The results of tri-syllable articulation and intelligibility tests with varying speech rates in reverberant and echoic sound fields reveal that both articulation and intelligibility scores tend to be higher when speech is presented at a slower speech rate. The results that we obtained, however, show that speech is more audible at speech rates near the speed of general conversation in sound fields in which intelligibility is sufficiently secured. In this paper, we propose a new speech transmission index taking into consideration the characteristics of speech rates for the purpose of quantitatively grasping the impact of such changes in the speech rate on speech transmission quality. Since the results of our calculations and the results of subjective evaluations indicated a similar tendency, we feel that it will be possible for us to develop this new evaluation index as a physical evaluation method for speech transmission quality taking speech rate into consideration.
A series of our previous studies has shown that we can experience a sense of continuity between the inside of a room and the outdoors by adjusting the illuminance and color of the artificial lighting. The purpose of this study is to examine psychological determinants of the sense of continuity(experiment 1), and to test its applicability to various architectural spaces(experiment 2). In experiment 1 we examine if the optimum illuminance for the continuity depends on the shape of an experimental room. It was found that the room shapes had no significant effect on the optimum illuminance settings. In experiment 2 it was shown that we can have the sense of continuity in various architectural spaces. Moreover, the optimum illuminance of the inside linearly changed with the illuminance of the outdoors on a logarithm scale, indicating the lighting that provide the continuity can be applicable to various spaces by rather simple methods. The psychological process that determines the sense of continuity is also discussed.
This paper aims to establish a design system of the shading windows which achieve a balanced flows of visual information between the inside and the outside of a room. For this purpose, the relationship between the visibility level and the physical condition of the object seen through the shading of a window must be known. In this paper, the calculating method of the apparent luminance of a visual target seen through a lace curtain was established. In the calculating method, three optical properties of various race curtains, the rate of passage luminance, the property of transmission, and the property of reflection, are required. So these optical properties of five kinds of lace cloths which have different formal characteristics were measured.
In this study, thermal and hygric behavior of underground space and the condensation behavior are investigated on moisture damper arrangement of the envelope wall and depth of water table. Nonlinear heat and moisture transfer equations are used as the analytical model. Calculations are performed by explicit finite difference method. The major results are as follows. 1) In the view of preventing the moisture damage of room, the case of the wall with the moisture damper at the outside surface is the best. 2) The case of the wall without moisture damper is better than the case of the wall with moisture damper at the inside surface. 3) Even if the water table is located above the underground space, the surface condensation doesn't occur and room air relative humidity decrease with sufficiently air change rate.
Since ventilation efficiency in a room is not always uniformly distributed, an index for measuring ventilation efficiency at a concerned point or in a concerned domain is required. To evaluate a local flow field and contaminant distribution, Visitation Frequency (VF, : the times for contaminant to return back to the objective domain) and Purging Flow Rate (PFR, : the air flow rate for defining the domain averaged concentration) are introduced. In this research, VF, Tp (the average time of contaminant staying in the objective domain) and PFR of occupied zone and breathing region in a 2D model room are analyzed through the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) based on the standard k-ε model, in which the prediction results is validated by the precise model experiment. Then, the property of VF, Tp and PFR are analyzed with the various of boundary conditions (1) inlet and outlet position, (2) partitions in occupied space, (3) temperature difference, (4) inlet velocity . In the cases where the exhaust opening is set directly under the supply opening, PFR of occupied zone exceeds 1. It means that those ventilation systems distribute fresh air efficiently to the occupied zone.
A passive stack ventilation system to control the ventilation rate was designed in an airtight test house and the ventilation rates were measured for five months in -winter. And the annual characteristics of the ventilation and the indoor air quality in houses with the passive ventilation systems were calculated by using a house model and the standard daily schedule models from NHK. The results were as follows. 1) The ventilation rates in the house with a passive ventilation system meet the ventilation requirement through the year with a fan controlled by an airflow speed sensor. 2) The ventilation rates change with the temperature differences between the inside and the outside. If the dwellers don't open windows to keep the indoor air quality, the ventilation rates were lower during the marginal season without the control system in houses 3) The energy demand levels to keep the ventilation rates using fans in the marginal season are low because the airflow ratio of the stack ventilation system is high. But the energy loss with the over ventilation rates in the coldest season are large, so the damper system is very necessary for saving energy.
This paper presents the evaluation of parallel and opposed-blade dampers for regulating air volumes of duct systems. Generally an opposed-blade damper is appreciated more favorably than a parallel-blade damper in view of less possibility of uneven flow aft of blades of a damper. However, checkpoints are not enough when we examine the aerodynamic performances of both types of dampers. We simulated airflow aft of blades of dampers numerically using Petrov-Galerkin FEM analysis. As results, an opposed-blade damper is evaluated more favorable than a parallel-blade damper in view of the less uneven flow aft of blades and the controllability of pressure drops for duct systems.
Windows are among the structural components of a building that greatly influence the indoor thermal environment. Since they are largely affected by solar radiation, controlling heat radiation from window surfaces is of particular importance. The present study was performed with the recognition that, in order to calculate air- conditioning energy, the radiative component and the convective component of radiant heat must be known separately as they exhibit different heat transfer characteristics. This paper describes a heat quantity-based shading coefficient measuring apparatus capable of direct and specific measurement of the heat gain from solar radiation from the window surface. It then introduces a method for measuring the solar radiation-shading coefficient separated into a radiative and a convective component. The paper further describes the basic measuring principle of the apparatus, its calibration and its sensitivity constants relative to the long wave and short wave output of a net radiometer.
This paper describes the simulation study on a multi-function heat pump system combined with two heat storage tanks for residential houses. A series of simulation was carried out for a single family house supposed to be built in Tokyo. From the simulation results, it was found that both the energy consumption and the running cost of the multi-function heat pump system were smaller than that of the Base Case provided with an ordinary system consisting of room air conditioners and a gas boiler by 23% and 52, 000 yen, respectively in a year.
This paper presents results from energy, meteorological, and photochemical (air quality) modeling for the Los Angeles Basin, one of the largest and smoggiest urban regions in the U.S. and the world. Our simulations suggest that by mitigating urban heat islands, savings of 5 to 10% in peak utility load may be possible. In addition, heat island mitigation can reduce smog formation by 10-20% in summer, which is as effective as controlling emissions from all mobile sources in the region. For a typical late-August episode, our simulations suggest that implementing cool cities in the Los Angeles Basin would have a net effect of reducing ozone concentrations. Peak concentrations at 3 pm decrease by up to 7% (from 220 down to 205 ppb) while the total ozone mass in the mixed layer decreases by up to 640 metric tons (a decrease of 4.7%). Largest reductions in concentrations at 3 pm are on the order of 50 ppb whereas the largest increases are on the order of 20 ppb. With respect to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard, domain-wide population-weighted exceedance exposure to ozone decreases by up to 20% during peak afternoon hours and by up to 10% during the daytime.
Outdoor thermal environment in summer become worse due to a change of land cover and an increase of artificial heat release according to the urban development. In this paper, the authors have developed a new method for predicting the human comfort in outdoor thermal space with the aid of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). Furthermore, the effect of greening on outdoor wind and thermal environment was analyzed. Spatial distribution of SET (Standard Effective Temperature) was calculated in order to assess the pedestrian level comfort using the data given from the CFD predictions. Two cases of predictions were carried out. In easel, green area ratio of ground surface was assumed 10%, while the green area ratio of ground surface was changed to 100% in case2. By comparing the SET* distributions in both cases, effects of greening were thus clarified.
The District Heating and Cooling (DHC) system using the urban heat such as the exhaust heat from the waste incineration plants is expected becoming widespread and developing. The construction of the Wide area Heat Supply System with Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Plants which is seen in Europe is helpful for becoming widespread of DHC and for saving energy. So in this study, energy evaluation of the Wide Area Heat Supply System with CHP was done by the comparison with Heat Pump (HP) system. 1.Relations between the quantity of heat from the power plant can be supplied, and the decrease quantity of the generating electricity output by the heat supply were explained. 2. A difference in the carriage power by the temperature of heat medium was explained. 3.The energy evaluation of this system was done by the comparison with the Heat Pump system. 4. Cooling heat ratio was taken in the index, and the coming into existence condition of the system was explained.
In this research, we attempted to categorize user types from the two points of view of the sound environment in commercial spaces and the interests and value systems of the users and to grasp the relationship between these. As a result, we were able to identify tendencies regarding the interests, value systems and demographic characteristics of users, the sound environments in commercial spaces in which they showed interest and the degree of severity of the standards that they use to evaluate sound environments with a high level of intangibility and immediacy.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify some factors influencing the evaluation of Living Environment such as cross-culture, living experience, personal character etc. The questionnaire about environment was asked for 396 foreign students in Hiroshima University who are living in Higashi-Hiroshima City. After grasping the personal characters of 199 samples among the 13 classifications by their homeland, we extracted 7 factors from evaluating the composition of living environment. According to analyzed every factor score and influences for evaluation, the difference among the 13 classifications was clarified and the subjects were classified into 3 groups. In each group, the effects on evaluating the living environment were different because of their personal characters, cross-culture, living experience and so on.
In this paper, a method for evaluating the nature of regional wind flow is presented along with the result of the measurement obtained through this method with wind tunnel tests by use of 14 real residential areas (270m square each) as their models. In the wind tunnel tests, the wind velocity at a pedestrian level (1.5m from the ground level) is measured for 14 residential areas which have some housing patterns. The result of 14 areas shows that the nature of regional wind flow in the 270m square residential area is related to the gross buildings coverage ratio in each area, and shows that as a whole, the spatial average of wind velocity in mid-to-high-rise apartment houses areas is stronger than that in low-rise housing areas even though the gross buildings coverage ratio is the same for both areas.
Environmental burdens through building life cycle are induced by almost all industries such as raw material manufacturers, fabricators, traders and other service industries. Better way to carry out LCA of building practically is to develop LCI data based on the input-output table and other statistical data. This paper describes LCCO2, LCSOx LCNOx and LCE on office building facilities based on the 1990 Input-Output Table of Japan and other statistical data. This simplified LCA method and its database are useful for designers to reduce environmental burdens for sustainable society.
In this study, we tried to clarify how the physical situation of windows facing influence both the consciousness of feeling others' sight line (-A) and the consciousness of privacy (-B). After the trial of multivariate analysis, how many windows facing the each room of those who are inquired (in our model, we took both the distance of each room and the angle of direction of each room and the angle of each window facing into consideration) influences the consciousness of A very much , but not so influences B.
This research examines what physical factors of a detached house are relevant to the strength of psychological pressure in the neighborhood. Four houses in a house-exhibition place were selected as experimental targets and sixteen subjects were asked to rate how much pressure was felt at given points at daytime and nighttime. The experimental result suggested that the psychological pressure value generally depended on the size of apparent house profile. Therefore, the model was formulated using the solid angle of the house facade and the sliding glass doors and main entrance. The weights for these elements varied with each subject. In the nighttime situation, the fitness of the model was improved when two more variables were added, namely the amount of the illumination received at the viewpoint and the amount of the illumination emitted by the house's windows.
This paper discusses the structural behavior of users' sphere(range of users' activities) from viewpoint of rural libraries' service levels. We have investigated and analyzed 16 libraries. Some user groups , which are classified according to their affiliation and generation, are influenced by the number of libraries in their neighboring area and/or the service of library. The groups of homemakers taking with their family, which account for a large part of users, fundamentally go to their local library. But there are no libraries in their neighborhood, they apt to choose a well-stocked library. The other group of adult men, which have wide sphere of activities, regard libraries' service as most important. We may, therefore, reasonably conclude that the service levels should be given great importance in case of planning to regional facilities.
In this study, we aim to improve the spaces around the stage and dressing room in multi-purpose hall, and to get the standard for it's planning better. Particularly, we want to suggest the purchase plan of stage equipments and the way of storage by investigations according to the actual situations. Following the report on multi-purpose hall, we try to suggest the way of storage on concert hall (in which, they have classical music concerts mainly)in this report.
The purpose of this study is to clarify how to use the wheelchair in nursing homes, for this objective, different types of nursing homes were surveyed by means of observation and deep interview. The results of the analysis are as follows. 1. The wheelchair user uses a wheelchair rather than "the tool of a moving" as "the tool of a sitting". 2. The seating and the operation of a wheelchair affect the number of cultural acts and social acts. 3. Independent mobility affects behavioral patterns of the elderly.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the visual characteristics in opera houses. Preparing for the investigating form on opera houses to evaluate the relationship with various factors (especially the sets, actors and audiences) and the general impression of seats' environment at seats, we obtain psychological evaluation that the subjects fill in the above investigation form at various seats in typical planning opera houses. On the other hand, we calculate four parameters that express the relationship between each seat and the stage. By analyzing psychological evaluation, the correlation between psychological evaluation and four parameters and the arrangement of seats, the guides for the design and evaluation by visual characteristics in opera houses are obtained.
The purpose of this research is to develop an evaluation scale for the house remodeling for the disabled and the elderly. Certain motions during bathing are observed at these times before and after the remodeling. The result is analyzed by the quantification method Hayashi ffi and cluster analysis. Results of Experiment; The disabled people can be classified into five groups. The rate of using bathtub during bathing and the bath remodeling differ between those groups. Conclusions; The problems of the bath remodeling resolves itself into the following four factors : basis movements, motions during bathing, methods of bathing, and items of remodeling.
This study is intended to clarify the relation between house and site by analyzing the composition of indoor and outdoor spaces of modern houses. The way of composing house and site is analyzed in relations to streets, comparing the contrast between indoor and outdoor spaces, as well as personal and common spaces. As the result of classification, 9 types of compositional schemes are identified among the houses of Schindler and Neutra. As of these schemes, the architects' interpretation of sites and locations could be described as the regional feature of modern movement. The schemes of their houses are typical characteristics in California modern houses. The typical schemes share a back-outdoor-living space, sometimes with variations around the house, with no compositional difference between personal and common spaces.
Most of residential spaces are not arranged for elderly people who have some disorder to live independently. Therefore, they have to employee the home-helpers to care themselves. Unfortunately, most of the Japanese residents are not suitable for the home-helpers to care, especially at bathroom. In this paper, a survey to the Japanese home-helpers was conducted to investigate the subjective suitable size of lavatory and bathroom. It comes to be clear from the result that the ratio of elderly people's ergonomic data affects on the home-helpers' evaluation. We have to consider of the measurements of elderly people when we construct the lavatory and bathroom.
Underground spaces have become bigger and more complicated. This paper studies on the identity of underground cityscape that makes these spaces legible and characteristic, through the questionnaires on area and spot identification. The summary of results is described below. 1) Development is formed different stages those are response in early learning enrichment by accumulate experience, differentiation of constituent elements, and integration to percept underground spaces, 2) Connective elements to the ground are importance to spot identity. 3) Elements to enhance spot identity are also to enhance area identity. 4) Properties of each elements on the identity were made clear.
In this study, we tried to solve optimization problems of successive rebuilding planning according to needs by applying Genetic Algorithm(GA).Between building's total area and variable view of elevation area, there is trade-off relationship and we decided a object function based on such a viewpoint.First, we achieved good rebuilding schedule in which environmental deterioration was improved.Secondly, based on the coordination of building proportion in objective plan.we tried to solve the problem again.By such coordination, the distribution of "pareto optimal set" from the bi-objective optimization had changed, and we achieved better plan.
Under the colonial dominations, there were influences for the Land use planning in the colonial cities from their govern countries. In Malaysia, the Control of Rent Act has effected from after their independence to present to keep a lower rate for the rental fee and supply the houses for poorer people. But, it is too long apply for the post colonial cities and that have many of problem to control the social stability and urban redevelopment. Main findings are as follow; (1) On the Urban settlement has kept traditional environment from WW II to present. That is abandoned by land owner, reason of too small rental gain and low potentiality to invest the new land use. (2) But, the process of repeal of C.R.A. is only 3 years trials to change the land prices to actual market prices. It is serious damage to the resident, especially for poorer settler in inner city. (3) But, the society has divided each of ethnic group, so there isn't any social connection with each other which toward the cooperation on the process of create the new land use regulations.
An experiment was done in one grid shaped street and one irregularly twisted street. There were two ways to memorize forms in the experiment : a real walk through the pathway or a CG animation presented walk through the same pathway. After memorizing the course, the subject walked the pathway by himself. The subjects were 40 (25 males and 15 females).The errors in the angles, concerning a real walk through the irregularly twisted street, were the biggest .However.the errors in the angles between the standard lines and the line, connecting each comer with the starting point, were the smallest.During the real walk the irregularly twisted street resulted to be easily legible, because the error of the angle could be adjusted delicately in the process of walking.
In order to mitigate secondary disasters to a community, the purpose of this study is to develop a method for evaluating urban improvement policies for disaster prevention by observing intersections to which all streets connected are blocked by collapsed buildings caused by a great earthquake. A model for estimating the probability of streets being blocked and inaccessible to vehicles is built on the basis of the data of Higashi-Nada Ward in Kobe City, which suffered a great deal of damage from the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Disaster. A method for forecasting the rate of occurrence of these intersections is then proposed. Based on the simulation results through the forecasting method, the effectiveness of two types of policies is evaluated, that is, reinforcing and earthquake-proofing deteriorated wooden houses, and widening of narrow roadways.
In this paper, Multi-layered Structure of facilities system and Multi-layered Facilities Location Problems that minimize the sum of travel costs are proposed. To analyze optimal location, 2 facilities complexes location problem on a segment is concerned. Optimal solution is derived analytically, and system configuration to obtain the solution on a segment and char- acteristics of optimal locations are investigated. Also, a heuristic method of solution is presented, which is applicable to location problem in N-dimensional Euclidean space. Through computational simulations, the effectiveness of presented algorithm is confirmed. Finally, various facilities complexes including obnoxious facilities locations with multi-layered structure are demonstrated, and their optimal locations are investigated.
I analyzed the developing process of the house plan and the townscape of Otai post town in the "Shukuezu"; old maps in the Edo era. As a result, from the middle toward the end of Edo era, some of the post town buildings had developed a more functional approach, which could be seen in the highly sophisticated living spaces and guest spaces. However, a similar house plan to the typical peasant's house was still seen in many of the buildings of post town of the end of Edo era. In addition, each Kamimachi, Nakamachi and Simomachi had different views of the outside.
This studied the change of the apparatus of doorframe till Nara period. ・There were the thick board as the pivot and heiziku formerly. First, nagesi was a member of holding the windowframes, later became the pivot and structural. So the thick board became disused. ・Heiziku took over the function of hentuki.The first, using heiziku around door was Kondo in T6sy6daizi-temple.Because heiziku had flat only on the front, the pivoting part had been square section. ・The first, nagesi as the pivot was KairO in HoryQzi-temple. Pivoted doors by kabuki-nagesi and han-nagesi was established at GozyQ-no-to in Daigozi-temple at least.
This paper treats one of architectural works of Kazue Yakushiji (1884-1965) who had an active part in Okayama and Kurashiki under Magosaburou Oohara. He designed the Kurashiki-honmachi branch of Chugoku Bank and the former head office of Chugoku Bank, which are the most important works, before and after the tour in Europe and America. This paper compares the two from the viewpoint of changing his representation of design and evaluates the Art Deco style in the interior design of the former head office of Chugoku Bank that has been unknown. And it also proves a Japanese architect used the Art Deco style in the 1920s in Okayama.
This paper, mainly under the Materials of Architectural Institute of Japan(AIJ), deals with the cricumstances of founding the housing-village, called BUNKAMURA in Japanese, for the "Tokyo Peace Exhibition" in 1922. As the result, the followings points are clarified. One of the purpose of the housing-village called BUNKAMURA, which had been carried out from the proposal of AIJ, was exhibiting the ideal model for a house, being based on the law of the housing association, proclaimed in 1921. In a certain sense, its realization was conformed to the housing policy of Japanese Goverment. AIJ also actualized two housing for the housing-village by way of designing as well as planning the master concept. The planning of these two houses is considered to place a living room as a main space of a house. Therefore, these two houses would be revaluated as a new model of houses for the Japanese society under an education activity by AIJ.
The aim of this paper is to make clear states of Aso Kanko Hotel and its Development of tourist resort for foreign tourist. O-Aso Kankodo Co. Ltd. was established for development of the area of Aso in 1935. The resort programs they made mainly consisted of roads for drive and a hotel. The hotel called Aso Kanko Hotel was designed by Ryoma Kondo of Kumamoto Prefecture. However its Japanese-European design was indicated by Makoto Den who was the President of Board of Tourist Industry. There were some important roles of tourist points along West-Japan Route for foreign tourist in the background.
This paper proposes a new method for finding an optimal floor layout iti a possibly non-rectangular site, based on an orthogonal graph drawing algorithm. With the proposed method, we can obtain a floor layout that allows the existence of non-rectangular rooms, by which we resolve the drawbacks of the existing methods that admit only rectangular rooms. Introducing two types of criteria concerning area and shape for each room, we design an interactive multi-objective optimization algorithm that produces a number of satisfactory solutions. We have implemented the algorithm and tested it for several practical cases.