The survey on the illuminance in a house and the consciousness research on the resident's satisfaction level of brightness are conducted in order to clarify the actual lighting condition of a house. Based on the results of measurements about the horizontal illuminance on the floor and the illuminance on various working planes in different rooms of 183 houses, the relationships between the illuminance and the feeling of brightness are discussed. We obtain the illuminance levels that the ratio of evaluation 'the unsatisfactory feeling of brightness' is not more than 20 % and that the ratio of evaluation 'the satisfactory feeling of brightness' is in excess of 50 % or 80 %.
Lawn covered earth surface has passive cooling effects and mitigates the hot environment in summer with its evapotranspiration mechanism. Soil covered roofs might decrease the cooling-load of buildings. Quantitative investigation of hygrothermal characteristics of lawn and soil surfaces is indispensable for the utilization of these effects. Eight test pieces, therefore, of lawn and bare soil surfaces have been observed to identify their hygrothermal characteristics since August of 1995 on the roof of a four-story building. Equivalent thermal resistance of lawn, volumetric soil water content and convective heat transfer coefficient of lawn and soil surface were obtained from the measured data in a long term experiments. Significant results predicting evaporation rate from the lawn surface with covered soil were shown in certain accuracy.
The indoor thermal environment, air quality and occupant behavior in well-insulated and airtight houses in and around Tohoku district are investigated through questionnaire and field measurement. This report describes the results from the questionnaire survey conducted in summer of 1993 and winter of 1994, and thermal environment of 16 well-insulated and airtight houses in Morioka and Sendai by the field measurement in winter and summer of 1994. The number of houses investigated by the questionnaire survey is about 350. The well-insulated and airtight houses investigated have mechanical ventilation system and space heating system for a whole house. The main findings are as follows: 1. Indoor environment during the heating season of almost houses is thermally comfortable, compared with that of existing house in Japan. 2. The houses provide a comfortable indoor environment and also have a good influence on occupant' health. However, there are some problems related to dry feeling, which should be investigated in future. 3. During the summer, the room temperatures are stable compared with the change of the outdoor temperature in the day, but it doesn't decrease at night even if the outdoor temperature drops. It is possible to improve the indoor environment by cross ventilation with opening windows or night time ventilation.
In design for air conditioning equipment, it is important to grasp in advance whether exhibit equipment's design abilities or not. So, we take up rooms and ducts system in air conditioning equipment, and apply to estimate calculation of room pressure and airflow for room other than clean room. This paper refers to make clear various characteristics of control, at the same time to make an estimate of room pressure and airflow by simulation. Parameters of the subject are heat characteristics of rooms, air temperature and humidity, special quality of control and wind environment.
In the present paper, the authors have used image processing and basic technique for estimation of human behavior to analyze human residence behavior in selected amenity water facilities. The authors have extracted and classified the behavior into 10 categories and analyzed the characteristics of the behavior with respect to human contact with the water, human attributes, and average duration of residence. Finally, the authors have indicated areas of residence behavior in relation to two characteristics; density of human residence and average duration of human residence.
The aim of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of agricultural land as a disaster refuge in an earthquake fire. Safety evacuation areas and places of temporal refuge are planned in disaster prevention planning. However, they are not always close to residents. On the other hand, there are many small open spaces closer represented by agricultural land in urbanized area. But agricultural land is decreasing by land development year after year. As a result, we showed the effectiveness of planting fire preventive trees in agricultural land or putting fire resistive buildings around agricultural land against earthquake fire, thus we showed necessity to preserve agricultural land.
The purpose of this paper is to discribe the relationships between the indoor thermal environment and residents' behavior. The differences between winter and spring of resident' living space in the home in Kyoto city and its surrounding areas were investigated. The result are surmmarized as follows: 1. In winter, residents spend much longer time in the living room than in spring. 2. In the insufficiently insulated house, residents change their living space seasonally. 3. In winter, the various activities which done in the private room in spring is done in the living room. 4. No relationship was found between the time rate of staying in the living room and the daily mean of outdoor temperature. It is suggested that there would be much longer or shorter time span for the residents to act an adaptive behavior to the climate.
This study is a corroborative study on landscape area that can be materialized with the relationship between recognitive characteristics and configurative characteristics, in particular, analysis and examination were made with respect to landscape area in coastal fishing villages. Specifically, with all 59 areas on the coast of both Boso and Izu Peninsula as subject for investigation, analysis and examination were made concerning space composition of both areas. And in addition, by classifying them into recognitive characteristics and configurative characteristics, the analysis of landscape area and area structure was made as well as grasping each characteristics concerning 4 community patterns classified by means of the multi-variation analysis. As a result of this study, the structure of landscape area was able to be elucidated by grasping the relationship between space composition and recognitive domain in the subject areas for investigation.
Auditory information processing in the brain that goes on when a person is at his task is investigated by means of measurement and analysis of Auditory Evoked Potential. Results of two experiments showed that auditory information processing was affected by the priority of processing in the brain. Less quantity of auditory information processing to the sound of 50 dBA or below seems to occur when task-related processing is prior in the brain, and that full auditory information processing to the sound of 70 dBA or more seems to occur even if a person pays little attention to it.
Room temperature in a high heat-generating machine room increases with time after a shutdown in air-conditioning units according to the heat capacity of devices installed in the same room and along the outside of the building. This paper reports on the following studies that examined simple and convenient methods for evaluating and improving the reliability of air-conditioning system. 1) A method is presented for determining the probability that room temperature will exceed allowed temperature after a shutdown in air-conditioning units. Using this method, a simple method is proposed for calculating the reliability of air-conditioning system. 2) Using this simple calculation method, simulations are performed to investigate a method for improving the reliability of air-conditioning facilities in a high heat-generating machine room. 3) Taking into account the fact that the cooling performance of air-conditioning equipment changes according to temperature conditions, it is shown that the number of necessary air-conditioning units can be reduced while maintaining the same level of reliability.
This paper is the study on the windbreak effects of trees by wind tunnel tests. The experimental results approximately agree with the measurement values which we reported in the paper part 1. Then we investigate the relation of the space composition and wind characteristics. The results are as follows. (1) □-type, namely the site is completely surrounded by trees, has the best condition for strong wind. But we cann't expect good effects of windbreak in the site area over 4H X 6H. Here, H is height of Fukugi-tree. Mean height of Fukugi is about 8.6m, then there is realy no site area more than 1700m^2 in Okinawa. (2) It is the best for windbreak that the location of the house is at the position of 3H apart from the trees.
The aim of this paper is to clarify aging, changing of conditions of health, seeing a doctor regularly, eating and bathing of the tenants who had lived in a home for the aged. Changes of not only the tenants' group, but also cases who had been living in 15.5 years were clarified by the four times questionnaires in 1979 to 1994. At single households, with aging they were beginning to see a doctor regularly and eat the home's providing meals. With aging and changing of conditions of health, they couldn't take a bath at the home's common bath.
We define "Ro-Space" as the subsidiary space to rooms. Ro-Space is further categorized into two types; open type such as "En-gawa", and closed type such as "Naka-Roka". The results of our research shows that the function of incidental space varies far more than that as a passageway. Mainly due to the shortage of space and sunlight, closed type lacks some of the activities observable in the other type, such as children's play, creative activities, interactions among persons, drinking and eating, etc. To enrich our residential environment by multiple kinds of activities, we need to renew our views on the important role played by open type.
This is the report of an investigation and study into the storage in multi-purpose halls and the frequency of stage equipment use. In this investigation, we asked 495 halls where they store the stage equipment and how many times the stage equipment is used in a year. By this investigation and study, we aim to improve the storage in multi-purpose hall, which has not been given careful consideration on the hall planning for now.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the characteristics of leisure facilities affecting utilization of them by the aged who live in urban area. This is based on the results of questionnaire given to the aged living in high-rise housing and in the surrounding residential areas within Tokyo metropolitan area and Nagano City and of investigation into the facilities. First, we show the characteristics of facilities from aspects of location, building and management. And then, we find a tendency of recognition, utilization and the ratio of recognition to utilization. Finally, we were able to clarify the characteristics of facilities which affect utilization of them by the aged are a distance from home, total floor area and main rooms.
The main focus of this paper is to find out the nature and frequency of occurrence of accidents such as slipping, stumbling, bumping, and others, which the elderly encounters inside the welfare facilities for the aged, in Japan and Korea. The different places, the different parts of the building, the different natures of accidents, the various natures of casualties were classified and results reflect the following: 1) The tendency of occurrence of certain nature of accidents in Japan and Korea is generally similar. 2) Both in Japan and Korea, the most common accidents consist in falling down especially in rooms, corridors, or toilets; also, injuries, fractures and bruises on the thigh, head, arm, and shoulder are most likely to happen.
We defined the unit called "the Research Organization Unit" as basic unit consisting of staffs and students for research in university. The purpose of this study is to clarify characteristics and evaluations on the area by the use of rooms of the research organization units in the faculty of engineering of the national university. The results are as follows; 1) Three uses, teacher's research, student's research and experimentation are main and the area of these uses accounts for 90% and more of the whole room area. 2) Composition of the area by the use of rooms are different by groups of the departments. 3) The actually used area of the rooms for experimentation occupies about the halves of the room areas on the average. 4) The student's research space and the experiment space are given the highest priority but degrees of shotage of these spaces are very high. Therefore, the expansion of the area should be examined based on these spaces.
This research aims to clarify the role behavior in an earthquake as a case study of the Hyogoken Nanbu Earthquake on January 17, 1995. The data was obtained from the questionnaire survey which the Kinki Branch of the Architectural Institute of Japan(AIJ) had investigated for its members. This paper particularly focused on the relationships between family patterns and behavior items taken by respondents and their family. The behavior and the role behavior in the earthquake are as follows; 1. In the couple with an infant, the wife takes the protective behavior to the infant. And the husband seems to pay his attention rather to the inside of their dwelling than to the outside of it. 2. In the couple with a school age child(ren), both husband and wife continuously show safety confirming behavior to the family members. 3. In the couple with a grown-up child(ren), the role allotment among family members is not necessarily clear. 4. In the couple without child, there is no large differences between the behavior of husband and that of wife.
This paper analyzes the regional resource structures and the settlement types of settlement recommended by local government, in order to search for the characteristics of settlement by regional resources and to compare it with general settlement patterns. The results are as follows : 1) Basic economy and basic life resources are the same, but the form of regional resources are different. 2) Settlements which have high levels of economic and life resources and those that indicate such potential exist in all regional areas. 3) The characteristics of each location are different, and they clearly show unused resources that could be utilized.
In this study we made clear the spatial composition of a dispersed village in the Tonami Plain by a case study of "Tenshou" which has been classified into "a dispersed village with boundaries not clearly defined" in the former report. We compared compositions of the premises, roads and watercourse networks in terms of the readjustment of arable land. We came to understand that different levels of composition elements of the village were all strongly connected. In addition, the direction in which water flowed was a primary regulating factor relating to things from housing to the whole village composition.
There are two phases for the maintenance and the conservation of water environments in the Ariake creek region. One is related to whole water system, which is the management of irrigation and distribution of water for the agriculture. Also flood control is added to them in the lower stream of the river region. The other is the maintenance of creek environments, "drying canal", "dredging canal" and "taking algae off" are worked for it. The former composes the river basin society and the latter is supported by communities. 1. There are five irrigation associations. One is in the Chikugo river basin and four are in the basin of the Yabe river. Those are consisted of some municipal administrations and have the proper roles according to the history and the location. 2. On the other hand the environments of creeks are borne by various communities. 3. It is necessary for the maintenance to bring up various groups including individuals, communities, functional groups and volunteers. 4. The roles of communities are still important to solve the local problems.
This paper examined relations between trees and landscape composition in the UKIYOE paintings drawn by HIROSHIGE. The purpose of this study is to suggest characteristics and conditions how trees have been located on the paintings as 'picturesque landscape'. Kind, the use and compositional role of trees was employed in this study. Results of this study are as follows ; (1) The trees equivalent for vegetation type of Tokaido and Kisokaido is drawn. A lot of tall trees and conifers area are drawn in the both series. (2) 'Single tree', 'pair trees', and 'continuous trees', are drawn in super-short-distance landscape and short-distance landscape. (3) Four methods to arrange tall trees in the canvas by HIROSHIGE were indicated.
This study was researched in the case of Sakata Big Fire Reconstruction based on the hypothesis that certain disaster countermeasure and some reconstruction techniques obstructs sufferer's economical recover by the change of the economy and the society conditions in recent years. In this investigation, these became clear ; the fixed assets tax increase an economical burden to sufferer and loan system for advance fire proofing made development scale extended., and these consideration were proposed ; for the reconstruction at the shopping street, loan system and designation of use zoning in urban safety planning for reconstruction of temporary store for economical recovering, and fixed assets tax reduction are necessary.
The relationship between the three aspects of leisure : the leisure environment, the structural meanings of leisure and the characteristics of leisure activities, are considered in this paper. Firstly, the relationship between the structural meanings of leisure and the characteristics of leisure activities is examined. The actual forty leisure activities were divided into four leisure meaning categories and the same leisure activities were grouped into four activity types in previous study. The cross analysis between the two groupings revealed that some leisure activities correlate in both types of categorization. This correlation may allow alteration of the leisure activities if the personal meaning of the leisure activity is the same. Secondly, the relationship between the leisure activity types and the spatial characteristics of leisure is examined through the principle analysis. Some tendencies such as Vicinal activities correlating with Daily spaces were clearly seen. In our findings, three aspects of the leisure relate each other. Thus the recommendation of each spatial types' goal was discussed as our conclusion.
This study is aiming to find a method for improving the quality of inner areas through mixed land use of residence, commerce and businesss inside medium-sized city, as Hachioji city. Specifically, we examined several housing types to promote residence in the inner area and preserve residential environment. At first, we analyzed the trend of residence, commerce and business inside the inner area. Then, as case study, we analyzed the change of land use, residential type, and residential environment in Misaki-cho, Yokoyama-cho and Hachiman-cho. As a result we can find out the decline of residence in Misaki-cho, the decline of commerce and residence in Yokoyama-cho, and the decreasing of commercial space with increasing of high-rise apartment house in Hachiman-cho. In order to promote residence in the inner area, and the improvement of its environmental quality, we suggest a mixed lnad use of residence, commerce and business.
This paper reported the method and analysis of measurement of productivity process employed daily work report and analyzed the actual condition of thirty contractors of 15-unit detached housing on a site. This paper said the characteristics and advantages of works of plural detached construction as follows; (1)manhour, actual stage of execution works and the number of workers (2)the average of the number of executed house of each contractor a day (3)the ratio of workday of each contractor (4)the average of the executing hour of each contractor a day (5)the number of contractor of each house of each day
In 1881, a social intercourse facility which named Koyo-Kan was established at Tokyo-Shiba-Park. The purpose of this study is to examine the situation and the meaning of social intercourse facilities in Japanese style in the Meiji era. In this paper, I deal with Koyo-Kan as typical of the facilities, then I observe process of establishment and extension of this facility. Besides, I compare with Hoshigaoka-Charyo, and I examine the relation to Cha-no-Yu. In conclusion, (1) the role of this facility changed from public to private; (2) later, this facility was influenced by Cha-no-Yu.
In this study I make clear the spatial condition of amusement quarter in Japanese modern city, paying attention to it's autonomic aspect. In the previous paper I attempted to analyze the urban space of Kobe Shinkaichi in terms of the city structure of Kobe. As the result I pointed out some opportunity of it's formation. In this paper I discuss the actual condition of Shinkaichi as the amusement quarter itself. So there are some difference between two areas in Shinkaichi from the point of view of the spatial construction and the function of building. However they disappear, uniting two areas along the center street gradually.
After the construction of the Lake-Biwa Canal, some guest-houses(villas) were built around the Higasiyama-area, in Kyoto. Yamagata-Aritomo started to build a guest-house, named the 3rd MURIN-AN near the Nanzenji-temple. This building work was completed by the united efforts of some potentates in politics and industrial world. Making process of these guest-houses had mutural relations with the preservation of scenic beauty around the Higashiyama-area. Building work of the 3rd MURIN-AN by Yamagata accelerated the making this group of guest-houses.