This study clarifies the transformation process of the building arrangement and gardens on the detached housing area. The study area is the planned housing area in Kami-Kotoen, Nishinomiya. In this area has developed since about 50 years, has not been decided the district plan and the building agreement, has maintained its living environment. The main information obtained is as follows: (1) This area has the four phases of the transformation process. (2)The extended and rebuild time relate with the change of family member. (3)The site arrangement has the site use divided nine parts, based on the original house.
This study focuses attention on the "isolated death" occurrences and its background in Public Temporary Housing for Disaster. The main data are reports issued by the medical examiner's office and the police. The result of analysis is as follows: 1) "Isolated death" occurrences in Public Temporary Housing are not limited to the elderly, and the rate has continued to increase until very recently. 2) There are connections detected between the characteristic features of the housing and "isolated death" occurrences. 3) Public Temporary Housing located in suburbs or waterfront has the tendency to prolong elapsed time until discovery compared with housing located in built-up areas within the disaster stricken area. As the elapsed time is longer, it is thought that victims were living in isolated circumstances and the death is a “death after being socially isolated”.
We aimed to clarify, by studying individual cases, the personal room use in the dwelling units of Chinese elderly couples in their daily lives. The room use was identified on the basis of the room in which they stayed the longest (base) and the route between the pair of rooms that they passed through most frequently (main Link) by using sensing technology. The findings showed that the couples tended to stay most in the living room and master bedroom and moved between the dining room and kitchen most frequently. The dining and living rooms were used as hubs (rooms that had a main link with most rooms). The studied couples could be divided into two groups on the basis of whether or not they used the shared base (room used as the base by both husband and wife) as the hub. The grouping of room use did not correspond to the dwelling unit type.
The Bombay City Improvement Trust (BIT) was the public organization that took important roles in improvement and reconstruction of overcrowding city in early 20th century, Mumbai. The BIT provided “sanitary dwellings for the poor” and most of them, called BIT Chawls, are existing still now. We made classify the construction process of BIT Chawls by investigation on Administration Report. And also, we grasped present condition by field survey. BIT carried out 71 of improvement schemes, included 22 of construction of Chawls. Of these, we can find 19 cases of exsitence, now. We can find typology on structure system, floor planning, and so on.
The aim of this study is to clarify the origins of class room and playground in the design history of elementary schools in the UK. It is possible to recognize these origins in the New Institution for the Formation of Character established in 1816 by Robert Owen (1771-1851) in New Lanark, Scotland. In addition to them, the realization of simultaneous education could be seen in “lectures” in the Institution. They would be influenced by Scottish universities which had developed the lecture method for producing careers of business and science. Therefore, as well as lectures, the origin of class room could ascend to lecture rooms in Scottish universities.
This study clarifies the actual situation about succession of Rikyu's idea and originality of modern Taian Utsushi. In Taian Usushi, the suitable designs for the modern tea ceremony in addition to the basic designs of Taian that succeed Rikyu's ideas are reproduced. And it is divided into the reproduction type, the type of valuing historical materials, and the restoration type. If a designer thinks Taian is based on Rikyu's idea, it becomes the reproduction type or the type of valuing historical materials. If a designer doesn't think Taian is based on Rikyu's idea so much, it becomes the restoration type.
Group care and home-like care are two typical perspectives to discuss about the children's education at children's home. We had a survey on the understanding of the caring environment of the staff working at children's home, mainly using photoes to communicate with the surveyed staff the key concepts such as “home-like”, “ordinary” life “individuality” and “laxuary”. We found, due to the pedagogical style employed by different children's homes, following differences among the staff's understandings: 1) the staff at Taisha-style children's home pointed out the existence of a serious gap between the current environment and “home-like” and “ordinary” living environment, and they wished for a more “home-like” environment; 2) the staff at Shousha-style children's home evaluated highly of Shousha-style care from their observation on the way children acted but wished for even a smaller environment for better results; 3) the staff at GH concluded that it has been offering effective education resulted from the smallness of its environment.
Recently, the realization of universal access in universities is one of the most important problems by popularizing higher education. Then the purpose of this study is to grasp the features of supporting environment for students with disabilities and to clarify further problem of it. The main results of this study are as follows: 1) The organization which manages supporting spaces is the driving force to prepare them. 2) It is important for supporting students with disabilities both to make buildings barrier-free specifications and to establish and expand a special organization at the same time.
In this research, the design of stairs handrail, riser, and width were operated using CG, and the influence of stairs design to the evaluation of the whole space was the objective of analysis. First, the preliminary experiment was conducted, the result of real space and CG experiment were compared, and the validity of CG experiment was verified. Finally, 11 patterns of object CG to which four examples of handrail as the real space for model in this experiment, a riser, and width were varied. As a result from conducting an evaluation experiment and analyzing its quantity, the evaluation tendency over change of a stairs design was clarified.
The aim of this paper is to clarify characteristics of interior space of contemporary Japanese houses in terms of their spatial composition with the relationship between the form of rooms and the arrangement of building elements. Form of rooms are analyzed in three levels of composition; the shape of the floor and ceiling, openness of the walls, and the height of the room. The arrangement of building elements are analyzed in two levels of composition; sorts of elements, and arrangement of these elements. Then 12 types of composition are found. Comparing the types, almost 4 characters are found, those are emphasis of shape of the room, synthesis of arrangement of elements, vertical articulation of interior space by relationship between shape of the room and arrangement of elements, and distributed arrangement of elements.
The purpose of this study is to grasp the factors to continue to live in intermediate and mountainous area through the case of Yamakoshi, Nagaoka City after the mid-niigata prefectural earthquake. From the results of questionnaire survey and case studies, it became clear following 2 aspects. 1. The factors of difficulty to continue to live in Yamakoshi were as followings; abolition of public transportation, inconvenient of medical or social welfare service and closing of commercial facilities. 2. On the other hand, to continue to live in Yamakoshi revitalized some elderly. After they returned to Yamakosi, they had recovered because they started to farming and found their role in their attached community.
This paper's aim is a clarification of spatial composition of site arrangements with a viewpoint of relationship between gardens and buildings. I pick up Daitokuji temple and Myoshinji temple. Through a typological analysis, I point out some results as follows; 1) There are six types of site arrangement on “Honbou” and “Tacchu”. 2) Board fences and buildings of “Kyakuden” and “Kuri” compose front gardens. 3) Every site arrangement of “Honbou” and “Tacchu” consist of six elements. 4) Spatial arrangements of gardens make adjustments and correlation between the intrinsic factor and extrinsic one.
This paper analyzed the changes of living environments by the settling of Mongolian people focusing on the separation of fixed houses and Ger. 1) Because the clear borderlines were drawn between each households' land in the 1980s, the travel distances have drastically decreased from some hundred kilometers to some kilometers. 2) Within the limited pasture areas, the location of fixed houses and how often and when they temporarily move are determined in view of problems such as population growth, grass damage and fountainhead lack. Ger was, therefore, used during all seasons on the short- to long-term based although fixed houses are pervasive throughout the region. 3) Both tendencies were found at the same time; reduction and simplification of Ger utilization and possession and application of traditional Ger due to the settling.
This paper aims to identify the conditions and perception for renovation of Lao houses in suburban areas in Vientiane, to support the expectation of the future lifestyle of Lao house in the urbanizing of Vientiane, Lao PDR. The field survey of 32 houses and questionnaires had been undertaken in July-August 2007 in two suburban villages (Ban-Phosi, and Ban-Thongmang) of Vientiane, The main findings were; 1) An increasing number of renovations of Lao houses were found from 1995. This seems to be connected with the beginning of the Vientiane Integrated Urban Development Program (VIUDP) in 1994; 2) In Ban-Phosi, as an older village, number of renovation house is larger than in Ban-Thongmang. Ban-Thongmang, a newer village, where more inhabitants perform agricultural production was found more renovation of roof and extension of warehouse; 3) First step of renovation is mainly sanitary equipments, second step is mainly communicational or relaxing room extended, and the third step is mainly changing material; 4) Extensions were classified into six types. The side extended rooms in ground floor could be mainly used as shop. And the enclosed rooms on the underneath could be mainly used as living area for the extended family; 5) There are few inhabitants residing in the house that build a wall on the ground floor planed to “destroy and build a modern house”. These types seem to be responded to the need of recent lifestyle; 6) Most of the younger families (under 30 years old) want to destroy and build a modern house. The middle aged families (30-40 years old), reported proportions of “destroy and build modern house” and “some renovations” similarly at approximately 40%. Among the older families (above 40 years old), the response rate of “keep the same style” reached 50%.
Drivers prefer to pass the road more higher speed without traffic congestion by instinct, and they put to use the residential road as a short cut. It causes the increase of traffic volume and speed which is the main reason of traffic accident in residential district. For safety, Traffic Calming is suggested in several countries and it influence to residential environment and landscape of district. The purpose of this study is to classify the measures which make the landscape of residential road better when these are installed. The site of this study is a residential area in Oita city where has been suffered from through traffics and over speeding vehicles. And this residential road will be traffic calmed with CG montages from the visual point of pedestrians and vehicles, for landscape evaluation. The result of landscape evaluation shows that some patterns of traffic calming measures have a favorable appearance and safety at once.
Vertical greenery in buildings is coming into increased use in recent years. Since vertical greenery directly affects the appearance of a building, it is necessary to study the impression of vertical greenery design in order to improve the urban landscape as well as to provide a comfortable living environment to urban people. In this study, the semantic differential (SD) method was used for evaluating 14 buildings with vertical greenery in urban areas so as to identify the evaluating impression of vertical greenery designs. The results of this study are the following: 1. Three factors were used in the following order during the evaluation: “Visual Beauty”, “Harmony” and “Potency”. 2. Among various types of greening methods, the unit-type greening method in which plants were allocated at the bottom of the building in a landscape-oriented space and in which green coverage was 35-50% was highly rated. 3. There was a gender difference; male tended to value “Potency”. There was a generation difference; 20's and 30's tended to value “Visual Beauty” and 40's and 50's tended to value “Potency”.
This paper clarifies actual condition and problems of applying methods of municipalities' ordinances about Article 34-11 about City Planning Law and District Plan by researching to municipalities which have applied both institutions simultaneously. Applying methods are divided by purposes, scale, and places of developments. As representative methods of application, there are 4 types following as: municipalities' ordinance which covers whole urbanization control areas and District Plan(DP) for designated large scale housing developments, division by places of developments, division by valuing on-site condition or purpose of DP, and division by applying various types of DP. It is a major problem that municipalities' ordinances were considered as premise rather than District Plan.
For regional revitalization, a localized revitalization cannot produce sufficient effect unless it involves a well-known tourist attraction. It is desirable to pursue revitalization with a wider perspective by networking multiple regional points along with contributing to the traffic system for local residents. This report focuses on the roads, and concerns the self-organized criticality analysis of whether safe and dangerous areas of the road network can easily be extracted.
The prefabricated wooden houses have grown up rapidly along with high-speed economic growth. However, there is actually a current state that the construction on the site has not standardized and rationalized while the production in the factory has been standardized. In this research, it aims to well organize construction of the prefabricated wooden houses. So the construction on the site has been investigated. Through the site investigation, work analysis was done for four prefabricated wooden houses with the wood panel bonding industrial method. In this paper, whether the difference of productivity exists or not and the reason why the difference of productivity exists is made clear. The productivities of each kind of construction work are analyzed quantitatively. It also has been understood that carpenter occupied the majority work of the site on the man-hour. The man-hour of each construction work was different. Many reasons made the difference, such as the delivery of panel, the situation of the site, work efficiency, work method, etc. At last, some proposals to decrease the man-hour and enhance the productivity are shown.
Today, there are some problems in construction projects, for example, insufficient communication between designers and constructers, confusion about roles and responsibilities, and so on. On the other hand, in these days, designers and constructers had close communication and realized high quality buildings in many projects. This study aims to show a decision making process of design contents in such projects. As a typical one, this study deals with Tokyo Metropolitan Art museum designed by Mayekawa Associates, Architects & Engineers, based on interviews to parties and examinations of drawings and specifications and shop drawings.
In the pre-modern period, the carpenters' guild was organized at Gun'nai region. The existence of this organization has been a well-known fact since before, but many things are not revealed yet. A lot of documents which is concerned this guild are kept at an old family at Gun'nai region; they were one of the main carpenters as an organizer. This paper traces the history of this guild for about 160 years from the beginning of 18th century through reading these historical materials.
Toyohashi Khristos Church was dedicated to Matthew the Evangelist in 1915 with design of Izo Kawamura, a priest in charge of the sacred property management. Through the Overall Survey of Modernization Heritages in Aichi Prefecture took place in 2003-2005, primary sources including the original building drawings and photographs were found. And using these references, it will be possible to analyse how Kawamura prepared the plans and executed the construction supervision in cooperation with local believers. Referring to the model plan provided by St. Nikolai and the existing churches at Kyoto and Osaka, Kawamura found the principle of the layout and the proportion. An important instrument was a pair of large compasses to draw a circles and diagonals. As the site did not have enough length, and the size calculated by the principle had fractions, Kawamura had to adjust the ideal church plan to the site condition. His unique interpretation and originality were reflected in slightly decreasing tiered bell tower like Buddhist tower. Through his careful supervision stationing at the site quite long time, such adjustment could be possible.
This paper discusses the rebuilding of Jardines' house in Yokohama foreign settlement. The main points are as follows; • On October 1867, the rebuilding plan for the house on lot No.1 was, as old one was burnt down by great fire on November 1866, firstly drawn by a local architect office, Whitfield & Dawson, but it was cancelled owing to the financial reason. • On February 1868, the new plan was prepared at Hong Kong and forwarded to Yokohama, but was yet so expensive that by the alternative plan made in Yokohama the erection work was started around June 1868. • The ornaments, i.e. mantelpieces, iron parts, furniture, which was too expensive to get on the spot, were forwarded from England via Hong Kong by the hands of Jardines themselves. • Whenever discussing the rebuilding, partner of Hong Kong and agent of Yokohama had probably two characters either as a merchant thinking only profit or loss, or as a manager wishing the new land-mark of their own firm.
This paper discusses the rebuilding of Jardines' warehouses, or godowns, and site planning on lot No.1 of Yokohama foreign settlement. The main points are as follows; • The rebuilding plan of warehouses was submitted on October 1867, and works completed on January 1868. The stone wall with timber framed inner structure was adopted in order to protect fire. • On January 1868, it was proposed to build the gate house and stone wall surrounding the lot No.1, the purpose of which was to make the building layout for fire protection. • After the rebuilding of warehouse of lot No.1 was completed more other warehouses on the same lot were proposed to build according to the expansion of firm's business, and, furthermore, it was suggested to build other houses and warehouses on lots No.21 & 22 in order to take commissions by letting them. • Jardine's above architectural activities of making fire protection layout firstly and of aiming property lettings later seem to reflect the merchant's character of both carefulness and cleverness.
The Purpose of this paper is to analyze the urban structure of Suwon Hwasung. Using historical document and maps, this paper explains the correlation between urban structure of Hwasung and highroad system in Joseon dynasty. Hwasung was built on the highroad that is Samnamdaero, and pierced with Samnamdaero. As a result, location of castle gates Janganmun and Paldalmun, and form of the main street in Hwasung were related deeply with Samnamdaero. In addition, Station and Commerce building in Hwasung were arranged on Samnamdaero by central axis. Through this paper, it is identified that important character of Hwasung as provincial city in Joseon dynasty of the 18th century.
In the 19th century Budapest, two exhibitions were held in the park Városliget. For the first exhibition in 1885, Industry Pavilion was built as the main building at the center of the axial structure of the site, but for the Millennium Exhibition in 1896, History Pavilion, the new main building, should be emphasized more than Industry Pavilion. To solve this problem, a new entrance was planned at the end of the Andrássy Street, a radial street which connected the center of the city and the park, and a promenade circuit was introduced to connect all major pavilions in the site. History Pavilion was built as a complex of imitations of several historic buildings in Hungary and placed picturesquely on an island in a lake. After the exhibition, a square was formed at the entrance and the History Pavilion was rebuilt as a durable building. The adoption of a promenade circuit as the main traffic line and an asymmetric picturesque building as the main pavilion was unique solution at the time, since most of the sites of the world exhibitions in the 19th century were based on classical symmetrical layout.
This study analyzes the architectural characteristics in a community model called Godin's Familistère of collective housing for laborers in the 19th century. Utopian socialists in the first half of the 19th century proposed different solutions to reform their chaotic capitalist society, as they criticized the maladies of the Industrial Revolution. Fourier designed a community model called Phalanstère, in which production, consumption and residence coexisted as a cooperative society, and his disciples tried in vain to make it real. Only Familistère, which was constructed in Guise, France from 1858 by the successful entrepreneur Godin, was considered a successful example of the idealistic residential community. However, Familistère was not simply a realization of Fourier's plans, but an original experiment by Godin. Familistère had many kinds of common facilities that were useful for a convenient life, which was the equivalent of having wealth. Moreover, Familistère was a community of production, distribution, consumption, education, leisure and residence, all of which were connected to work-sites. The community also featured a cooperative society of consumption, medical services by the cooperative system and space for schools and leisure.
This research purposes to clarify the process of urban growth of the Shanghai International Settlement from view of urban development conducted by Japanese in the Modern Period, and to analyze the character of urban structure of the Shanghai International Settlement. As well known, Meiji Japan was just a new-rising country in East Asia. Undoubtedly, the Japanese political and economical power in Shanghai was so weak in presence or influence that it could not compete with the British one directly. For Japan at that time, however, “Shanghai Advancement” was an important issue, because it meant that Japan would rank with the great powers in East Asia. So, in what manner did Japanese success in advancing into Shanghai? To solute this problem, the authors analyzed the activities that conducted by Japanese. Those are (1) Civil survey of the Wang Poo River, (2) Inspection of the Shanghai, (3) Drawing up the Basic Strategy, (4) land development. It is found that in order to provide their urban facilities, Japanese just adapted their directions closely to urban development trends of British ones. For example, immediately after new roads constructed, Japanese firms bought their new lands along the new road. Thus, it took more than 40 years from 1890s to 1930s for Japan to establish their urban functions in Shanghai International Settlement. Finally, the Japanese spread consisted of Western (Seibu), Central (Chubu) and Eastern (Tobu). It is thought that this structure was initially planned in the Basic Strategy convenient in the Meiji Era.
This paper will discuss the Ottoman capitals and palaces in the fifteenth to sixteenth century through the study of contemporary chronicles. Contrary to the common belief that after the fall of Constantinople in 1453 Istanbul had become the sole Ottoman capital, with Topkapi palace as the center of royal political ceremonies and residence, the sultans frequently stayed in the former capital Edirne and presided over the political affairs till the reign of Suleyman I starting from 1520. Also, it turned out that various palaces in Istanbul other than Topkapi, had been used for residential and ceremonial purposes in the late sixteenth century.
The purpose of this study is to solve the tendency of the painters' address in the early modern period in Kyoto. The results are as follows: (1) Painters lived particular streets from Tenmei period. intensive streets were Nizyo-dori, Sizyo-dori, Sanzyo-dori, and Marutamati-dori from Bunka period downward. (2) They lived particular areas from Bunsei period. (3) The number of painters lived south of Sizyo-dori increased from Koka period. (4) The number of painters lived south of Imperial palace increased from Koka period. (5) Many painter, belong to Bunzingaka, Sizyo school, and Kisi school, lived surround Gion, Syogoin village, Hyakumanben, Okazaki village, and Fusimi.
The design for the reconstruction of the primitive dwellings at the remains of Toro was entrusted to Masaru Sekino who had been got involved with this nationally monumental research project from the beginning when the site was discoverd in 1943. In the process of making an “ideal” form of the dwellings, Sekino focused on giving a reasonable structural system to the image of ancient dwellings shown in archaeological relics, which was based on his architectural thought relating to the concept of design(style) and technology. In order to recreate the original design, as a consequence, original building technique, such as construction process, details of joints of structural members, and especially its structural system, was deliberately and eagerly recreated grounded on inevitably scarce academic evidences that was to be completed with his “imaginary restoration,” although adding structural reinforcement in the back or anti-deterioriation devices due to the actual demands as a contemporary construction.