We noticed the children's books as making their values about their dwellings and living environment. The purpose of this study is to clarify the information for children about the dwelling on the children's books and what children are interested in the books. First, we analized the theme of the children's books. And then, we investigated the 3-5 aged children. We studied the information about the dwelling that children are interested in. For the children, the books play vital roles to secure important source of information about the dwelling. The children pay their attentions to furniture, the elements of houses, building house, the construction, the consutruction site and the infrastructure.
This study presents a discussion, based on various case studies, on whether it is effective to adaptation of homes and living environments of persons with intellectual disability at home to enable them to cope with difficulties regarding excretion. The following are the results of the discussion: 1) A substantial number of housing adaptations have actually been implemented, enabling them to cope with difficulties related to excretion. Consequently, a few positive effects have been witnessed in terms of lessening of lifestyle difficulties, increased independence, and reduction in the amount of care required. 2) Many of the difficulties related to excretion are closely related to housing/environmental factors.
The purpose of this study is, as the elderly living in urban housing complex is the subject of this study, to examine the change of their living environments and the process of transition. The variation of their remodeling, such as the scale, number of times and timing in their lives, depends on the "stage of their ages" are examined in Part 2, The results are summarized as follows; 1) Interior renewal is main purpose of remodeling. Facility is the second and its percentage increases by the age of building. The number of remodeling increases in cases that the age of building is ten and more, and also that the age of the head of a family is fifty and more. 2) The number of times and the scale of remodeling are closely related with their financial circumstances. The people who do not have enough financial capability do not remodel their housing complex in seventies and above. 3) Though the timing of remodeling is mostly concentrated in "independence period", the scale and object of remodeling are different by the "stage of life cycle" to some extent, as the age of building varies by it.
The aim of this study is to analyze the phenomena of urban renewal of Dutch housing developments. This paper focuses on both physical and situational characteristics that distinguish exterior spaces. Firstly, 94 combinations of housing facades and open areas are classified into eleven types of sectional composition. Secondly, each of those sectional compositions is analyzed by examining exposed elements on the facade. As the result, it is revealed that the combination of housing facade and open area can be considered as the three-dimensional interrelationship that generates the situation of exterior spaces.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the psychological influence on students based on psychological impression and dimensional perception by changing ceiling height of classrooms. Three types of investigation were performed in classrooms of which ceiling heights are 3m, 2.7m and 2.4m. The results may be summarized as follows: 1. According to the open-ended questions to students, the most of first impression of classrooms which ceiling height are 2.4m and 2.7m were complaining about physiological discomfort. 2. The result of the questionaries showed that discomfortable impression for classrooms of which ceiling height is 2.7m, were decreased on the 4^<th> day of the investigation. 3. The ceiling height of 2.4m was perceived lower than the actual size, and that of 3m was perceived higher than the actual size.
The aim of this study is to find out characteristics of learning activities with sitting on the floor in elementary schools. A couple of survey methodology were introduced, i.e. interviews with school teachers and photograph collection of behavior settings of learning activities on the floor from actual classes, books, and homepages etc. Four kinds of the behavior settings were found from the collection of photographs. The results of this study are summarized as follows: 1) The learning activities with sitting on the floor have functional effect to teachers and psychological effect to pupils. 2) The configuration of sitting on the floor can be classified into several patterns in terms of three factors, i.e. learning activities, learning units and pupils' number.
The purpose of research is to clarify the behavioral characteristics of the visually impaired in model courses. Experimental courses were a straight course without any obstructions, and 6 kinds of bent course. Subjects were 5 totally blind pedestrians, 5 eye-masked pedestrians and 5 normal sighted pedestrians. The results were that, in bent course, walking time of the totally blind was twice as much as that of the normal sighted, while that of the eye-masked, 5 times as much as that of the normal sighted. The totally blind walked at a speed of 62% of the normal sighted in bent course, while the eye-masked, at a speed of 25% of the normal sighted. The number of stops of the eye-masked was 2.4 times as many as that of the totally blind in the bent course. The time of stops of the eye-masked was 2.5 times as much as that of the totally blind in the bent course.
As for arbitrary walking behavior of two people in the same crowd flow, the numerical value is analyzed by using relative distances, relative speed vectors, and relative accelerations according to the time series. The person walks back uses the person forward properly to keep an "Optimum Velocity". Therefore, two states of "Track Phase" and "Follow Phase" are used properly alternately. POV model (Pedestrian's Optimum Velocity model) is a function type in the analytic mechanics that considers the previous sentences, and the mathematical principle standard that the measurement data is appropriate to the POV model is given afterwards. This analytical unit will give quite simple pedestrian flow simulation platforms to architectural designers.
This study suggests an evaluation method of spatial configurations through the use of network indices based on human movement time in architectural space. First, an analysis method for the network that includes barrier elements (such as sliding doors, etc.) is created. Then, this method is applied to both virtual and actual spaces. Three indices (degree of scatter, variability of dispersion and detour index) are defined and calculated for each plan. As a result, the basic properties of each index are clarified and the designer's intents are shown quantitatively by these network indices.
The purpose of this paper is to grasp the present condition and trend and to consider matter and possibility of conversion from old fork house. The main results of this study are abstract as follows.・We found the conversion to a variety of uses.・Major instances are culture facilities and commercial institution. Welfare facilities can also be seen with a small number as the newest example.・To use conversion from old fork house have the merit of a friendly ambiance, low cost and brevity of construction period.
The purpose of this paper (part 2) is to show new community system adapted for aging society in mountainous regions, by investigating the community management area. We analyzed the relation between residents who maintain community function, and the residents' living area. Main results are as follows. In aging villages the community management area become small or the community organizations strengthen. On the contrary, in excessive aging villages that area becomes large because the residents require fellows who live another village to help their management. In the future it is needed that villages corporate each other and the areas are rearranged.
The purpose of this research paper is to discuss the characteristics of the modifications carried out on the Piazza Mattei fountain during 1584-1658. The results of my research were as follows: in accordance with the bloom of baroque art and the shift in the role of fountains in Rome, it became evident that there were fountain restorations carried out before 1658, and that a great number of the forms of the constitutive components of fountains, and the pathways of water flow, were transformed.
A proper type of building is essential to create a good urban form. Perimeter-shape blocks have been accepted in Western cities. Despite the general quality as urban architecture, they have never been common in Japanese cities partly because they face other than south and stand adjacent streets. The weakness can be overcome and turned to be valuable quality by cooperative design of buildings, streets and blocks. The case is on Makuhari Baytown, a newly developed 8900-unit residential district in Chiba coastal area, which completed urban quarters of housing blocks with street wall and courtyard. This paper discusses the practice of block architecture based on the Design Guidelines.
The purpose of this study is to clarify how a person recognizes a night view from skyscrapers as a fundamental study for the making of night-cityscape plan or guide-line. Therefore, firstly we clarify a clue and 'a night view image element (NIE)' for person to grasp a night-cityscape. Secondly we classify a night view from skyscrapers into types with 'a night view image element (NIE)' quantitatively. Thirdly we clarify a relation between 'a night view image element (NIE)' and an impression of a night view from skyscrapers.
We studied community funds by local government (cities and Tokyo special wards) in Japan in terms of its history and progress, and evaluated the current situation with the following criteria: "Outreach", "Empowerment", "Distribution of resources", "One-window system (cross-sectional)", "Coordinator", and "Consideration for powerless applicants". And we found the followings: (A) The systems of community funds by local government get complicated in terms of relationship between local government and awarded organization, the system of fund-raising, and the consideration of maturity. (B) Most of the funds do not have institutional outreach and empowerment systems. Therefore, coordinator and city office should cooperate to have the systems to foster stronger communities.
To create comfortable and beautiful urban space, harmony of ordinary buildings is more significant than single masterpieces. Developers and architects need to be conscious with urban architecture in their practice. This paper discusses design coordination that realizes collective architecture by means of design review and negotiation. A case study is on Makuhari Baytown, newly developed 8900-unit residential district in Chiba coastal area. Chiba Prefecture, the primary developer, appointed two Project Supervisors and seven Urban Designers to organize a design coordination system which involved public-private collaboration in urban design and which led developers and architects to improve their building schemes into urban architecture.
The land-use type has been limited to 2 kinds in the stochastic model already proposed. We try to formulate the model in which we can handle in the case over 3 kinds. The F-function in multiple land-use types is reformulated because the function decides the state transition and the equilibrium of the city. We propose a numerical calculation method for estimating the equilibrium of the land-use ratio. Using this method we also show that the properties shown theoretically in the basic model maintain even in the generalized model.
Recently, an active relation between the university and its surroundings has become an issue of increasing importance in the field of Campus Planning. The purpose of this paper is to examine the planning process relation between the university and the region. The town and gown relationship is a necessary condition for sustainable development, considering the needs both for the university and the city as well. In order to achieve a proper condition, it is necessary to establish a close relationship between the Campus Master Plan and the City Master Plan, dealing with physical factors within the planning process. As a successful example of town and gown relationship, the case of the University of California Davis and the City of Davis is reviewed in this study. After analyzing this case, three key points were particularly clear concerning the framework of the town and gown relationship's requirements: 1) Extensive and holistic planning points of view; 2) A process of consensus building and planning system, connected with the Campus Master Plan; 3) A planning character with interaction, connectivity, revision process and community participation.
In order to further enrich education about the community at high schools, the aim of this report is to make it clear how high schools recognize their surrounding area. As the method of research, I sent questionnaires by mail to all national and public high schools in Japan. (The investigation period was performed from August, 2002 to September. The number of effective recoveries was 2292 votes, and the recovery rate was 55.6%) The results are as follows. 1) The range of present which has regarded the area as a school was not numerical, and the high school regarded as a region had reached to 60 percent. 2) By improving the school's level of understanding about their surrounding area, students come to understand their community better; and in addition to this, the degree of how favorably the people living in the surrounding area regard the school itself, also tends to increase.
In these days, the construction industry is increasingly internationalized. Especially in the region of Southeast Asia, there are more opportunities in which companies from various countries collaborate in a project. On the other hand, a lot of problems are caused by the differences and conflicts among project management system in Japanese style and in Western style. The aim of this study is, as a part of international comparative study on project management, to clarify the characteristics of the construction system in South Korea. In this paper, current situation of the construction industry in South Korean, including related regulations, procurement system, is shown and discussed, so that the differences between construction supervision in Japan and the one in South Korea are obtained clearly.
The spectacular productivity gains achieved from Quality Control Circle (QCC) by Japanese firms have attracted the attention of many other authorities who are now looking for ways to apply the concept in their own countries and companies. In China, the National Productivity Board has directed its effort towards a national wide use of QCC. Support comes from the highest levels of the government hierarchy. QCC have been claimed to be effective in improving quality of products, increasing productivity, improving skills level, motivating workers and enhancing morale. However, while some have reported that QCC worked well in their companies, others reported that their attempts to use the QCC concept had failed. How successful companies have implemented QCC in their companies and what unique characteristics their circles possess is studied. A comparison of the use of the QCC concept in construction industry and production industry, supported with a sample of case studies, is also presented.
This paper deals with the use of beams over standard span long about town houses in Kyoto through Edo period. Commonly, the restriction on the use of beams over standard span long was confirmed with farmhouses, but not confirmed with townhouses in Kyoto. This paper aims to clarify the reason of this distinction. After that, the town houses were exempted from restriction for these houses have no beams come under restriction.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the origin of a "Kozu ryochumon" and a "Ryochumon-zu". It is known that Natari Sawada described a famous bird's view drawing about "shinden-zukuri" based on these two drawings. This study checks two drawings in a "Honkaimon-shinkaimon-zu" were drawn by Hisatsune Kujo around 1524, and they were drawings of two resident buildings where Kujo-family was livinig in ancient and medieval times. This study suggests both "Kozu ryochumon" and "Ryochumon-zu" were unrelated with the "Honkaimon-shinkaimon-zu". It is possible that Kozen Uramatsu was not the author of them and he only reproduced them in his "Inkyu-oyobi-shitei-zu".
In this research, several residences of Sumiyoshi village and arrangement of the community space were made clear. The farms of the village started changing to residential area in the Meiji era. The community space was made in the place where it was far from the station. At the Taishoera, also the mountains and forests started changing to residential area. Many new residents were frequenting the Kannon bayashi club. People's community spread at the Kannon bayashi club. The new residents related to the establishment of all community spaces of Sumiyoshi village. As a result, the new residents related to the establishment of all community spaces of Sumiyoshi village.
In Finland many wooden churches were built in the 17^<th> and 18^<th> centuries. They are all comer-timbered buildings. The buildings, which I am interested in, have been built in the block-pillar style. Professor N. E. Wickwerg wrote in his book that the block-pillar style is very valuable from the architectural and artistic point of view. According to Wickberg, block-pillar churches were built only in the Bothnian area, mainly on the west coast of Finland. The corner-timbered building style was suitable for a normal house, but it was not originally suitable for the church with a large interior space. The block-pillar style solved this problem with a highly developed technique. It was constructed by block-pillars connected to beams and also A-shaped roof trusses. With this construction technique, the block-pillar style made long walls and high wooden vaults possible. I think that this technique was epoch-making advancement in the history of the Finnish wooden churches.
In general, the hight of the pedestal of the superimposed order accords with the hight of the window parapet. But it is not true of the giant order. Therefore, to keep the accordance with the hight of the parapet, Bernini uses sometimes compressed socle, sometimes thick plinth in place of the pedestal for his giant order. In doing so, Bernini reconciles the unity of the building and the clear expression of the interior spatial division in its facade (the former through the giant order and through the continuation of the parapet, the latter through the direct indication of the floor level).
"Museum of Modem Art, Kamakura" designed by Junzo Sakakura is one of the most representative modern buildings in Japan. "The purpose of this paper is to clarify the proportion by means of the analysis on the geometry 1. Elevation: influence from Le Corbusier, similarity to Katsura Rikyu Imperial Villa and the development of Japanese pavilion in Paris Expo 2. Section: extraction of module 3. Perspective: relationship with Kamakura Hachimangu shrine 4. Landscape: comparison with Katsura Rikyu Imperial Villa