Reduced scale experiments were conducted to investigate the behavior of smoke in cavity like spaces, which are not seldom found in buildings. The cavity space model used in the experiments has a square horizontal section of 0.8mx0.8m, and the height of the floor can be changed from 0 to 3m. This paper presents the results for the case where the cavity has no opening at the bottom and the fire source is located at the center of the floor. The heat release rates in this series of experiments ranged from 0.5 to 4kW. The temperatures were measured by the thermocouples arrayed horizontally over the cavity opening, and vertically along the side walls. The pressure difference between the inside and outside of the cavity along the depth was also measured. It is found that the temperature rise of plume at the cavity opening is well scaled by the nondimensional temperature defined as 〓 = (ΔT/T_∞)/Q^<*2/3> where Q^* = Q/p_∞C_PT_∞√<gD>D^2, and the temperature is correlated by 〓 = α(H/D)^β, where β =-5/3, -1 and -1/3 for shallow, intermediate and deep cavity, respectively.
This paper presents basic experiments conducted to develop a structural system which reduce structural vibration caused by train-passage. The system under consideration is vibration-control devices inserted between foundations and a superstructure. In order to specify the ability of the system, a precast concrete experimetal building suportted on those devices was constructed above the actual railroads and vibration measurements were conducted. Through the experiments, several characteristics of the structural system necessary to reduce train-induced vibration were clarified.
Contamination on the inside wall of air-conditioning duct is one of the source of indoor air pollution. On this paper, airflow generation in the non-operational duct is reported as the reason of duct contamination by inflow of airborne particles to the duct. The driving force of airflow is caused by the temperature difference of rooms connected by the duct system. Followings were obtained by experimental result. 1) Airflow of more than 20cm/s was measured in the non-operational duct of an office building when there were temperature differences of 4- 5K between rooms. 2) Model chamber experiments show that the air velocity is proportional to the square root of the temperature difference and the height of chamber.
For the economical operation of the latent floor-heating storage system using off-peak electricity equipped in a school building, we predicted the required thermal energy in a classroom using fuzzy inference. And we examined them and obtained the following results. (1) We derived the multi-regression equation and predicted the necessary hours to supply electric power with a high accuracy. (2) The next day's indoor mean temperature was approximately estimated by fuzzy set of heat load of storage material. (3) The operation became more simple by using the possibility presumption model of outdoor mean temperature for prediction.
A new panel-airconditioning method was proposed for the perimeter zone of the intelligent office space, from the viewpoints of both increasing thermal comfort and reducing energy requirement. The conventional air diffusion system, which has ceiling-mounted d iff users and floor-mounted intakes, was applied to the interior space and the wall hanging rediant panel with condansation and floor air supply to protect from the cold draft, which was called PA&A system, was applied to the perimeter space. The indoor thermal environment was evaluated under the experimental condition similar to actual working condition. By applying the PA&A system, the new effective temperature (ET ^* ) set-point of the ambient system could be increased to approximately 28℃ in summer, the surface temperature of rediation panel of 12℃ and the floor air supply velocity of 3.5m/s, ware also proposed for maintaining moderate thermal comfort.
In order to evaluate the cause of urban thermal environment formation, and grasp the distribution of it, the analysis about urban climate by numerical simulation and field survey using outdoor air and earth surface temperature were carried out. In numerical simulation using 1-dimentional heat balance model, because of giving the temperature corrected by design outdoor temperature, day-range air temperature change near the actually one was gotten, and it was found out that good operation of the land-cover factor keeps lower earth surface temperature. From field survey, actual formational factor and distribution of urban climate was clarified.
This paper aims to clarify that a new living relationship is increasing in rural areas and is different from the traditional relationship between parents and their children. We recognized that many family members (including the eldest son) in their thirties and forties are living separately from their parents in public housing and privately owned detached houses built in the central district of the under populated region. In the public housing the main occupants are young households who separated from their parents after marriage, and returned from distant areas. In the privately owned detached houses, main occupants came from privately owned rented houses and public housing in the same town or neighboring towns where parents lived. The distances between children and their parents are less than 30 minutes by car in most cases. If public housing and private detached houses are provided in the center of rural areas, they fit into the new living relationship, and play an important part in stoping the decrease of inhabitants. In the future, the housing policy in rural areas where inhabitants is decreasing must address this change in living relationship.
The purpose of this study is to make clear roles that are characteristic of the space and behaviour in the alley and gap space between buildings in Nezu Tokyo. As a result of analysis, we recognized the following indications for the planning priciples of housing. Firstly, there exist grouped units of houses in densely built-up areas. Secondly, the alley and gap space have roles as buffer zones between houses, passing ways of district and ventilatilation as well as access of sunlight. Finally, they afford behaviours and places for household's goods promoting the interaction between residents, and generating characteristics of common space as well as private space.
This paper analyzes the difference in floor areas of welfare facilities on the national university campuses, that is,cafeteria,health service center, club buiding and etc,. Data about areas of welfare facilities per student was collected from 112 campuses of 81 different universities. As analytical methods of the difference in floor areas , Lorenz Curve,Gini Coefficient, Coefficient of Variation, Toyota' s measure and Decompositions of Gini Coefficient, Toyota's measure were used. The result of the analyzes is as follows ; 1) Health service center is the most difference more then cafeteria and club buiding. 2) Campus of the humanities, the engineering, the agriculture, the fisheries and sub-campus were big difference. And campus of not have student union is same. 3) Campuse-Type of the engineering, the humanities and etc, is the bigest between-group defference.
On the basis of research,the study is to find function and utilization of manufacturing plant of reinforcing bar. The main results derived from analysis on these investigations as follows : (1) Warehouses, offices, or rest stations are placed on the site of many plants. (2) Similar results are derived from the process chart-product analysis and the process chart-man analysis on many plants. (3) Plans of manufacturing plant of reinforcing steel are composed of four zones: those for keeping steel bars, installing machinery, placing reinforcing bars, and truck's transporting paths.
This paper aimes to look at users' satisfaction of physical environment with refined POE formats, and study their cognition of elements of physical environmentThe one of new formats of POE is adapted with 'bearable' and 'acceptable' instead of 'neutral', and the other consists of evaluation about current environment and general idea to it. This is reffered to "Motivator" and "Hygine Factor" of Herzberg's Theory. Space is recognized as attractive, but generally unsatisfaction changes to "must-be" evaluation by improvement of environment. The element deeply related to the function given to environment is evaluated as "must-be."
Many kinds of components are used in buildings. They are progressing or turning year by year. However, ordinary components are rarely recorded. It is very important to catch the development of building components and their backgrounds, fe have been making research of them for about eleven years. In this study, we researched into development of unit bath. Unit bath was used only in hotels and condominiums for the first time. Afterward, it has been used in houses, too. Today, it is very popular. In this paper, we show the summary of development of unit bath.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate what the aged and the handicapped demand about home elevators. We conduct a hearing investigation of 6 families with aged and handicapped memhers who use home elevators in Tokyo. We also conduct a questionnaire investigation of 299 aged and handicapped people living in Koriyama City. The aged who have declining hips and legs set home elevators for their future. The handicapped set them to live an independent life. The aged and the handicapped want safe, easily handled and inexpensive home elevators.
The ultimate purpose of this study is how to make a good dwelling environmment and a good community consisted of natives and newcomers in the marginal area of town and country. In this paper followings are made clear from a quetionaire to inhabitats. 1. The actual trends of urbanization are explained from a view point of inhabitants' lives 2. The environmental consciousness of inhabitants disperse to two directions, nature or urbanized facicility. Anomy is appearing instead of social norms. 3. Society of natives and newcomers isn't enough yet, but making community is necessary to maintain the environment.
The purpose of this study is to propose the optimum-plan selection system which helps engineers to select a optimum equipment system of the building through rational decision making process in view of life cycle cost and other intangible criteria. The principal contents are as follows. (1) A optimum equipment system can be selected through evluating alternatives in view of several criteria including cost items and intangible items quantitatively using AHP techniques. (2) In order to consider the principal LCC items for equipment systems, a new LCC calculation equation is suggested. (3) It is intended to computerize this system in order to make the practical application more efficient in building design and construction.
These days, it is common that a percentage of condominium units are converted into rental units by their owners. The rate of conversion depends on supply and demand and on how urban dwellers use them. In this study we found the following : 1. More than half of the absentee owner's units are rented for family use, and the units changed into office exist only in the central region of metropolitan areas. 2. In the Kantou District, they have a larger mix of leaseholders such as families, young married couples, or elderly people. 3. Condominium management define the increase of absentee owners as a serious problem. 4. Management who lack the resources to adequately take care of their property' s needs must rely on the real estate agents and public service to maintain them.
In this study we analized the composition of household with the elderly and its tenure of dwelling in Hokkaido based on the data from the population census and the housing survay of the elderly. The conclusions are as follows : 1) The number of household with the elderly is rapidly increasing. 2) The single elderly or elderly couple households are increasing in number more than the households of the elderly living with their children's family. 3) After their children become independent, the number of the elderly couple households increases. As they get older, the number of households of the elderly with their childlen's family increases, mostly because of the death of their spouses. 4) Most households with the elderly own their houses and many singles and couples rent houses.
This study tries to get a solution to existence and developnent of 「Soiseo」 in Korean architecture. The explication of Korean archit-ecture is needed to understand Chinese architecture that have influenced Korean architecture.This approach will explicate a shape of 「Soiseo」 in Korean architecture and an outline of the fornalization of 「Soiseo」. Also this approach will nake clear in comparison with Chinese and Japanese architecture that the shape of 「Soiseo」 in Korean architecture is extraordinarily various and-the reason of exist-ence of 「Soiseo」 is different between 「Chu-shin-po style」 to 「Ta-po style」. Conculusively, there are two types of chronological developnent. One is as asculptured decoration in the end of 「Hiziki」, the other is as an evolution of 「Odaruki」.
Bong-jeong-sa Geuk-nak-jeon is known as the oldest architecture in Korea. In recent years, it has been dissolved and repaired to have been madesure its date of construction. However it is needed further study about its position on the history of architecture and its estimation. This study tries to investigate its characteristic of style in main parts (column, capital, roof structure) and its influences on those parts from China, also tries to estimate Bong-jeong-sa Keuk-nak-jeon of the period of Koryo. Up today it has been known widely that the medieval style of the period of Gen and Soh had been overlapped. But this investigation led to the conclusion which the traditional architecture in Korea has succeeded to the ancient style.
The possibility in Pompeii of the housing in the so-called "Insula" which we can find in Ostia is dealt with in this paper. Pompeii provides the evidence of upper floors. However these floors were constructed secondary and we can find a case of the house three storied. All the measurable walls were approximately 40 centimetres, which were too thin to support multistoried floors. A few houses are regarded as Insula in the limited sense that they were constructed simultaneously, and that the housing was controlled under the principles of construction of upper floors.
The north block with medieval city wall in the historical district of Peccioli, small medieval city in Tuscany, is analyzed through the "surveyed drawings (1985)", "Formazione degli Elenchi (1982)", and the cadastral map of the historical documents "Catasto (1834)", in order to clarify the typological evolution of component buildings and the formation process of the block since 18th century. The process of Formation can be divided according to the evolution of component building-type, that is, from medieval "casa a schiera" to post medieval "casa in linea" and "casa incorporate" , all of which are still remained in the present block including medieval military structures.
This study attempts to clarify Dutch architect J.L.M.Lauweriks' career and activities related to the development of the history of modern architecture. As the result it became clear that Lauweriks was very active not only as an architect but also as a theorist, an educator and a designer. Those activities were related closely each other. On the other hand Lauweriks also took part in Dutch modern movement in applied art.
In J.N.L. Durand, the positive imitation is considered as impossible and the analogical imitation is refused, but that of the Ancients is present in their base, not as the purpose of the architecture but as an auxiliary element subordinate to the notions of economy (economic) and suitability (convenance), which is also expanded and applied homogeneously even to the elements, their combination, distribution and composition of city. For him, even if the notion of imitation is transformed into that of subordinate imitation of the Ancients, it is regarded as a moment of the inter-textual mouvement of meanings in the urban architecture, both within the relation of diachronic correspondance and in the synchronic context, that is not concerned with the distance, and therefore is supported by a kind of typological consciousness.
This paper is to reconstruct the design process of Louis I. Kahn's Phillips Exeter Academy Library through a morphological analysis of the basic form which was applied by the Architect. The sequence of the discussion is as following : 1) An analysis of chronologically ordered design sketches etc.to induce the basic form. 2) An examination of their adaptability to the Library's architectural program. 3) An discussion on the basic form, which plays an important role in controlling the relationship between program requirements and formal transformations in the design.