In urban center of Tokyo, many large-scale underground shopping malls have been developed. However, usually they have many difficulties for evacuation, especially in the event of a fire. The reason is that those malls are usually in complex spatial composition and the location of exits are not always optimum because buildings and roads are located densely above ground and location of exits are restricted. And this causes difficulty in evacuation especially for unfamiliar users to grasp the location of the nearest exit and select the correct route. An evacuation experiment has been conducted with 79 subjects at an underground shopping mall in the central city of Tokyo in 2006. In this experiment, some examinees did not select a correct route to the nearest exit, or did not reach exits although they have approached these exits, because they could not recognize them. In this paper, we clarified the factors which govern the success or failure of evacuation to the nearest exit by the correct route through analyzing this experiment focusing on the direction selection at an intersection and reaching or passing over exits. Firstly, the factors having influence on reaching an exit are analyzed. We revealed that when other examinees evacuating forward are reaching an exit, following examinees can reach at the exit with high probability. On the other hand, when an examinee evacuates alone, probability of reaching an exit is governed by integrating value of the view factor between the examinee and the exit. The view factor is decided by the width of the exit and the passage, and approaching direction of the exit. From this analysis, it is confirmed that the state of brightness and guide light have little influence for reaching at an exit. Secondly, the factors which govern the selection of the correct route at the intersection are analyzed. We obtained the estimation formula through logistic regression analysis, and we revealed the width and direction of the correct routes and other examinees' selections has influence on correct route selection on following evacuees. As a result, following results are acquired. 1. If other examinees evacuating forward reached an exit, the following evacuee can also reach the exit in all probability. 2. When an examinee evacuates alone, the probability of reaching an exit depends on the positional relation between the examinee and the exit. 3. The probability of examinees selection of the correct route depends on the width and direction of the correct route at the intersection and the route selection of forward evacuees.
Provision of prefabricated temporary housings was the major solution to accommodate displaced people in the aftermath of a disaster. But in the Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred in 2011, provision of temporary rental assistance was also adopted, and applied in such large scale for the first time in Japan. Since temporary rental assistance is a mechanism that utilizes private housing stock, there is a concern about the influence on population outflow in the local cities with high homeownership rate. The purpose of this research is to clarify the factors in making the decisions for housing recovery from the disaster, focusing the influence of residential situation of temporary housing and the actual situation of the change of their family member, based on the statistical sounding data of all victims in Shichigamahama Town, Miyagi prefecture.
With paying attention to security of personal information, it were analyzed the anonymized data, which includes the Intention of Housing Recovery Options System and related partial data of Basic Resident Register, obtained from Shichigahama Town. The survey about Selection of Housing Recovery Options was conducted in July 2011, in February 2012, and in June 2013 about the provisional application. In addition, the survey of December 2015 was used as the final intention data.
It was found that the factors to stay same site with recovering their own house is connecting the regulation of land use and the residential situation of temporary housing tightly. Those who used temporary rental assistance tend to rebuild their houses outside the town. Focusing on the separation of households, many households kept its size, however, some of those separated their household during temporary housing divided its members at the time of recovery. In case of the household with many members, there were households that used two prefabricated temporary housing or two tentative private rental housings in separate place as a temporary-living; in the latter case, the ratio of household separation eventually increased. It is conceivable that it is difficult to summarize the opinions because of large physical distances.
During the reconstruction phase after the Great East Japan Earthquake, there has been a debate how to respond to the risk of cataclysmic disaster like tsunami. Our research showed that the risk-sensitive land use regulation had influence on the households' decision making where to rebuild their house. Furthermore, it is also shown that the possibility of some relevance between the situation in the temporary period and the housing recovery opinions. Temporary rental assistance is an important policy to make useful use of already existing stocks, but it is important to properly operate according to local circumstances.
A dualistic system of private urban housing renewal consisting of marketized “Old City Renewal” and government voluntary “Dilapidated Urban Housing Renewal” has been established in China since 2015. Focusing on the latter DUHR mode, this study aims to identify its problems from the perspective of financing pattern. Jinshou Project in Zhoushan is selected as a representative case to clarify the DUHR mode in Zhejiang Province. Through analyzing the statistics of project funding, this paper argues that the DUHR mode completely relies on public funding, and is hard to tackle the increasing number of dilapidated housing.
This paper takes Shengli Village which is a traditional Manchu village in northeastern China as the research object, focuses on the relationship among Manchu residence’s plane, family types and the daily activities, and tries to adopt an empirical analysis of the functions and roles of bedroom and other rooms. It aims to sort the changes which have taken in people’s needs and lifestyles with the transformation process of the residence’s plan. And clarify the inheritance and the changing state of traditional lifestyle that the bedroom as the center in Manchu village.
A social welfare council is located as the organization promoting community welfare, and has worked on home-visit care and day care services etc. in the wide areas including the rural areas. In addition, the number of social welfare councils establishing day care facility, multifunctional long term care in a small group home, group home and so on by their own has increased since 2000 when nursing care insurance system was introduced. It is an important issue to verify facility establishment effects by a social welfare council in mountainous areas in considering the prospect of securing bearers of welfare services for the elderly. Therefore, this paper aims to clarify the management methods and establishment efforts of the aged person's welfare facilities managed by the social welfare councils by analysis on establishment history and process. The results are as follows. 1) Elderly welfare facility management related business accounts for 8.2% in all business of social welfare councils in Chugoku area. Management of day care facilities is the most, but management of multifunctional long term care in a small group home and group home has increased since 2000. Almost social welfare councils managed the facilities established by the local governments before 2000. On the other hand, many social welfare councils establish the facilities by their own as they incorporate the requests of the residents after 2000. 2) 8 social welfare councils manage the welfare facilities. There is no effect of rising the service level by social welfare council in the old cities, because the private section corporations established many facilities. However, there is effect of rising the service level by social welfare council in the old towns and villages, because the private section corporations established a few facilities. From the above, many social welfare councils were charged with the facility management from the local governments before 2000. On the other hand, they established the facility by their own by cooperation with residents after 2000 when nursing care insurance system was introduced. So, the roles of them in the establishment and management of the facilities have changed. It is characteristics that they established the facilities by using the existing facilities and lands owned the local governments and private houses donated by the residents, and cooperation with the residents and local governments affects promoting the facility establishment by social welfare councils in the future. The day care facilities were established in each area before the merger of Meiji era, and service level rises in mountainous and islands areas especially. It is possible to manage the welfare facilities in the rural area by reducing the cost of establishment using existing buildings and managing plural facilities.
In recent years, the use of wood is increasing in nursery facilities such as kindergartens and nursery schools. It is necessary to clarify the effect on childcare by using wood. We pay attention to interior materials that children can see and touch the wooden materials directly. We clarified that the childcare guidance method and the evaluation of the child's condition differ according to the interior wood quality ratio by using a questionnaire. The main results are as follows.
a) The actual condition of interior wooden finish When 50% of wood is used on the floor/ceiling surface, we showed that the interior of nursery room is made of wooden finish. The specification is to use flooring on the floor surface and some wooden materials on the ceiling surface. However, the wooden proportion of wooden facilities does not necessarily increase from the limitation of “NAISHO FUNEN”. Also, when 40% of wood is used on the Wall surface, we showed that the interior of nursery room is made of wooden finish. Its specifications not only make the wainscot a wood finish but also make furniture and the like a wood finish.
b) The Consciousness of using by Child care workers and teachers Child care worker and teacher are struggling to cope with scratches, hanging, and slipperiness of wood. In order to use the wood in the nursery room, guidance on these maintenances is necessary. The wood finish was used on the ceiling surface rather than the wall surface, the impression of the nursery room improved.
c) Influence on childcare In the nursery room of 3-5-year-old, compared with the interior of wooden finish and half-wooden finish, the percentage of answers that the situation of "Difficulty concentrating attention" and "Sleepiness and tiredness" can be seen in the interior of non-wooden finish is 8 to 14% it was high. In the 0-2-year-old nursery room, there is no difference in evaluations by the child care workers and teachers in the interior of wooden finish compared with the 3-5-year-old nursery room. Also, from the viewpoint of the child care workers and teachers, the percentage of respondents say that the influence of interior of wooden finish is seen in terms of "calm down, not get injured, no stress, concentration”. Like the impression of the nursery room, the evaluation by the child care workers and teachers is higher for the interior of wooden finish to ceilings and floor surfaces. It is seen that the influence on the behavior of the child develops into play by touching the finish off the tree and smelling the smell and grain. Therefore, it is better to select the materials based on the feel, smell, and grain of the wood.
Nowadays, zoos are expected to provide facilities that place importance on the living environment of the animals, which should belong in their natural habitats. In a wild rainforest where chimpanzee's live, understories surround tall trees exceeding 20m in height. Chimpanzees, which are semi-arboreal animals, use them when transferring themselves between the treetop and the ground. At the outdoor chimpanzee facility in the Sapporo Maruyama Zoo, ropes, logs, imitation trees were additionally installed as understory substitutes around the tower, that was introduced for environmental enrichment. The objective of this research is to measure the changes in the behavior of the chimpanzees going up and down the tower caused by the additional elements, reveal its causes, and determine what spatial elements around the base of the tower are effective in guiding the animals up the tower. We conducted a behavioral study focusing on the elements used by the chimpanzees during arboreal locomotion on the tower at Sapporo Maruyama Zoo. We separated the tower from its form and its materials into its components, and measured how frequently the tower elements had been used, position of going up and down the tower and trigger elements according to their age. As a result, it was discovered that the imitation tree side platforms, logs and gently inclined ropes that were additionally installed around the tower, were highly influential as they were used by the chimpanzees as an opportunity to move up and down the tower. In particular, by placing a side platform on the left side of the base of the tower, it made it easier to go up and down the tower, increased going up and down the tower from the left, and increased the number of movements by the adults. The logs with gentle inclinations subtending less than 40° with the ground were mainly used for the ascents. Also, the ropes inclined at approximately 25° allowed the intersecting ropes to be used in combination and the usage of the ropes as a whole was increased. Direct climbing of the column ceased, as other handholds were now available in the surrounding area. Moreover, the two ropes connecting the exit from the room to the tower were frequently used as a means of aerial movement instead of using the ground. For the Adult group, there was no change in the basic behavior of climbing the tower by using mainly the columns and the composite materials (beams, piers and decks). However, they began to use the side platforms and logs en route to the column. Also, the object they grasped for support in the beginning changed from the thick pipes to the horizontal ropes. In contrast, the Young group showed a major change in the element usage itself, where they used to descend to the ground via the columns, but now they have changed to jumping off the horizontal ropes using its momentum. From the above, the following four spatial elements around the base of the tower were found to be effective in guiding the animals up the tower: 1. Placing a solid footing by the base of the tower. It should be positioned such that the distance between the footing and the objects on the tower that can be grasped is less than the height of the chimpanzee. 2. Install a slip-resistant diagonal members inclined at less than 40° to the ground with handholds, such as logs with bark. 3. Place ropes arranged so that they intersect with each other. The inclination of the horizontal ropes should be no more than 25°. 4. Install an aerial path to the tower without coming down to the ground.
A current issue in Japan is building sustainable living environments in light of its shrinking and aging population. Depopulated regions in particular have seen significant declines in birthrates, and face the problem of the consolidation and closure of elementary schools. There are fears that the withdrawal of schools from an area may impoverish the region and make for less sustainable living. Meanwhile, the issue of school consolidation has triggered the development of resident-led efforts for regional preservation in various areas, and these efforts have been recognized as forming part of sustainable living support infrastructure. Accordingly, this study looked at elementary schools with a rural village student-family schooling system to sustain elementary schools and their surrounding regions for the purpose of clarifying the actual conditions of these schemes, and conducted a survey of three areas with a comparatively good record for such a scheme on a national level. The study produced the following findings. 1. The study clarified the processes and operating structures of village schooling schemes in the three areas, from inception to the present. One feature shared by all three areas is that the region's residents participated in the village schooling activities, and got involved with a sense of being interested parties to the scheme. Another characteristic is that the organizational structure is inherent in the three areas, and the members of the organization differs depending on the activity history. 2. As a feature of the content of the initiatives, each organization has a common point in interviewing, offering houses, life counselling and introducing work at the start of schooling. Next, at the stage of the start of schooling, matches such as entrance examination and interview of decision to join schooling system are made by the organization. Thirdly, there are two types of houses to be offered: " Houses for newcomers (vacant houses used)" and " Houses exclusively for mountain village schooling families (public housing)". In the latter, there are one that utilizes existing public housing and the other is newly constructed. 3. The schemes can be considered to have a certain effect towards sustaining schools, as the numbers of pupils at elementary schools were maintained through village schooling students. In addition, part of the improvement of regional power was caught, as the accumulation power of building resources has increased due to the continuation of schools and the utilization of vacant houses, and the formation organization of residents' organizations has improved due to the formation of three groups. However, further research is necessary as to whether the operation of the rural village schooling system will lead to the community sustainable.
In this research, we carried out verification experiments by actually installing doors, as there are few pieces of research including door operation of simple type toilets for wheelchair user up to now. Although the verification space was based on the barrier-free law design standard, the recommended sliding doors could not be installed in the simple type toilet booth for wheelchair users due to its limited space, the outward-swinging door or the folding door is usually adopted. However, they are complicated in operation as compared with sliding doors, and furthermore, a dead space forms inside and outside the booth during the door operation, especially for the folding doors; it is also envisaged that the inner sizes indicated in the design standards cannot be fully utilized. Therefore, we prepared a toilet with outward-swinging door and folding door installed in front of the toilet seat as well as on the lateral side of the toilet seat respectively. Meanwhile, to clarify the influence on a stream of movements when using toilet due to the different door type and the necessary space for wheelchair user inside the booth, we invited 12 men and women in their 20s to 80s with various physical characteristics. We divided them into groups according to their moving or driving methods, standing postures, sitting postures, transfer methods, and the like. We found the results as follows. (1) In the case of an outward-swinging door, ample space is required outside the toilet booth to avoid contact between the door and the wheelchair (including the walker) during door operation from the outside of the toilet booth. Besides, since the operation is performed with the forward leaning posture to avoid the contact, there are cases that those in unstable sitting posture cannot use the toilet properly. Also, there is a need for an easy-to-operate lock for users with disabilities in their fingers. (2) In the case of folding doors, a dead space forms inside the toilet booth so that it may need an inner space broader than that of outward-swinging doors. However, the influence of the dead space is small for those booths if the size indicated in the design standard considering the transfer is secured. Besides, we found that folding doors are efficient in simple type toilet booth with limited space for wheelchair users. As for the case of a folding door, even those who are unstable in sitting posture and challenging to operate outward-swinging door can perform door operation without problems. However, since the wheelchair position is limited to avoid contact between the door and the wheelchair during the door operation, it is difficult to avoid the dead space as well as to perform switching operation of a folding door in case of low wheelchair operating ability. (3) In the standing position transfer group, since a space for raising oneself up during transfer is required, an area more spacious than the sitting position transfer group is required. (4) Even for a toilet booth with the same type of door installed, a stream of movements when using the toilet are different between the side entrance and the front entrance, and the space required is also dissimilar. In particular, in the B, C, and D standing position transfer groups, there is a tendency for those who enter from the front side requiring a broader space than those of entering from the side entrance. Also, it is apparent that those who enter from the side entrance could move smoothly because the rotation of one's body at the time of transfer is small.
This paper analyzed how Jizo-Bon, small-scale religious festivals held widely in Kyoto, contributes for improving resilience of “cho”, the basic communities in the central urban area of Kyoto. We clarified that inhabitants who has no involvement or quite limited involvement to “cho-nai-kai”, community management associations are joining management of Jizo-Bon. The result means Jizo-Bon is an opportunity for inhabitants to be involved in “cho” except for “cho-nai-kai”. In addition, it means Jizo-Bon provide “cho” with “redundancy”, another key factor of resilient communities in addition to “diversity”. We also clarified that it is caused with characteristics of Jizo-Bon described as follows.
1. Distribution of management loads to various inhabitants Loads for management of Jizo-Bon are distributed to the extent that each inhabitant can bear them. For example, people can join in the management only with "arranging place", "supporting events on the day" which is easier to bear than other roles as "manager of Jizoubon", "preparing for events" etc. It is also clarified that inhabitants who are usually difficult to be involved in communities as those who are not belong to "cho-nai-kai", those who moved in "cho" recently, single old inhabitants and apartment inhabitants participate in Jizo-Bon. It means Jizo-Bon contribute to "Diversity" of "cho". It is expected that the people involved in Jizo-Bon management to make roles also in "cho-nai-kai" in the future. However, the people differentiate the former involvement from the later as far as we analyzed in this paper. That make it possible the people who cannot bear much loads of "cho-nai-kai" management to be involved in "cho".
2. Flexible meaning corresponded with community situation Meaning of Jizo-Bon is flexible corresponding with situation of communities and people can join in it with their own purpose or motivation. The recognition about Jizo-Bon is different in the two "cho" communities selected as survey area in this paper. Inhabitants in "A cho", a community managed mainly by people who are living there for long term, recognize Jizo-Bon as "religious events" and "traditional events". On the other hand, inhabitants in "B cho", a community including people who moved in "cho" recently, don't recognize as "A cho" and accept it as rather for "communication among inhabitants" and "fan of inhabitants". It means that Jizo-Bon is sustaining by adding or changing meaning of itself corresponding with characters of community as its population structure.
In addition, we also clarified that Jizo-Bon is an opportunity for people who moved inside the city to become familiar with their new community because Jizo-Bon is held widely in the urban area of Kyoto. The image of Jizo-Bon shared among citizens seems to be a key factor making it possible for various inhabitant to join and collaboratory manage it.
Jizo-Bon is a resource which provide various inhabitants with opportunity to involve in communities depending on their situation and interest. It is precious especially in the context in which decrease of interest and lack of manpower for community management is serious problem. On the other hand, once Jizo-Bon is lost, it is difficult to restore because the characteristics of Jizo-Bon we clarified in this paper is acquired through long-term experience. It is necessary to advocate and measure for conserving Jizo-Bon for the future.
The capital Kabul is growing at a fast pace than any other city in Afghanistan, it experienced a dramatic expansion over the past decade. The population has increased by almost 10% per year which caused a significant increase in the number of slums, as an unwanted consequence today informal settlements have covered about more than 69% of the city. This paper explains an afghan model of Land Readjustment which applied on an informal settlement area of Kabul with a very minimum compensation and contribution ratio. It appeared more applicable due to the preservation of historical buildings and low destruction cost.
Other people's support is essential for vulnerable people to evacuate as fast as possible when attacked by Tsunami. Therefore, it is important to consider transport routes and transport methods in Tsunami evacuation tower. The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze the transport velocity evacuation supporters carried a vulnerable person to evacuate from Tsunami in Tsunami evacuation tower. For that, we carried out a transport experiment at 1st Tsunami evacuation tower in Kochi Prefecture. We used 5 transport methods (wheelchair, transport chair, rollator, simple stretcher and shoulder) and 3 transport routes (straight line slope, spiral slope and stairs) in this transport experiment. As a result, regarding transport method, the average velocity is fast in the order of wheelchair, transport chair and rollator in straight line slope and spiral slope. In stairs, average velocity is fast in the order of shoulder, simple stretcher and wheelchair. However, more than half of female subject discontinued this transport experiment by shoulder. Considering the safety of evacuation supporters, simple stretcher is the best transport methods in stairs. As for transport route, spiral slope is the best transport route of all routes. According to questionnaire, regarding transport methods, physical burden index is high in the order of wheelchair, transport chair and rollator in straight line slope and spiral slope. In stairs, physical burden index is high in the order of simple stretcher, wheelchair and shoulder. As for transport route, it found that physical burden index is high in the order of spiral slope, straight line slope and stairs. Taking every factor into consideration, transporting vulnerable people by using wheelchair in spiral slope is the best way to evacuate in Tsunami evacuation tower. In addition, this study derived the transport time formula based on the experiment result and previous studies. And we calculated transport time in various cases by this formula. Consequently, it was found that evacuation can be done smoothly by using only spiral slope or stairs and spiral slope. But, in case of disaster, there is a risk of being crowd with many evacuees due to the narrowness of transport route width and the slow transport velocity. For these reasons, accurate evacuation guidance is very important to evacuate smoothly when disaster occurs. Finally it was found that evacuation can be done smoothly by properly guiding the evacuation supporters and their vulnerable person to evacuate on spiral slope by using wheelchair and a healthy person to evacuate on stairs. For that, it is necessary to study how to introduce accurate evacuation guidance. In order to effectively establish the Tsunami evacuation tower plan for vulnerable people in case of disaster, it is required to review factors influencing transport velocity and evacuation routes.
The paper deals with the exterior design of townhouses in an urban block of the eastern part of Bhaktapur in Kathmandu Valley registered as a World Cultural Heritage site in 1979. The paper consists of following five steps. 1) First and the most important purpose is to provide analysis method to determine typical combination among exterior design elements of Nepali townhouses. By adopting the Multiple Correspondence Analysis (or Mathematical Quantification Theory Category III is equivalent also) and Cluster Analysis, 118 samples are grouped into 13 clusters. 2) Secondly, in the preceding paper, authors proposed the idea called "eaves types". It was meant to discern the developing process of Nepali townhouses between extension of storeys and total reconstruction. Although we showed the pitched eaves types and flat eaves experience different development, we had not yet reached to describe the concrete facade classification of eaves types. The paper tries to present variation of exterior design of eaves types. 3) Several clusters derived from analysis show different characteristics of facade though sometimes they belong to the same eaves type. For 3F, 4F pitched eaves type and 3F, 4F flat eaves type, the analysis results in finding both traditional sophisticated design and contemporary one. What's more, cluster 8 regarded as one with the most traditional style contains both typical old townhouses and newly rebuilt guesthouse-like ones. This may suggest that recent exterior design of guesthouses are similar to that of traditional townhouses 4) Every cluster properly corresponds to the structure excluded from item-category type data. Clusters with flat eaves correspond chiefly to confined masonry followed by mixed structure with masonry and RCC slabs. As for affected condition by 2015 earthquake, all the three clusters within 3F no eaves type came under the category "partially destroyed". 5) Finally after clustering, all samples were put into the original plots on the map. Facades of townhouses along streets tend to maintain traditional exterior design elements as opposed to the facades inside courtyards, which would normally take on modest external appearance. There are also several variations of facades ranging somewhere between traditional and simple modern exterior design. Townhouses with such marginal designs are scattered along streets, in alleys and inside courtyards. In this way, most of clusters can be related to certain locations in correspondence with their exterior designs. This would help a designer/ planner to reflect how they should compose a proper facade once they get involved in reconstruction works of townhouses after the earthquake.
In this research, we investigated the food desert in central Tokyo, where economic disparity was progressing by gentrification. Growth of high-income population due to redevelopments induced an increase in luxury supermarkets and a decrease in local grocery stores, which made worsened low-income households access to affordable fresh food. Therefore, we took questionnaire surveys and analyzed on the following 2 aspects.
(1) Shopping distance We hypothesized that the low-income households have difficulties shopping due to having to go to distant supermarkets. Generally, it is said to be difficult to access if the shopping distance over 500m. In the study area the average to the store was 319m, so the food access was apparently good. But actually, it was different by area, some area had only luxury supermarkets within 500m, we named “unaffordable food access area”. The low-income households living there went to distant supermarkets by bicycle or bus instead of walking. One-third of them used farther away, over 2km supermarkets. The result of the hypothesis was that the low-income households living in “unaffordable food access area” went shopping to distant stores. Thus, they had difficulties accessing to affordable food.
(2) Nutritional risk We hypothesized that the low-income households shopping long distance increase risk of low nutritional value diets. The elderly and low-income households living in “unaffordable food access area” had a 1.76 times higher nutritional risk than the other participants. Multiple regression analysis showed that the cause was not only social networks and personal habits, but also inconvenient shopping circumstances peculiar to urban areas. In addition, traveling long distances to go shopping resulted in a decrease in purchase volume and frequency. The results of this research indicate that the assessment of the proximity of shopping should consider the accessibility by not only the physical distance but also the households income. Furthermore, the results indicate that traveling long distances to go shopping have a negative influence on purchase volume and frequency, so even if bicycles and public transportation can be used in the area, we should evaluate shopping circumstances by considering shopping behavior.
This paper makes a contribution to make clear characteristics of construction project, through the provision of a perspective from fundamental creation process, where principles of academic discussion.
The elements of every aspect of architecture are complicated. There are many stakeholders involved in construction projects, such as clients, tenants, visitors, architects, structural designers and engineers, landscape architects, interior designers, electrical and mechanical engineers, and every role is intricate and complex. For example, an architect must understand (or even take on) the roles of the designer, engineer, coordinator, manager and negotiator, with the interfaces between each role being complex. Then, every project has different conditions, because each project has a different context, site, regulation and policy. At same time, it needs to be understood that the main function of each architecture type is completely different from others. To address this a generalized understanding of architecture design and associated processes is required, which may be applicable to other types of products and services.
The fundamental design process that governs the development of products of all types is of course applicable to the disciplines of architecture and engineering. Principles of creation process apply to both complex products such as buildings and also mass-produced products such as automobiles or cameras. It is possible to understand that designers make some design-information to create all of products, and important to analyze these design-information to understand the characteristics of those products. By adopting a design-information view of industries, it is proposed that product structure may be a significant factor in determining the industrial sectors in which firms are more likely to exhibit competitive performance. The design-information view of industries considers a product as being design-information that is embodied in a particular medium or material. Products comprise physical components, functional elements and interfaces between interacting physical components. A productive resource is considered to be an information asset and the production process is regarded as a system of productive resources. Production or commercial manufacture is then considered as the repeated transfer of design-information from the production process to a material or medium.
There is clearly a difference between mass produced products such as automobiles and large complex one-off projects relating to construction. However, the orientation that is based upon creation process can be seen in such complex product systems too, comparing for example a skyscraper and an automobile, with the design and coordination lead provided by architects for the former, and engineers for the later. This idea comes from the other academic fields originally, and can make clear the fundamental purpose of creation.
This paper analyzes rectangular columns, rectangular cross section columns, in “Minka”, vernacular houses. The subject to research is rectangular columns in 227 vernacular houses designated as Important Cultural Properties. rectangular column's ratio of long side to short side in this paper is over 1.2 to 1. Three purposes in rectangular column are revealed as below. First main purpose is aim of design which the carpenters pretended to be thick column while conserving materials. Rectangular columns are distributed in “Doma”, which is earth floored area, “Hiroma”, which is living room, beside entrance of “Doma”, or in outside appearance. The places which rectangular columns are distributed among vernacular houses designated as Important Cultural Properties are "Doma" (13%), "Hiroma"(5%), appearance(6%), "Zashiki"(2%), guest room. A large number of rectangular columns exist in east area of Japan and Mid-Edo period. In this case, average ratio of long side to short side is 1.28 to 1. Second purpose is low accuracy of carpenter's process. In this case, directions of rectangular columns in vernacular houses are not systematic, namely long side of rectangular columns are not all front. Third purpose is to adjust width of column to “Tatamiwari”, which is the system to adjust bays of columns to dimensions of “Tatami”, which is floor covering mat. This purpose is due to construction method mainly, however this is also due to design to pretend to be thick column. A large number of rectangular columns exist in east area of Japan and Mid-Edo period.
From ancient times, mountains have been worshiped in Japan. Mt. Fuji is archetypal, and the huts that served its pilgrims can be regarded as the original form of current mountain huts. Since Mt. Fuji became a World Cultural Heritage site, its huts are required to be historically based. We examined and confirmed the establishment and form of Mt. Fuji's mountain huts, specifically, the stone huts on the Yoshida trail. They were built in the early Edo era and developed with the flourish of worship ascents by Fuji-ko societies. Then, we expanded our scope to the Omiya-Murayama, Suyama and Subashiri trails that were mainly used with the Yoshida trail since the Middle Ages. They have their own geographical and historical backgrounds. We examined historical materials and clarified the owners, location and form of the mountain huts (teahouses and stone huts) on each trail and the summit they serviced. We focused on these huts in relation to three areas on Mt. Fuji: Kusayama, Kiyama and Yakeyama. The huts were owned by Murayama Sanbo (three lodges for priests) on the Omiya-Murayama trail and by each village's oshi at the foot of Mt. Fuji on the other trails. Hyakusho managed and built the huts. On the summit, there were two temples surrounded by stone huts. Dainichido temple was managed by Murayama Sanbo and Yakushido temple by Subashiri villagers. Bids were taken for management of the stone huts in the latter. On each trail, the teahouses were in the Kusayama and Kiyama areas and the stone huts were in the Yakeyama area. On three trails excluding Yoshida, stations 1 to 9 were established to conduct mountain ascetic practices on Yakeyama. This suggests that Yakeyama was the most sacred and harshest environment, resulting in being referred to as the “Honzan” (main mountain of worship ascents). The huts were planned and built after natural disasters, such as the Hoei eruption and avalanches, or before Koshingoennen (a special year celebrated every 60 years) by the rulers, Murayama Sanbo and oshi. We found similarities of huts' location between the Omiya-Murayama and Suyama trails flourished till the early Edo era by Shugen-do, and the Subashiri and Yoshida trails flourished in the late Edo era by Fuji-ko. Depending on the trail, the teahouses had the same roofs as temples and shrines or houses in the village at the foot of Mt. Fuji. The Omiya-Murayama and Yoshida trails were managed by bo or oshi, a type of priest, and the Suyama and Subashiri trails were managed by oshi who belonged to the hyakusho class. The teahouses were made of the same materials and shapes used by the rulers' class or the villages they dominated. The scenery of the villages was continuously expanded to Kusayama and Kiyama. On the other hand, the stone huts in Yakeyama had the same form on all the trails. They had a wooden frame structure, hirairi, piled up cinders on the kiritsuma roof and around the walls and one or two entrances facing the trail. They came into sight on the boundary of Kiyama and Yakeyama, and their forms were unified like the mountain itself. Not only was the form of the stone huts unusual, but the way in which they came into being, with each owner locating and preparing suitable sites in three areas, made the stone huts a symbol of worship ascents on Mt. Fuji. In addition, about 8-16 stone huts on the summit that were used not as lodgings, but as teahouses, were lined with a tsumairi façade. It created a unique scene that was not seen on the trails.
When designing buildings, architectural designers interprets traditional Japanese values that exist from the past such as transient four seasons, traditional islands' culture, Buddhism sprit and ritual or event keeping people from interacting of Japan on their own and reflect to their design. The potential “Japaneseness” are exposed in buildings created through such processes, thus buildings have various aspects, and it is especially shown in text description of buildings. In this research, the objective is to reveal how architectural designers see “Japaneseness” through their design process and embody it in buildings analyzing the text description by architectural designers.
The flow of this research is as below: 1. Subject of this research is 1910 samples from the text description that architectural designers refer to “Japaneseness” in architectural magazine, Shinkenchiku during 1950-2011. 2. Extract the sentences that contain words: Typical Japanese Element, Disposition, Building Component and Operation. Typical Japanese Element is the word that indicates objects and events as Japaneseness. Disposition is the word attributes of the Typical Japanese Element. Building Component is the word of architectural component or materials reflecting Typical Japanese Elements. Operation is the word described as the act to Building Component by the architectural designers. 3. Analyze and consider correspondence relationships between Typical Japanese Element and Disposition, Building Component, Typical Japanese Element and Building Component, and Typical Japanese Element and Operation. 4. Based on the tendencies of correspondence analysis, frameworks of semantic content are derived. Using them to make a matrix to identify aspects of “Japaneseness,” categorize them into types and provide insights of them to conclude.
Through the investigation of the matrix between Typical Japanese Element, Deposition, Building Component and Operation, 24 different types of polymorphism of “Japaneseness” were derived. Three different vernacular aspects how architectural designers consider “Japaneseness” are observed from: location defined by the existence of certain location, contexture cultivated on land as time passes and feelings and activities conjured up by local people. Thus, translating above with considering the time, architectural designers consider “Japaneseness” in the followings: periodic transition such as the climate depending on the location, constant shake such as relationships between internal and external space, continuous change such as contexture, and movement of sensitive or action at a certain time. Moreover, architectural designers express “Japaneseness” in three different design methods; symbolizing not buildings themselves but background scenery and deep feeling, arranging function between spaces or bringing out aspects of surrounding object, making an attraction which promotes our activities and generates feelings.
Consequently, it is said that these elements are vague, since architectural designers in Japan set the timeline that can be seen as constant motion, and discover three vernacular aspects such as periodic, continuous and instantaneous. Moreover, they embody the feelings taken from the past in buildings and inherit them as substances, utilize the surrounding elements by operating buildings according to the vernacular elements at design process, and assume the spatial experience in the future and induce the human activities through architecture. Overall it is revealed that they see ideal buildings that are present to the location, not for advocating buildings themselves, and also assume their buildings as a catalyst that carries on the Japanese vernacular characteristics from the past to now and to the future.
There are a lot of Oya-stone buildings in Utsunomiya City, Tochigi Prefecture where Oya Town, the production area of Oya-stone is located. Many historic Oya-stone buildings exist in the urban area of Utsunomiya City that is traditionally an important point for traffic. These buildings are important factors that add history and regional characteristics to the townscape, but in recent years, an increasing number of Oya-stone buildings have been demolished due to the decreasing opportunities for use, land reallocation, and redevelopment, etc. However, at the same time, a phenomenon has also been observed recently where the appearance urban voids have made the stone storehouses called "Kura" at the back of the properties emerge, which has developed the fragmentary townscape where several Oya-stone buildings can be seen. It is therefore necessary to view Oya-stone buildings as building stocks and reconsider the contemporary city townscapes. The purpose of this study is, focusing on 102 Oya-stone buildings in the central area, to clarify the building types and townscape characteristics from the characteristics of Oya-stone buildings and their appearance in the town. First, the characteristics of Oya-stone buildings such as building date, floor number, use, construction method, roof shape, stone finishing and decoration, and building remodeling, etc were considered and organized, and they were classified into various types such as “2 stories under part of cladding stone Kura” that is a building built in old times with the first floor of vertical joint stones and the second floor plastered, “2 stories side parts of cladding stone Machiya” that is a store with stone-pitched sides, “2 stories masonry Kura” whose whole body is masonry and that has robust doors and modern ornaments, “2 stories RC piling stone Kura” that is a building with RC circumferential girder and frame structure many of which were built during Showa and postwar periods, “2 stories RC piling stone Kura” that is a large-scale building, “2 stories RC piling stone House” that used Oya-stones partially as curtain walls, “2 stories RC piling stone sign Shop” that put a sign in the front, and “2 stories wooden frame piling stone Kura” that is a building with the first floor that is piling stone and the second floor that is wooden. Then, as the result of considering the way buildings appear in a town from the relationships between roads and urban voids neighboring Oya-stone buildings, a phenomenon was observed where the side of a building appear from urban voids in and out of the property, and characteristic townscapes were observed where several Oya-stone buildings were connected from the connection and adjacency of the buildings. Finally, the townscape of Oya-stone buildings analyzed above were considered. Historic “2 stories under part of cladding stone Kura” are located near Hongo and Kiyosumicho Street, and large-scale "2 stories RC piling stone Factory" are seen along the river flowing through the urban area. 2 storehouses are adjacented across urban void out of the property. Several “2 stories side parts of cladding stone Machiya” and storehouses in the properties are seen in the roadside of highways, etc, and fragmentary landscapes where several Oya-stone buildings exist at the back of the property are seen when we walk into an alley. In conclusion, Oya-stone buildings were classified into 8 types according to their design characteristics and fragmentary townscapes of urban areas were clarified from the appearance and aggregation of buildings.
1. Purpose A labor reform law sets stricter restrictions on overtime work to balance work and child-rearing. The law also includes the flextime jobs and the white collar overtime exemption system to let employees embrace a variety of work styles. Nursery schools need to remain open for long hours in response to the diversification of work styles. Each municipal plan for supporting children and childcare responds, according to parents' wishes, to the number of children seeking to enter nursery schools. However, such planning fails to consider the demand for extended opening hours. A mismatch between the supply and demand for nursery schools with long opening hours is likely to appear in the near future. To contribute to the equitable provision of nursery schools, this paper examines the factors that influence variations in opening hours. Our study region is the wards of Tokyo. The nursery schools included in the study had different founders and different authorizations. The founders were a ward, a social welfare corporation, a medical corporation, a religious corporation, a corporate juridical person, a shareholder-owned company, a incorporated school, an individual, a volunteer organization, or CO-OP. The authorizations were authorized nursery schools, certified centers for early childhood education and care, nursery schools certified by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, small-scale childcare services, and nonregistered day-care facilities.
2. Methods and Results Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 show opening and closing times of nursery schools, respectively. Because opening time has a significant negative correlation with closing time, the variable examined here is the duration (hours) from opening until closing time. We used stepwise multiple regression analysis in which the dependent variable was opening duration. The most effective independent variables were dummy variables based on whether the authorization was ‘small-scale childcare service’ and whether the founder was the ward. The founder of a nursery school and the type of authorization influenced the opening duration more strongly than the location did. The opening duration was positively influenced by land value, the number of offices within 800 m, and the number of commuters using the nearest railway station, and was negatively influenced by having the status as a small-scale childcare service, a ward-funded nursery, or an authorized nursery school, as well as by the road distance between the nursery school and the nearest railway station. The opening duration of small-scale childcare services is typically shorter than that of other kinds of authorized facilities
3. Conclusion To reduce number of children on waiting lists, the Japanese government is attempting to increase the number of small-scale childcare services by encouraging the participation of private companies. However, an increase in the number of small-scale childcare services may not lead to a greater provision of long opening hours. The opening durations of ward-funded nurseries are also short. It is desirable that they extend their opening hours, especially in areas where private nursery schools are sparsely located. Opening durations were found to be short in residential areas or in areas located far from a railway station. Parents living in these areas have to take their children to a nursery school far from their homes. Removing influences of the independent variables except of wards reveals that opening durations vary among wards. Wards should be accountable for not only the number of children requiring a nursery school, but also the need for nursery schools to plan for extended opening hours.
Matsumoto Castle was built about 500 years ago and it has been designated as a Japanese National Treasure. It is important to keep its original shape because only twelve castles still preserve their original structure in Japan. Matsumoto castle also need to consider the safety for tourists since about 1,000,000 tourists visit there. Even though it is vulnerable to earthquake, new emergency stairs cannot build or modify on a large scale for withstanding earthquake. In the previous study, a proper route for evacuation was clarified but it is not reflected in the actual unbalanced distribution of tourists. Besides, it assumes tourists should be divided into two groups near the stair of the second floor, but that would be difficult in an emergency. Therefore, this paper aims to consider the operational evacuation plan by staffs on site with multi-agent simulation for complicated structure in Matsumoto castle. To begin simulation, the data of tourists were surveyed for how many people are male or female and how old they are in Matsumoto castle. At the same time, the research was conducted to know how many people stay at each floor in every 30 minutes. According to the collected data, the simulation was divided into three types on (Lower floor weighting type / Middle floor weighting type / Upper floor weighting type). The basic case can be supposed as the case which tourists who go to top of the castle tower evacuate from the entrance and tourists who go to exit after visiting tower top evacuate from the exit. In this case, simulation result showed the congestion near the evacuation exit and stairs. To improve the basic case, three cases were estimated. First case was to use the stairs which only staffs use in daily basis. Second one was that some tourists were guided to the entrance because of avoiding the congestion. Third one was to combine first case and second case (use the staffs' stairs and guide some tourist to the entrance). The fact was shown that the third case was the fastest evacuation case in three cases. Based on these simulation results, the interview was held to castle's staffs and guards in order to apply their opinion to the evacuation plan. They mainly concerned about the tourist route in off -season. Tourists cannot evacuate from the exit because exit is closed during off-season (December to March). Considered with such a situation, we simulated again for that cases. When tourists use off-season route, evacuation time is virtually the same to peak season's route. However, if they can evacuate from the exit even during off-season (they can use the exit during), they can evacuate faster than current situation. In conclusion, this paper can find three possibilities to evacuate faster in Matsumoto castle. First one is to use the stairs which only staffs use. Second one is to guide tourists in the top floor to the entrance (not congesting emergency exits). Third one is to use (open) the exit (the emergency exit) even during off-season. This paper proves these factors are effective to make tourists evacuate faster. Furthermore, this paper shows a fundamental flow chart for making an appropriate evacuation plan at the cultural heritage. In the cultural heritage like Matsumoto castle, physical modification for disaster is not allowed generally. Therefore, operational measure is essential for cultural properties. This paper describes a process of developing an appropriate evacuation plan. Hopefully, this idea is applied to many historical buildings for disaster managements.