly, the central area in TH has most serious problem of health and employment where ISW and ISCS locate. This explains the difference of learning courses in each IS. Also, ISs locate close to the local markets and subway stations to seduce people's visit combining other daily activities, particularly shopping. Moreover, ISs effort to cooperate with primary schools locating in the town centres in TH.
The second step is to analyze the sites and architecture space of every ISs including exterior and interior space. Five ISs are all close to the shopping centres and local markets. Except for ISB, the renovated library, they all have colorful and popular facades just like shop, easily accessible by those who are even not familiar with educational facility such as traditional library. On the other hand, regarding interior space, there are several specific rooms equipped in IS which is rare in normal library. Those are Learning Lab, Children's Library, One Stop Shop and Café. Also, reading room in IS usually face to the street and street market, allowing people to speak and talk free. In the meanwhile, learning lab and children's library are placed as relatively quiet spaces facing residential area. All over, each IS has different spatial scale and providing programme, relating to different location and surrounding environment of each Idea Store.
The third step is to analyze the learning courses and activities of every IS to clarify the relation between location, architectural space and arrangement of programme. IS considered the importance of improve TH's employability by learning course since Idea Store Strategy 1999, A library and Life Long Learning Development Strategy for Tower Hamlets, and health support since Idea Store Strategy 2009. Recently IS even effort to deliver supportive programme for children. In 2014-2015, every IS holds children's activities every week. On the other hand, employment and health learning courses has become mainly offered in ISW, the biggest IS as anchor IS, while other satellite ISs' offer becoming less.
In conclusion, different quality of surrounding area characterized different architectural space and programme in each IS. Regarding architectural spaces, ISs are designed as popular as shops to welcome the visit by everybody. Especially, make reading space as active area while learning rooms and children's library as quiet area. Regarding programme, IS enhanced local employment and health problem by offering learning courses in library. In meanwhile, ISW is offering most fulfilled programme as anchor IS. This all explains the relation between location, architectural space and arrangement of programme in IS.
Recently the Japanese society needs much more childcare facilities with good qualities of indoor environment for nursing and educating children. At present, however, there is no specific standard for keeping good qualities of indoor environment注 2) 1) 2) in Japan. Moreover, there are not many studies to illustrate the ways to create indoor environment of children's daycare facilities. The purpose of this research is to examine and analyze the current situations of indoor environment of children's daycare centres such as temperature, air environment and space compositions of one-year-old children's rooms. In order to know the environment, we conducted a survey by measurement observation and questionnaire in two daycare centres in major cities in Japan. The contents of the measurement observation are indoor temperature, humidity, air dust density, carbon dioxide and the furniture's size in the room. The two daycare centres divide the rooms into those of playing, eating and toileting spaces. Furthermore, there is a napping space for an afternoon nap. To create these spaces, they use many kinds of furniture which are shorter as well as taller than one-year-old children's eye level. Spaces created by shorter furniture are open for both children and the childcare workers so that they can play actively. On the other hand, spaces created by taller furniture are closed, which is useful for children to play calmly. The indoor environment — temperature, air dust density, and carbon dioxide density – changes not only by the seasons but also people's movement. First, temperature varies depending on places and height of the room. The coldest places in winter are near the entrance and windows at 500mm above the floor. Second, air dust density increases most when children come back from outside play and also changes depending on the seasons. In spring, the density increases because of wind and drying. Therefore, to control the density by opening or closing windows is important. In summer, it is necessary to clean the rooms several times in a day because of mite breeding. In fall, there are a lot of allergen in the air such as mite remains and their eggs. In winter, air dust diffuses because of drying. Therefore, to keep humidity is important in winter. Third, carbon dioxide density increases by human's metabolism so that ventilation is requisite especially when they are using air conditioning system with windows closed. The questionnaire examined the current situations of installing equipment in the centers. The results of the questionnaire show that most of the daycare centres install air conditioning system. However, the frequency of using it is different from each center depending on its own principles or policies for nursing. Finally, this study proposes the effective methods to create better indoor environment based on the findings of this research – the factors of affecting the indoor environment such as temperature, humidity, air dust and carbon dioxide density. The methods are: First, to use higher furniture in order to make eating and sleeping spaces clean and calm with low dust density; second, to ensure large entrance spaces to clean the dust from children's outside play, which increases the dust density; third, to clean and ventilate the rooms while children are playing outside. Then these effective methods should be applied and controlled depending on the conditions of each daycare centre. Further important suggestion to make for children's facilities is to set each measurement instrument at the right place to grasp the accurate environmental situations and adopt the right ways accordingly to create good indoor environment of the facilities.
The Japanese garden is superior landscape design made intentionally and operationally in consideration of scenery of the outside space. This paper clarifies the characteristics of such outside space intentionally designed to constitute "the garden and the landscape". It is useful to clarify their characteristics for future building and the landscape design including outside space. The purpose of this study is to analyze the psychological evaluation of the landscape spaces and their scenery compositions for Japanese ZAKANSHIKI gardens. I analyze (the constitution of the landscape from the photographed image) and (the psychological evaluation from the experiment operated as the viewers sitting and looking at the gardens). In addition, I clarify the relations between the constitutions of the landscape and the psychological evaluations. First, collects gardens with the characteristic constitution reflecting various local climates and collected from add over Japan. The Japanese gardens can be categorized into ZAKANSHIKI garden and circuit-style. In this study, 30 Japanese ZAKANSHIKI gardens are examined. 14 gardens are KARESANSUI and 16 gardens are the ornamental-pond style garden. Second, I check which position each landscape element is distributed by grid analytical method to clarify constitution of the landscape (scenery composition) based on a photograph taken under set conditions at the site. Third, the SD method is used to measure the quantity of psychology for each garden. Several viewers sat in the building and looked at the garden for the experiment. Fourth, 30 gardens are made a type by scenery composition and catch the characteristic of the representative evaluation standard every type. Through the result of analysis, the characteristic of distribution of the component were clarified for every KARESANSUI and the ornamental-pond style garden. Furthermore, tendency of the scenery composition were clarified from the making of the landscape model. It was become a type to 8 from the placement position of the component of each garden. As a result of psychology evaluation experiment by the SD method, the psychology evaluation structure was 7 axes of “Openness”, “Impression”, ”Ups and downs”, ” Directionality”, ” Continuity”, ” Border” and ”Color” when people view at a garden from the building. Furthermore, relations of 8 types of the scenery composition and psychological evaluation were shown.
Introduction: Combining health promotion and environmental enhancement is effective for encouraging behavioral changes in relation to improved physical activity and fitness levels among citizens, in whom sedentary lifestyles are becoming more commonplace. Previous studies reported that individual physical activity levels and exercise habits are related not only to individual awareness and motivation, but also to social support systems and the living environment. To examine differences in the amount of physical activity exerted during daily living, the typology of lifestyle groups should be taken into consideration. Methods: A field survey was conducted on 24 elderly Japanese residents (age, ≥65 years) living in urban area. All participants were asked to keep a diary to record the use of their time for 3 days, and then to take part in personal interviews. The responses collected were then coded using an activity coding list. Physical activity during daily living was assessed using a triaxial accelerometer. The time use diaries were then matched with physical activity. To identify different lifestyle types, daily physical activity (excluding sleeping time) was analyzed using principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Results: After categorizing residents based on activity of dailyl living and physical activity levels, the following five lifestyle types were identified: TV type, hobby type, housework type, social type, and exercise type. The amount and intensity of physical activity were significantly different by lifestyle types. The results of previous field survey (part 1) and this time were different. Discussion: The results of the present field survey suggest that the lack of social types seen in the new suburban town was due to differences in the neighborhood environment, namely having fewer connections with neighbors. Walkability (i.e., how agreeable an area is for walking) was considered one of the main reasons for the gap between the regions in the proportion of the elderly characterized as exercise type. These findings are expected to provide fundamental knowledge regarding the relationship between lifestyle types and neighborhood environments. In the future, more detailed studies should be conducted on additional environmental factors such as available facilities, shops and services, sidewalks, and traffic safety.
The purpose of this paper is to provide the method for the construction of the probabilistic model of the evaluation for the amount of green. The subjects of this study were the same as those used in the visible green study held in Kyoto City involving 61 landscape photos from 37 locations. Six elements of a green environment were defined, which include the ratio of visible green of a close-to-mid-range view, the ratio of visible green of a distant view, the other ratios of the sky, the pavement, the buildings, and the surface of water in a photo. Bayesian networks are expected to construct probabilistic models including an uncertainty of human behavior for prediction and decision-making. We applied Bayesian networks for providing a probabilistic model for the relationship between these elements and the evaluation for the amount of green. The graphical structure of the probabilistic model showed a direct relationship between the evaluation regarding the amount of green and the elements of close-to-mid-range and distant range of visible green. It also showed that the natural landscape elements, such as a river's surface, were related to satisfaction. The elements of close-to-mid-range views of visible green were found to be directly related to satisfaction regarding the amount of green, while the elements of the distant views were indirectly related. It was shown that the probabilistic model based on the probabilistic reasoning of Bayesian networks contained the relationship between the elements of the close-to-mid-range of visible green and the elements of the distant range, which was found in the visible green study in Kyoto City. It was also verified that satisfaction in regard to the amount of green tended to decrease with increasing ratios of buildings and pavements. Therefore, it was demonstrated that the probabilistic model did not deviate from the visible green study in Kyoto City and from predictable knowledge, verifying the model's validity. The probabilistic reasoning made by the model was used to predict the amount of visible green in close-to-mid-range views required for “satisfaction” and t.he evaluation of green. Such reasoning have been shown to match the sensitivity evaluation experiment. For the green environments are deduced to be “unsatisfactory, ” the green in close-to-mid-range views required for “satisfaction” were shown, demonstrating a way to improve the environments. Finally, a conclusion was made regarding the way to use the probabilistic model of green evaluation for application of the ratio of visible green.
This paper is a continuation of the study examining the long-term use of the main halls of temples throughout Japan that are not designated as cultural property by the national government, and the factors thereof. There are examples of major disasters being experienced during long-term use, and it is essential to conduct maintenance and repairs for the long-term use of old main halls. In this paper, we examine the impact of not only the type of building and era of construction of current main halls, but also factors in structural issues of current main halls, maintenance and repairs, disaster mitigation measures, and advisors on long-term use of current main halls. The following information was revealed.
(1) When comparing three types of buildings, the expected usage period tended to be longer in A. Regional cultural property, but it was found that structural issues were unrelated to the type of construction. Although structural issues were generally found not only in A. Regional cultural property, but also B. No reconstruction and C. Other, they were resolved in all building types by repeated repairs, suggesting that this leads to long-term use. (2) Structural issues in wooden main halls have gradually decreased in the 70 years since the war, and the rate of structural issues in pre-war construction including reconstruction in the Edo Period remains unchanged around 80 percent. Structural issues in current main halls may be considered to be a result of long-term use. The expected usage period in the future differs by 60 years depending on whether or not there are any structural issues, and it could be said that structural issues need to be resolved to enable long-term use in the future. (3) Current main halls (of wooden construction) face aging, etc. of roofing materials and structural materials. Furthermore, causes of structural issues include deterioration due to age, leaks, humidity, ventilation, foundations and termites, and many have complex factors. However, deterioration due to age that has a gradual impact over time could be seen to be a phenomenon that occurs uniformly across all buildings left without maintenance and repairs. Therefore, the removal of human problems such as roof maintenance and repairs, etc. are required for long-term use. (4) Earthquakes are the type of disaster most commonly experienced in current wooden main halls, and damage included cracking and flaking of walls, collapsed roofing and tiles, inclination of entire buildings and inclination of columns. Furthermore, disaster mitigation measures include the reinforcement of columns and crossbeams, seismic diagnosis, establishment of new walls, use of more lightweight roofing materials and reinforcement of lattices, and 40 percent of seismic diagnoses only involved diagnosis. The motivation for implementing measures to address disasters was more preventative than due to experiencing a disaster, but the overall rate of implementation was not high at only 36% of all temples. Advisors for measures to address disasters in current wooden main halls were temple and shrine carpenters, architects, construction companies and ordinary carpenters, and the rate of implementation of seismic diagnosis was high for temple and shrine carpenters. Meanwhile, all items were implemented less frequently by ordinary carpenters than by other occupations, and ordinary carpenters were consulted most frequently about measures in older current main halls.
The study is based on a questionnaire survey of priests, and does not conduct specific examination of examples of renovation of current main halls by temple and shrine carpenters and ordinary carpenters. In future, examining the effectiveness of renovation including structural stability and the preservation of cultural value based on multiple specific examples of renovation is believed to be an important perspective.
In the early seventeenth century, the beginning of Edo period in Japan, almost all cities in Japan were constructed castle town, called JO-KA-MACHI in Japanese. Its forms are unique and diverse. Since the late nineteenth century, the train and derived infrastructures were incorporated into the old castle town structure, thus, various mutual relationships have been formed between stations and castle districts. Currently, City centers have maintained its traditional cultural elements, but the other hand, have changed gradually in accordance with the urban growth and its activities. Such urban structure of castle town plays an important role on re-activation strategies and selection of the re-activation areas. The purpose of this study is to clarify the positional relationship between dense project areas and the urban structure in Japanese castle-town cities. The study analyzed 9 cities by means of GIS kernel density estimation. By using official project volume and number of projects data, it is possible to analyze dense project areas as well as their relation with the former urban structure. As a result, the study found that distribution patterns by project amount and by project volume are different. The research found 4 characteristic types of density project areas. Besides, by analyzing these types in relation to the physical urban structure 3 form distribution patterns were found. -In the cases when the station and castle district are close, density project areas concentrate around them. -When the station and the castle district distant but connected by axis, two different patterns can be found: - Density project areas are localized on this connection route. - Density project areas are dispersed and there is no strong relation to the axis. -Finally, when there is not a clear connection, density project areas appear dispersed without apparent clear criteria. The analysis made clear the actual connection between density project areas and the urban structure with the following conclusions: 1. The study developed a method for analyzing the correspondence between urban structure and density project areas involved in the activation of central city area by establishing a way to express the stage of the density focusing on the volume and the number of business. 2. The distribution of dense project areas varies in accordance to the diversity of each urban structure. The research found diverse patterns of distribution and accumulation of projects according to the urban structure and features of central city areas. Further research should verify how the characteristics of density project areas correspond to the urban structure, and how this method can be applied for the evaluation of the regeneration strategy in the central city areas.
Kurashiki Gawahan Preservation District is renowned as the first implementation area of ordinance for historical preservation of buildings executed by a municipality. Two ordinances have been applied to the surrounding area of preservation district; Traditional Aesthetic Ordinance (TAO) and Background Preservation Ordinance (BPO). The preservation district has maintained the historical townscapes inheriting since Edo Era, and has recently experienced the increasing of tourists. This study aims to clarify the effects and the issues of the local ordinances executed by a municipality (Kurashiki City) to the preservation and improvement of townscape in from the following aspects; 1) repairs and restorations of historical buildings, 2) control of building construction and historical buildings demolition, 3) Recreation of exterior building facade, 4) improvement of street. The objectives of this research are as follows; 1) To make arrangement of the achievements and impacts of the ordinance application to the historical preservation of buildings in the implementation area, and clarify the trend of preservation projects. 2) To point out the roles of the ordinances for each period, and to clarify the efficiency and the issues of preservation and improvement of townscape from the above-mentioned five aspects.
Through the analysis on whole the cases of stored or improved buildings implemented from 1979 till 2014 with TAO (179 cases), and BPO (10 cases), this study concludes by clarifying the efficiency as follows; (1) Efficiency from view of historical building repairing and restoring In the year 1979, all the restored historical buildings were limited within the preservation district, but since 2007, the restoration has been applied into the traditional aesthetic district, which has made the preservation of historical townscape expanded around the preservation district. (2) Efficiency from view of control of building construction and historical building demolition At the beginning of enactment of TAO, to avoid the breaking of townscape around the historical district, the building construction has been controlled in the surrounding area, which led to enlarge the preservation district substantially. The efficiency of BPO was the restriction of development by the local government. (3) Efficiency from view of recreation of exterior building facade Due to the improvement of street connecting the preservation district and the surrounding areas, the historical townscape was re-created by the local government. (4) Efficiency from view of improvement of street In few number of tourist-oriented streets connecting to the preservation district, one of streets in the traditional aesthetic district was improved to be a tourist-oriented street based on TAO, which led to increase the number of tourists. Due to the preservation and improvement of townscape based on TAO and BPO, a buffer zone around the preservation district was formed. Especially, TAO has been effective in creating a new pedestrian flow which led to revitalize the surrounding area. On the other hand, this study suggests the issues relative to the roles of ordinances for the future development of the preservation surrounding area by pointing out the possible negative impact of the ordinances to the change of building use from residential-oriented to tourism-oriented.
After the Special Action Committee on Okinawa (SACO) agreement in 1996, Okinawa Prefecture and multiparty have been developing fundamental reuse plan with landowners and citizen. It was changed several times through expert investigations and discussions among them. 2013 plan has come to the halfway point of it. In the plan, some points, especially preservation policy of green, under ground water, and historical heritage in the base were reached consensus among parties. Despite some preservation policy of green and underground water, it has been missing throughout the water balance model study of this area. When people want to save the under ground water to reply the water demand, generally it needs an investigation of current water balance model and water use. So we started a proposal-based study about this research issues. This study aimed to clarify two study objectives. The 1st goal is to calculate exact a water balance model about approx. 1617ha of the 5 watershed areas, A, B, C, D and E, in Ginowan City where the Futenma Air Station is located in. At first, we calculate each land use ratio by GIS to simulate the amount of underground seepage of the rainfall in these 5 watershed areas. It is as for theoretical value. And the other hands, we also researched the amount of several water springs to calculate the amount of underground seepage of the rainfall in these areas as an observation value. The field surveys were held 60 times at each spring waters by flow speed measurement and positive displacement flowmeter. The observation value is in agreement with the theoretical value that we simulate. The finding and the fixed water balance model will contribute to the huge area planning like Futenma. The 2nd goal is to review the open space plan in Futenma reuse plan to fit water demands in these areas by using our water balance model. Because the today's 70% of Futenma Air Station is covered green, it functions as like watershed protection forest. But according to contemporary Reuse plan, after the developing, the green area will decrease than today's area. According to our data gathered by interviewing to farmers and industrial officers who use under ground water and spring water, today's water demand reaches almost 5-62% per supply from the natural condition. We analyzed the demand-supply water balance after the development, it will show over demand at some springs. And the worse more, there are some struggles between farmers in the dry season by the lack of water supply. This result is very important. Before our research, there is no report of the amount of water demand. It means that the demand-supply balance had not been paying little attention. Thus, we proposed to Prefecture Office and City Office to review the open space plan with considering water demands. We explained our analysis in detail at the closed meeting of them. Then almost of our concepts was accepted in the public plan. This study's consequences and contribution are three points. 1) The water balance model of this area is established. 2) The under ground water and spring water demand of this area are calculated. 3) Through continuing discussion with parties, our proposal-based study is accepted in the public reuse plan of Futenma.
This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP24710168.
This study focuses on the welfare-oriented machizukuri (community empowerment) experience in housing complex community in Taiwan. We pick up Nanchichang community, a resettlement housing community in Taipei city as case study. First we indicate some critical issues and reveal the reason why it became a socially disadvantaged community today. Then, using research methods like site survey and interview survey, we research about the condition of welfare-oriented machizukuri and analyze how it has been conducted by the local community. In the case of Nanchichang community, they established two community welfare facilities by revitalizing old abolished facility. The design and construction were realized by community-participated approach. Today, Community bank and Community food bank provide several welfare supports for disadvantaged households in the community. Our focus is about to analyze “resource”, “human resource”, “institution” and “organization” has been utilized during each process of establishing these two facility. According to our research, we consider that the process of establishing these two facilities might be divided into three: (1) infrastructure construction period; (2) institution establishment period, and (3) independent operation period. In the first period, the community depends on public subsidy or external resource mainly. In the second stage, they try to build up institution and organization for independent operation for the next stage. Finally, they succeed on conducting various welfare services almost independently from external support. We propose some important applications and key factors as following for operating welfare-oriented machizukuri in housing complex community, especially socially disadvantaged community like Nanchichang through this case analysis: 1. Their welfare support emphasizes educational support, which helps children from disadvantaged household to get better education which was not available from them before. 2. They combine “community currency” system in community food bank with the service in community land, this make it possible for disadvantaged household to help others rather than only accepting support or help from others. 3. Self-sufficient model is established for sustainable and independent operation by the community. This empowers the community to support not only the local people, but also more disadvantaged people and household outside the community somedays.
This paper proposes an evaluation method to estimate the maximum response of high-rise
reinforced concrete structures,
considering the P-δ effect. This effect depends on the order of occurrence of the earthquake
motions of varying strengths. Examining
two events in which the earthquake motions extend to plastic deformation, the maximum response
deformation can be evaluated by
the accumulated values of each event. We regard two seismic responses as a consecutive seismic
response and evaluate it with an
estimate equation for the response increase rate. When a future seismic response does not
extend into the plastically deformed region
after having experienced plastic deformation previously, the future response deformation shows
a different response due to residual
deformation of a past earthquake. We arrange the equation to estimate the future response
deformation with the quantity of
standard deformation and residual deformation.
Chapter 1: The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of building structures and scenic value of Okura at the magistrate's office of the feudal government established in Ikuno-Ginzan town in the Edo Period. Tajimanokuni (Tajima Province), where the Ikuno magistrate's office was established, was called the Santan region including Tanbanokuni (Tanba Province) and Tangonokuni (Tango Province). These provinces had similar geographical conditions, and each had its magistrate's office of the feudal government or Hatamoto respectively. Chapter 2: First, as the past study, it shows Okura of the Takayama-machi magistrate's office that I examined before. Next, it shows procedures of the study. And it clarifies the facts of "Kuchi-okura" of the Ikuno magistrate's office to compare with the following three factors: (1) "Oku-okura" located outside the town, (2) Okura of magistrate's offices of the feudal government or Hatamoto in the Santan region, and (3) silver mine facilities in the town. Chapter 3: It shows the facts of "Kuchi-okura". "Kuchi-okura" had two large-sized Kura, which were allocated separately with Honjin (main house) at the center. And both Kura protected Honjin from each side. There was Hakariba (inspection station for the rice collected for taxation) under the lean-to roof of each Okura, which was surrounded by walls with horizontal windows and doorways. This structure was also found in "Oku-okura". Chapter 4 & 5: It makes comparisons between "Kuchi-okura" and the above mentioned factors (1) - (3) to explore the meaning of their similarity. The size and allocation of Okura were completely different between "Kuchi-okura" and "Oku-okura". On the other hand, the size and allocation of Okura at magistrate's offices of Hatamoto in Tanba Province were in common with those of "Kuchi-okura". Also, Okura of the Takayama-machi magistrate's office was similar. Based on these findings, it pointed out that Okura at magistrate's offices of the feudal government or Hatamoto had spatial structures with consideration on Honjin. There was no lean-to roof for Okura at magistrate's offices of Hatamoto, but there was Hakariba in front of the entrance of Okura. Like "Kuchi-okura", Hakariba was surrounded by walls with openings. Such regional characteristics were found. Further, it pointed out common building structures of a silver refining facility called Fukiya in Ikuno-Ginzan town, Hakariba of Okura, and their respective front side. These facilities played a significant role for the management of silver mine of the feudal government. The role was to store important goods. Chapter 6: The conclusion was made. Every Okura established at magistrate's offices of the feudal government or Hatamoto in the Santan region had scenic value for magistrate's offices, however, in Ikuno-Ginzan town, Hakariba for the silver mine management was established together.As the result, it had a unique front unlike other Okura.
The Shindenzukuri residence is renowned for its open colonnaded space, and it has greatly influenced later Japanese houses. This paper discusses the origin of the Shindenzukuri and how it was formed, based on historical sources on ancient palaces and aristocratic residences. Firstly, we shall compare the Oldest Genji-Monogatari scroll paintings (12th century) and drawings found in Ruijuzatsuyosho (12th century). The analysis has revealed that the Shindenzukuri residence rarely had walls or windows, unlike houses in Nara period. It is, therefore, suggested that the spatial openness of aristocratic residence in Heian period is the origin of open interior space employed in Japanese houses. Secondly, it is important to examine shitsurai (decoration suited for certain purposes) as well as shitsurai in Nara period. Through the analysis, I clarified that the main building of the Shindenzukuri residence obtained the spatial openness because of ceremonies, especially Shogatsu-daikyo (banquets held during the New Year), and not by the request from the daily lifestyle. From section three onwards, I compared the ancient palatial architecture and the Shindenzukuri residence. I demonstrated that the spatial layout of the Shindenzukuri: Shinden, Watadono, and Chumonro were similar to buildings used for ceremonies in ancient palaces, particularly in the main hall (Shishinden) of the inner court called Dairi. Since a key to understanding the development of the Shindenzukuri seems to be ceremonies, I examined ceremonies took place in palaces in the early Heian period. Textual sources reveal that banquets (enkai) held outside Dairi (e.g. Burakuin and Shinsenen), started to take place inside Dairi from the mid-ninth century. As a result, officials below the sixth rank, who were not allowed to enter Dairi, could not join the banquets. While banquets in Dairi excluded many officials, ministers organized the Shogatsu-daikyo in their houses and invited all the officials working at Dajyokan (the office of the secular affairs). The host of these banquets were the crown princes and the envoy of Emperor delivered cheese and chestnuts for the banquets. This involvement of imperial family show that Shogatsu-daikyo covered the imperial banquets where the lower officials could not join. Since the Shogatsu-daikyo was the banquet which compensated for the imperial banquets, the ceremonies of Shogatsu-daikyo had to be similar to those in the palace. The ministers' residences for Shogatsu-daikyo had to correspond to the space for the imperial banquets which was composed of the colonnaded hall and the ceremonial court. Thus, the open colonnaded space was introduced into the Shindenzukuri residence. As the Shindenzukuri residence was an architecture formed by the open colonnaded space, it was not suitable for living. Here lies an issue that people had to tackle to solve this difficulty. In the latter half of the tenth century, sliding doors were invented, and they developed the spatial structure of Japanese houses dramatically. In the end of the fifteenth century, the Shoinzukuri style was established where almost all rooms were enclosed by the sliding doors instead of the walls, and such spatial organization became the most common way to construct the Japanese domestic architecture.
This paper describes about the development process and methods of “Fuzoku-nojo”, the farms of Sapporo Agricultural School, and their roles played in the development of the adjacent regions. Since the establishment of Kaitakushi in 1870, the farmlands in Hokkaido were developed by governmental immigration division system. On the other, Sapporo Agricultural School established its own eight farms for the technical experiment and training for the young engineers by 1896. Both of the architectural and regional planning characteristics of innovative trials in such school farms and their influence to the adjacent areas have not been studied sufficiently so far. The authors describe that the rural areas adjacent to those school farms are distinguished from the other standardized development areas.
Until now, I showed that J. Conder proceeded to the stricken area of the Nobi earthquake generated on October 28, 1891, he contributed the reports to The Japan Weekly Mail from the field, and these reports were placed in that magazine by the name of signatory X.. In addition, I clarified the investigation place and the schedule in the Nobi earthquake stricken area of J. Conder from this contribution and analysis of “AN ARCHITECT'S NOTES ON THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE OF OCTOBER, 1891.” wrote down by Conder. Then, in this paper, I considered the speeches performed by J. Conder after the Nobi earthquake stricken area investigation, and it's following points to become clear. The speech in the Tokyo Nouben-gakkai (Tokyo Elocutionary Society) of J. Conder, the details were not clear conventionally only by a summary being spoken in the speech beginning of the Society of Japanese Architects. The speech meeting in the Tokyo Nouben-gakkai by Conder was carried out at Kinki-kan on December 6, 1891, and the English manuscript wrote down by Conder was placed in the December 12, 1891 of the Japan Weekly Mail. Conder worried the following points by the speech in the eloquence society. They were rejection of the brick buildings by what a lot of brick buildings having received destruction at a stricken area, and affirmation not to reflect on the present conditions for the wooden building precisely. Conder performed the speech of the Society of Japanese Architects on January 27, 1892, and the English manuscript was placed in the January 30, 1892 of the Japan Weekly Mail., and the English original title was EARTHGUAKE VERSUS BUILDINGS.
This article increased consideration in “THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE IN JAPAN, 1891.” (following, GEJ.) of the photograph commentary of the first edition. It is the following points to become clear. The schedule of Mr. Burton thought to be the author were written down for the photograph commentary of GEJ., but Burton original mention was limited to two points of arrival at Nagoya of October 29 and the Biwajima investigation of the next day. Because mention of November 3 is quotation from JWM., we cannot use it for consideration without criticizing it. Approximately 21% in the photograph commentary of this book are quotation from the article of “the Japan Weekly Mail.” (following, JWM.). The address of gratitude for Mr. J. E. Beale in "PREFACE." of GEJ. is regarded as the reward that reprinted an article of JWM. in the photograph commentary. A lot of articles of signatory P.Q in “the Japan Weekly Mail.” were quoted to the photograph commentary of GEJ.. I can judge signatory P.Q. to examine a schedule with another person with Mr. Burton. Including this part, the quotation to GEJ. ranges from JWM. to 22%.
This contribution presents an integrated interpretation of J. B. Fischer von Erlach's architectural works as derived from a synthetic analysis of geometrical forms used in his oeuvre. Methodologically, such empirical analysis first identifies basic geometrical forms in floor plans and traces the process of their modular use in the evolution of designs. Upon verification in the literature, it then arranges floor plans by motive and period, which ultimately allows for identifying the relationship between individual works. Eventually, it may also be applied for identifying relationships between floor plans and fa?ade designs. Based on the understanding that individual designs can always be captured as being part of an evolving group of designs, this analytical method uses schematic drawings for attempting an interpretation of the evolution of space compositions. How did Fischer's oeuvre evolve and how have his works eventually become representative of Austrian Imperial Baroque? This contribution attempts an answer to these questions by illustrating the characteristics of Fischer's space composition. A first result of the said analysis, this research identifies Gian Lorenzo Bernini's First Louvre Project, Louis Le Vau's Ch?teau du Vaux-le-Vicomte and the ancient Roman Temple of Minerva Medica as important points of departure. The starting point of Fischer's own works, the Ahnensaal of Chateau Vranow, transforms the earlier circle motif into an ellipsis and completes the design by integrating daylight obtained through dome windows. This observation allows interpreting the First Louvre Project and Château du Vaux-le-Vicomte as the origins of Fischer's geometrical compositions. All through the mid-period of his oeuvre this was the base on which he created a wide variety of space compositions with the following characteristics: displaying inner geometrical composition on the outside, removing of separations between forms, amalgamation of ellipsis and rectangle, and attempting the combination of ellipsis and cross. In these attempts, one can identify influences from other architects such as Francesco Borromini and Carlo Fontana. In Fischer's late period, the Karlskirche and Hofbibliothek designs combine the experimenting with forms of the mid-period with the elliptic spaces of his early period. As these two works are part of his imperial designs, they embody a multitude of characteristics in their architectural expression. Among these characteristics, this research particularly stresses the amalgamation of ellipses and geometrical forms and the influence of insights Fischer obtained during the concurrent edition of his Entwurf einer historischen Architektur (1721). Hans Sedlmayr, the first and foremost Fischer scholar, denied any possible influence of Borromini on Fischer's works in his 1956 “J. B. Fischer von Erlach” thus recanting his own 1925 PhD thesis. In contrast, this research traces important influences of both Bernini and Borromini. Accordingly, the author believes that there was no necessity of such recanting. In his view, Sedlmayr eventually happened to ignore Bernini's influence while possibly overestimating that of Borromini's.
The plan of Philadelphia, one of the oldest planned cities in the U. S. was designed by Thomas Holme in 1682 under orders of William Penn, the governor. Its features are regular gridiron street pattern and detached houses surrounded by gardens, orchards, or fields to realize “green country town.” Today, however, the blocks are filled with row houses instead of detached houses and there are various and very comfortable streets formed through subdivision of the planned large blocks. The purpose of this study is to describe the structure and the diversity of the streets themselves and the space made by three planes, street itself and façades of row houses on both sides. The analysis of street patterns on Insurance Map of Philadelphia, vol. 1, 2, Sanborn Map Co., New York, 1916 shows that the originally planned streets were mostly realized and preserved and the inner-block street patterns of all blocks were different from each other already at that time. And by the observation in our field survey done three times from 2013 through 2015, the inner-block streets are spatially articulated by visual closure of those ends and have some kind of hierarchy including the planned streets. The four blocks were selected to be surveyed at the fieldwork. Each block is located in the districts of Society Hill, Washington Square West, and Rittenhouse Square. The streets in and by these blocks are classified into four types: Type A planned street (15m width), type B running through a block and connecting A with A, and type C (6m width) connecting A with B. Type B includes type B1 (15m width) and B2 (7-9m width). The results of classification by scale (street width), sectional proportion (street width by row house height, W/H), and spatial articulation are as follows: Type A is wide in scale, large in W/H, and not articulated. Type B1 is wide, large, and articulated. Type B2 is narrow, medium, and articulated. Type C is narrow, small, and articulated. And the condition of traffic, one of the main functions of street corresponds to the types. In addition, these characteristics just follow the street types and do not differ by districts. The distinctive features of the row houses that form streets are exterior wall, podium, stoop, sidewalk, roadway, front yard, dry area, basement opening, and flowerbed. The stoops and the basement openings are at the corners of exterior wall and sidewalk, and making small and cozy space. On the other hand, the front yards, the dry areas, and the flowerbeds are the elements to strengthen the continuity of streets. The examination of these features and their materials indicates that these are almost same in each block regardless of streets types but vary by districts. The differences of scale and sectional proportion by their street types and those of distinctive features and their materials by districts give two-dimensional diversity to the streets in Philadelphia. On most streets the exterior walls and the sidewalks are strongly connected and form L-shaped space. The street type A is divided by roadway and its space is considered as the combination of two L-shaped spaces. On the street type B1, roadway is almost for pedestrians and L-shaped spaces on both sides are joined and should be called L+U-shaped spaces. And the street types B2 and C form U-shaped spaces. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 25420681.
The streets of Edo's commoners district (choninchi) were maintained and managed by the townsmen who lived in the district. The shogunate, on the other hand, was responsible for controlling and managing the various activities conducted on the street. While the commoners, in other words the townsmen, led the actual maintenance work, the town commissioner (machi-bugyo) and street commissioner (michi-bugyo) were the shogunate officers in charge of supervising the work. The purpose of this paper is to diachronically illustrate the shogunate's governance and management system for street spaces in Edo's commoner district from the mid-17th to late-18th century. This paper uses the term “street spaces” to comprehensively describe the human and built environment that evolves along the street. The first section investigates the basic system of management by the town commissioner and street commissioner. It points out that until the mid-18th century, the shogunate was oblivious to the various maintenance and management activities carried out by the townsmen in street spaces. It was only afterwards that a management system for street spaces was established by the shogunate by mandating an application process for the various management and construction activities carried out on the street. The following section analyzes the reasoning behind the town commissioner's control over street spaces in the commoners district, based on the conflict surrounding jurisdiction rights that arose with the abolition of the street commissioner system in 1768. One of the reasons given was based on the spatial logic that the streets in the commoners district belonged to the commoner's townhouses. Another was based on the social class system, in that street spaces were maintained by people of the commoner class and thus, jurisdiction rights over such matters should belong to the town commisioner. Afterwards, a system was established in which street spaces in Edo’s samurai and temple/shrine districts were managed by the commissioner of engineering works (fushin-bugyo) while those in the commoners district were administered by the town commissioner. Lastly, the paper concludes with a discussion on further improvements to the management system for street spaces in the commoners district from the period after the town commissioner's jurisdiction right was secured up until the end of the 18th century. From this, an unnatural assignment of responsibilities becomes apparent, with the commissioner of engineering works responsible for all things related to the functions of the street itself and the town commissioner responsible for everything else. The paper finally points out the fundamental contradictions inherent in a management system based on a spatial framework founded in a social class system.
Port of Yokohama grew up to be a port city representing Japan from the end of Edo era to the middle of the Taisho era. There were many sheds and warehouses in the iron pier and Shinko-wharf. The sheds was used as sorting of cargo and getting on and off for passenger. The two warehouses was used as a long storage of cargo. They were an important element of the port landscape. Today, the preserved warehouses charms many tourists as a symbol of the port of Yokohama. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the space composition of the public shed and warehouse at iron pier and Shinko-wharf before and after the Great Kanto Earthquake. I considered the following three viewpoints 1. This study examines how to use the shed and warehouse. And general size of the shed and warehouse examined and compared to the building of the Port of Yokohama. 2. Analysis of space composition of the shed and warehouse was carried out in two parts. The first one is cargo space. Placement of the pillars and plane composition of partition was revealed in the shed. Relationship of transporting machine(crane, incline, elevator) was revealed in the warehouse. The second is passenger space. There are two types in this space. One is space of only passenger, and the other one is space of the passenger and the pick-up person. 3. This study has revealed what has changed how structure and plan composition of the shed and warehouse. The conclusion is as follows. 1. Oficial port facilities had only sheds before Great Kanto Earthquake in general. But oficial port facilities had not only sheds but also warehouses after Great Kanto Earthquake. And both of sheds and warehouses were placed as port facilities. The longest dimension (90ken) of ridge direction in the sheds and the length of a 10,000 ton ship is the almost same length. The span of the shed were smaller than a standard at the time. But the dimension(14ken) was affected the shed of the port of Kobe. The span of the warehouses were smaller than a standard at the time. I pointed out possibility that the longitudinal dimensions (81.5ken) of the warehouse was designed with reference to the longest dimensions of the shed. 2. Cargo space of the shed was a wide room to sort cargo. On the other hand, cargo space of warehouse was small rooms for disaster prevention. And the shed was an one-storied building. And warehouse was a three-storied building. I pointed out that cargo space in a warehouse increased in the verticalness direction. Passenger space and cargo space of the shed were different in form of the ceiling etc. After the Great Kanto Earthquake, passenger were able to move to the passenger space without walking the cargo space. And waiting room changed from indoor space to outdoor space. Passenger space was not only a space to wait but also a space to enjoy eating. 3. The structure of the shed was wooden and steel before Great Kanto Earthquake. Roof of all the sheds was roof truss. Pillars are arranged along the center of the wooden shed for earthquake. But there was not a pillar in the steel shed. And the structure of the shed was steel structure and RC structure , SRC structure after Great Kanto Earthquake. Roof of the shed was two types( roof truss, flat roof of RC structure). Pillars are arranged along the center of the sheds of flat roof. And there were not a pillar in the sheds of roof truss. These sheds were built with the same structure every quay.