In Brazil, since informal and self-managed construction projects are compromising the individual and collective scale of multi-story apartment construction, this study aims to clarify the nation's support and infill (SI) system division, as well as its implementation requirements, in terms of housing demands, national laws, and the development level of the housing industry. To accomplish this, 16 remodeled apartments were examined and interviews were conducted with a number of Sao Paulo real estate developers and managers. The results showed the following: 1) self-managed adaptation is not only related to infill, but also to support level decisions; 2) local building legislation, condominium bylaws, and the available building systems are unresponsive to actual user demands and the decision-making processes.
This paper aims to analyze the variations in bale-bales : Endai-like street furniture found on the islands of Makassar, Indonesia. The findings from fieldwork, mapping, observations and interviews, are as follows: (1) The basic characteristics of bale-bale are common among the 5 islands, but the positions and styles of bale-bales are different on each island. (2) The positions of bale-bale are influenced by the modernization of the house style. From rumah panggung (stilted houses) to landed houses, the position of the bale-bale can be located from under the house to in to the yard, and on to the street. (3) The Lae-lae and Kodingareng Lompo Islands, on which modernized houses are developed, have hut-style public bale-bales. In addition, four-islands far from Makassar city feature low bale-bales.
This paper relates the psychology of the household to the home space by investigating patterns of territoriality. The paper utilizes Kobayashi's theory of discerning territoriality, based on who makes decisions about the furnishings within the home. This paper aims to validate this method and its suitability for use internationally by analyzing the present day Japanese and Jamaican home. This paper revealed a Matriarchal territorial inclination in both countries. Furthermore it reveals differing attitudes to the child's bedroom and the presence of Isolated territoriality in Japanese males compared with Subservient territoriality in Jamaican males.
Architectural design is a sophisticated task, involving the envisioning of a combination of various spaces while predicting the completed status. During this process, an architect considers various design elements, such as atmosphere, function, scale, structure, natural environment, materials, and proportions. This study verifies the effectiveness of architectural design using the educational design module (EDM). EDM comprises on-site instructions towards gaining a view of a space, including design elements and sequence of scenes, as well as a check sheet for confirming design elements according to a professional's considerations. This study reports on an experiment conducted on 6 student volunteers while presenting EDM. The following results were obtained through the students' design processes: 1. The students tended to use design elements, especially the auxiliary elements, in similar ways. 2. A few design elements appeared inconsistently in the students' design processes. 3. EDM influenced the students' design processes.
This study focuses on users' waiting behavior at lavatories in the service area of expressway. The locations where waiting occurs were observed at 4 spatial types of lavatories, using record from log sensors and cameras. The results revealed that choice of waiting position was influenced by easiness to check vacant booth, prevent others from passing by, and approach to booths without disturbed by others. These are understood by users' basic demand that want to secure many booth options in order to use one of them as soon as possible. Based on these findings, some suggestions for planning are proposed.
This paper aims to clarify the process of historical evolution and the main characteristics of the morphology of urban tissues in the old town of Cadiz. The authors did extensive field work and research in this area in the year 2009, documenting 88 heritage buildings. Also, historical records from 2.217 buildings available in the planning office of Cadiz have also been taken into account in this research. In this paper, historical maps have been studied in order to elucidate the urban formation and evolution of this old town. Also, the main characteristics of the urban morphology are clarified by overlapping the historical formation process and an analysis of the current state of this old town. This paper concludes the characteristics of spatial formation of the old town in Cadiz in relation with the street system, block alteration and building density.
This study clarifies the continuity and the discontinuity between urban infrastructure by Post-war reconstruction urban planning (PWRUP) project and recent central city revitalization plan (CCRP) from 17 target cities. As the results of analyzing land readjustment, redevelopment project, and projects for roads, parks, and station plaza as urban infrastructure, I clarify the follows: 1. CCRP in each city has been proceeded on the basis of infrastructure by PWRUP project without drastic change. For example, almost all land readjustment projects were implemented in blank area or niche of PWRUP's and about 70% of redevelopment projects were planned along arteries by PWRUP. The continuity between the both is strong from the viewpoint thinking urban function, amenity, and recreation important, but partly not from the point making grand urban landscape newly.
Recently many local governments establish the basic autonomy ordinance, and the realization of the area development comes to be expected. Under such situation, resident autonomous spaces are considered important for resident autonomy. However, it is not clear what citizens expect of these spaces. So I clarify what citizens regard as important on resident autonomous spaces, and what their social capital brings in their consciousness. I investigated an example of Yuza town and analyzed it. As a result, I find that there is a correlation between social capital score and visit frequency of the center, and that the high score citizens have high interest in the future of the center. On the other hand, there is little correlation between social capital score and consciousness of cost burden.
This study estimates the number of evacuees that can be accommodated in 32 shelters in Bunkyo Ward and investigates shelters' refugee-acceptance preparations. Across shelters, the estimated evacuee number ranges from 500 to 2,500, with 2 shelters having an excess of approximately 1,000 people, who arrive because of house destruction and fires. Some shelters underestimate the number of these evacuees. Regarding the check-in procedure, counter-plans prove insufficient for large-scale evacuations and for shelters that do not follow the local government's policy regarding stranded commuters. Therefore, each shelter must estimate the number of refugees and establish an appropriate situation-based individual system.
This paper aims to clarify, on the basis of varied viewpoint heights, the relationship between the characteristics of visual unity and the attractiveness of conspicuous sceneries within urban scenery. Authors analyzed sketches of urban sceneries drawn by subjects. The sketches showed conspicuous sceneries and their visual unity that subjects recognized while drawing these sceneries within each urban scenery. The results showed different trends related to the position of scenery components and visual unity characteristics, which are important for the feeling attractiveness in urban scenery.
The City of Kyoto recently announced a new alley policy, which added the conservation of historical streetscape along alleys as a new policy objective. In the central area of the city, there are high-rise buildings that contrast strongly with lower buildings such as Machiyas along narrow streets. This paper analyzes the sites of the high-rise buildings which face or stand adjacent to alleys. Through this analysis, it clarifies the relationship between high-rise buildings and alleys, and points out the necessity of some regulation for the shape of buildings along alleys in order to conserve the historical streetscape.
The Special District for Urban Renaissance provides the first deregulation technique about urban redevelopment project that is planned through the discussion between government and its developer. The developer can get some deregulations on its redevelopment plan in return for public contribution. And it is decided the substance of deregulation and public contribution as a result of their discussion. In the survey we can see those public contributions include several contents with regard to surrounding area of redevelopment. And also we can recognize that the draft plan which government and developer discuss about have some matters such as "the lack of description about feature and problems of surrounding area", "the lack of inclusive viewpoint about hardware and software of core facilities in redevelopment ", "the lack of security about the realization of planned public contribution".
This study mentions the possibility of the application of “mobile spatial statistics”, which frequently comprehend the actual population based on the operation data of the mobile phone including the heat of the day. The first part indicates the analysis model of the districts combined with another questionnaire survey of city center of Kashiwa city, Chiba prefecture. The second part examines the three models which compare the base stations in Chiba prefecture and analyze only by using mobile spatial statistics. This study indicates that mobile spatial statistics makes it easy to comprehend the distribution of population.
This paper focuses on the management of the first pedestrianized street in Japan, Heiwa Mall in Asahikawa City, completed in 1972. First, it sorts out the influences to the neighborhood by street re-design in 2003 and the characteristics of events operated on the renewed street. Additionally, it finds out the method and challenges of current management system organized by both of public and private sectors. Moreover, it clarifies the effects and issues of the management method by viewpoints of street users. As results, the paper points out the characteristics of management method in case of Heiwa Mall, and based on the findings, it concludes by suggesting the key factors for introducing the management of a pedestrianized main-street.
This study aims at the germ of public concept to building maintenance and the maintenance organization in ancient Japan. The aims of this article are below. 1. The resolution of the germ time of public concept to building maintenance 2. The establishment of maintenance in ancient period As a result, the public concept of building maintenance appeared in Tenpyo Period, and the maintenance organization was established in the latter half of Nara period. And I re-assembled the document about the unification and abolition of construction organization in Heian Period.
This paper examines textual sources on the intercolumniation in the residence of aristocrat which were written between the 10th century and the 13th century. The spacing between columns is not widely attested in texts, but it will be considered in light of the size of partitions which were set between columns. The texts reveal that the span between columns in the Shinden-zukuri residences was narrowed in the late Heian period, and I will argue that this phenomenon was linked with an invention of double sliding doors. In order to slide the doors smoothly, the height of the beam was lowered and the span between columns was shortened during the 12th century. It is most likely that the reduction of the space between columns was caused by the adoption of the double sliding doors.
During the 1930s, the American geographer Robert B. Hall and the German architect Bruno Taut made studies on Japanese rural architecture. This article examines the differences and similarities of these studies through a comparison of four particular points: (I) context and intentions, (II) approach to the study of rural architecture, (III) the study of habitation units, and (IV) characteristics found common to all Japanese rural architecture. The comparison showed that while Hall and Taut have the same understanding of the general characteristics of Japanese rural architecture, their disciplinary approach and different understanding of man's adaptation to the natural environment resulted in dissimilar explanations of the rural houses.
Auszeichnung für gute Bauten der Stadt Zürich is an architectural prize first established by the Zurich municipal authority together with local architects in 1945. The intent of this paper is to clarify the transition and feature of the philosophy, evaluation policy and criterion of the prize by analyzing the minutes and statements of the City of Zurich. The conclusions in this study are as follows; Evaluating clients and architects conviction about buildings is the most significant philosophy of the prize through more than sixty-five years. Archiving and releasing the minutes as official records makes it possible to follow the initial philosophy. The evaluation policies of all the past sixteen juries have been set based on the trend of the society in each period. To evaluate architectural works in the light of the urban context is an unquestioned criterion through all the past sixteen juries.
This paper is an investigation, the type and its transformation of spatial composition in Craig Ellwood's residential buildings focusing on material and modular system. Analysis deals with 28 works and structure, primary exterior finishing materials, primary interior finishing materials, modular system on both plan and section. As a result of this analysis, following points are derived; In the 1950s, when standardization of construction lead to uniform spaces, Ellwood countered this trend by spatially arranging materials with texture in one modular system and controlling them with the exposed beams. Through this, he created an architecture that gave rhythm to space. In the 1960s, Ellwood used various column spans, defining the appearance of buildings by exposing beams and columns on the outside, making for compositions that gave rhythm to the outside.
This analysis traces the change of the green area in the zoning of Seoul city planning during the 1960-80s to understand its morphological characteristics, as well as its relations to Seoul master plan. In 1966, the green areas were dispersed in the surrounding outer mountains, while in 1972, the scattered green areas were connected to form a ring-shape under the influence of limited development district, which was conceived as a green belt. In 1978, the linear green areas along the branches of the Han River were introduced to connect the Han River and the ring-shaped green areas. In the 1980's, the land development districts were so designated in the far ends of the green areas along the rivers that the network of the green areas along the rivers and the ring-shaped green area of the mountains were disconnetcted again. The former actually works as the 'edge' dividing the community units within the built-up area, while the latter prevents the built-up area from sprawl.
This paper aims to clarify the transition of the district division plan and the auction process of the residential lots in the Mokpo foreign settlement which is not analyzed so far in detail, through the analyses of the historical materials (official documents and old maps) left in Japan and South Korea. Furthermore, by using the “cadastres” and “cadastral maps” after 1912, it was revealed that the formative process of the typical townscape of the central block which was auctioned off first in 1898 had a close relationship with the changing process of its landholding pattern.
This paper examines influence of reconstruction plans for downtown's formation after great fires by focusing fireproof buildings belt's construction process in Odate city, Akita prefecture. Before the great fire in 1953, city and prefecture governments couldn't progress their legal city planning. But fireproof buildings belt, built by a reconstruction plan in 1954, actually protected the great fire in 1956. As a result, citizen's consciousness for fire prevention changed and national, prefecture and city government could promote their plan. It is present basis of Odate city's downtown. Reconstruction planning were useful for re-development of the downtown of Odate city.
I studied the damage of traditional wooden town houses roofs in 5 Groups of traditional buildings in the Kanto region during The Tohoku earthquake. The damage of roofs occurs over 5.4 of JMA seismic intensity. The damage of roofs occurs over 300 gal of the maximum ground acceleration.
Internships are beginning to be introduced to the curriculums in institutions of higher education. But the educational effect of the theory practice type internship is not clear. In this study, I grasp the educational effect of this type in architectural institutions of higher education, and clarify the impact of this satisfaction was given to the career choises of students. As a result, it has become clear that students who changed their future career had bad scholastic attainments, and they have dissatisfaction of diversity on internship training. And I find that students who have high dissatisfaction to the diversity were not been able to engage diverse works in fact. Design office tend to engage students to biased work, I find student dissatisfaction was revealed that not derived from business category.