Introduction: The Japanese government has created a global warming countermeasure plan based on COP21*1) and are targeting an approximate 40% reduction in CO2 emissions in the home department by FY 2030 compared to the levels in 2013. However, a dwelling unit design that improves the thermal environment and includes performance criteria has not yet been clarified. Based on the above, this study continues with the specimen and research method used in a previous report1) and focuses on thermal environment indicators. The following the design criteria related to insulation have been added: “period cooling load (hereafter, cooling load),” “heat loss amount (hereafter, q)” and “solar heat gain amount in cooling period (hereafter, mc)” and “eaves depth/opening height,” a Building envelope element. A database has been created to evaluate both “period heating and cooling loads”. This study aims to illustrate successful management of a large quantity of data and show analysis examples of trends in dwelling unit design elements and the design criteria related to insulation. Method: The data sample used in this study is obtained from the Dwelling Units of the Condominiums selected for study in the previous report1) (1603 cases). Using this sample, the validity of the indicators was verified using a Scatter Diagram of the 2 variables: the elements of the Dwelling Unit Design and the design criteria related to insulation. Next, by elimination of the external conditions from the sample and using the Scatter Diagram subject to a Differential Analysis for each orientation, the trends of an optimum Thermal Environment were verified for each element of the Dwelling Unit Design. Results: First, “Cooling Load” and “the design criteria related to insulation” were compared for each element of the Dwelling Unit Design using a Scatter Diagram. Consequently, the effectiveness of the indicators used for the Thermal Environment could be confirmed for each element. However, it was revealed that to perform a factor analysis, including the external conditions is necessary. Then, the external conditions were eliminated from the sample and a correlation of each element with the Dwelling Unit Design was established. Accordingly, under certain conditions, a correlation was observed between the elements of the Dwelling Unit Design and the design criteria related to insulation so that the trends for Dwelling Unit Design elements that could improve the indicator results for the Thermal Environment could be determined. Conclusions: We clarified the indicator validity in each thermal environment using building envelope elements. Next, we excluded external conditions and showed examples of analysis using building envelope elements to clarify the possibility of reducing the cooling load through a dwelling unit design. In the future we intend to identify the elements with largest impact by means of a factor analysis.
The purpose of this study is, focusing on the room arrangement centered on a common space used for multiple purposes (hereafter “multipurpose common space”) of buildings in a university campus (hereafter “campus architecture”), to reveal the openness of the campus architecture.
First, the characteristics of the multipurpose common space were considered. To begin with, the intended uses were categorized into educational ones such as learning commons that had been developed in response to the diversification of learning styles in recent years and non-educational ones such as lounges on an extension of traffic lines like entrances and corridors. Then, the scales of multipurpose common spaces concerned with the <flexibility of spaces> were categorized according to the area and presence or absence of open ceiling. Then, the characteristics of multipurpose common spaces as traffic lines were categorized according to the presences or absences of the partitions in entrances and corridors and the passing traffic lines. Also, the connections between the multipurpose common spaces were organized from planar and cross-sectional perspectives.
Secondly, rooms which lead to multipurpose common spaces were considered. They can be categorized into “common space for a specific use” such as library and hall, “space for education and study” such as classroom and laboratory, and “external space” such as terrace and piloti. Also, the permeability of boundaries in a room such as walls and glass surfaces concerned with <visualization of activities> was considered.
Thirdly, the multipurpose common spaces and rooms which lead there considered above were grasped integrally, and the combinations were organized as “multipurpose common space continuums”. This indicates spatial characteristics concerned with the <induction of interactions>. They can be organized as the one which has a single multipurpose common space (pattern A), the “basic model” where the multipurpose common space is connected with another room or an external space (pattern B-1~E), and the “hierarchized model” where the multipurpose common spaces are connected with each other (pattern H~I-2).
Fourthly, the composition of campus architecture with a multipurpose common space was considered. To begin with, as open elements facing the buildings in a university campus, squares, campus malls, and front gates were considered. Then, the ways multipurpose common spaces emerge on the elevation surface of a building were organized according to whether they are a part or a whole of the elevation surface. A composition of campus architecture was derived from the characteristics and the combinations of multipurpose common spaces and their continuums. They can be organized as the buildings which have the same kind of multipurpose common spaces and several “basic models”, the ones where a single “hierarchized model” emerges on the whole elevation surface and leads to a place like a square in the campus, and the composite ones which combined them.
Fifthly, the characteristics of a campus with several buildings which have multipurpose common spaces were also considered.
As mentioned above, the characteristics of the openness as a continuum of a multipurpose common space, a room inside a building, an external space like a terrace around the building, and a space like a square in a university campus were revealed.
1. Background and purpose Since the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, the Japanese national government and municipalities have reviewed disaster prevention plans and have improved damage estimations. In this study, we aimed to use public data to construct a method for estimating the number of severely injured within a disaster medical sphere. Our estimation method targets districts with a high risk of building collapse. 2. Creation of severely-injured mesh considering disaster risk In its Estimated Earthquake Damage report, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government (TMG) calculated the number of severely injured in each “ward, municipality, and village”. Also, the Seventh Community Earthquake Risk Assessment Study calculated building collapse risk at the town and neighborhood level. For Tokyo's 23 wards, we created a 250-m mesh file that includes data on the estimated severely injured (hereafter referred to as the severely-injured (risk) mesh). We calculated the number of severely injured in each mesh by allocating the total number of severely injured in each ward with the distribution of building collapse risk (Fig. 1). 3. Determining the disaster medical sphere The TMG has established a scheme to accept and triage injured persons at emergency medical relief stations. Since these stations are set up in the vicinity of disaster base hospitals and disaster base coordination hospitals, we determined the disaster medical sphere using Voronoi division for the two types of hospital. Also, since severely injured persons are treated by disaster base hospitals, it was assumed that the severely injured of disaster base coordination hospitals included within the disaster medical sphere of a disaster base hospital would be transported to the base hospital (Fig. 4). 4. Estimation of the number of severely injured coming to a hospital We extracted severely-injured (risk) meshes contained within the disaster medical sphere and summed the severely injured data. The number of severely injured treated at a disaster base hospital is the sum of the number of injured coming directly to this hospital and the number transported from coordination hospitals. Next, we compared this estimation result with the estimation using the severely-injured (population) mesh (previous paper). For many hospitals there was no significant difference between the two estimates (Fig. 7). However, for 9% of hospitals, the estimation result using risk-mesh was greater than using population-mesh (Table 1). 5. Conclusion The disaster risk level for each ward is reflected in the total number of severely injured for that ward. For many hospitals, the number of severely injured can be estimated using the severely-injured (population) mesh. However, for hospitals having high-risk districts within the disaster medical sphere, estimations with the severely-injured (risk) mesh method are useful in formulating disaster response plans. In addition, wards' medical relief action plans for disasters do not currently describe the correlation between disaster base hospitals and base coordination hospitals. This study has shown that it is meaningful to delineate this correlation.
With more people looking to continue their careers through parenthood, families are facing a host of difficult problems as they attempt to find a work-life balance. For example, there is now a shortage of daycare facilities as well as problems arising from long work hours and extended time in daycare. One solution for working parents wanting to spend more time with their kids is to create environments where people can bring their children and get work done without disturbing their fellow employees. Being able to catch a glimpse of what their parents do for a living can also have positive effects on children in terms of their education. Our seed idea is based on the concept of a workspace where people can bring their children. We actually created this child-friendly space and then interviewed and held workshops with people who used it in order to gain further insight. We also collected knowledge through the process of designing, using, and operating (testing) the space. These spaces have tremendous potential over a broad range of applications. They can be a space for parents and children to be together in the evenings or at night, can be used temporarily by families who cannot put their children in daycare for some reason, they can be an alternative to club activities for children during summer holidays, a place where fathers can bring their children to work occasionally, and serve a variety of other gathering-place functions. There has already been a great deal of research on spaces for children (such as daycare facilities) and on workspaces (such as offices). There have been no studies done, however, on spaces that are in-between—those that are suited both to children's activities and parents’work—despite the fact that these spaces represent an underlying need for modern people. Today's parents are looking for new types of spaces that can support fresh ways of achieving work-life balance. The Nagoya University Multigenerational Communication Space includes several small areas that are just the right size for kids to play in or for adults to hold small meetings. The small areas are divided by small openings and walls with countertops that keep them connected, yet separate from one another. In order to demonstrate that a space where we can take care of children while working is actually established, parents conducted behavior observation for about 15.75 hours and a user interview. As a result, it was found that keeping appropriate distance between parents and children is important by creating enough space and the partition screen for dividing them. In terms of lifestyle, this kind of space was useful in the situation that parents could not help working while taking care of their children despite being unable to find their space. Furthermore, it proved that this space provides them not only time to work and play together but also mental support for them.
This study assesses a museum building through the analyses of visitors’ activities and spatial configuration. Visitors’ exploration routes were acquired by questionnaire survey and distribution were acquired by snap-shot survey in National Museum of Nature and Science. Four indices for assessing the performance of spatial configuration: visit rate, multiple visit rate, visitors’ density, duration of stay, were defined and calculated. Also, the relation with spatial configuration were statistically analyzed by using four space syntax indices: integration, connectivity, choice and depth from entrance. Through the analyses, configuration of exhibition spaces were assessed and discussed in terms of visitors’ activities.
In this paper, We modeled a method of idea forming as a designing support tool which we used “form expression that is not like a conscious intention (automatic drawing the following, “A-dw”)” positively for a stage in early period of design (the following, “A-dw's method of idea forming”). And we reported the substantial result that we analyzed by design experiment using this method. We repeated time savings at the beginning from 60 seconds by preliminary experiment 1, and tested drawing time per one sheet to draw in five minutes for 20 students majoring architecture design. As a result, we judged the most suitable time for drawing "A-dw" as six seconds (50 sheets). At this time, we could confirm a phenomenon to repeat similar drawing (the following, “chain drawing”) in continual drawing. By preliminary experiments 2 and 3, the usability of the idea method for the subject, time allocation of each STAGE(01 - 04) , on the premise with the conscious "the drawing that was unrelated to intention-like problem", "A-dw" assuming the problem explanation was made and reference method of "A-dw" from influence on STAGE02 by "the chain", above-mentioned four points from inspection. As a result, I set by the flow of the "A-dw’s method of idea forming "(Fig11). We compare (This experiment) subject group to apply the A-dw’s method of idea forming (the following, "ON team") with the subject group designing it freely (the following, "OFF team") in at the time of a design. We assumed the problem like the preliminary experiment, organized into two teams by 12 students for 24 architectural design students and tested a design. And, for the last proposal, we evaluated it by two kinds of following methods by five business designers who did not know the contents except the problem at all. 1)Rank scale evaluation: we added up a mark of the last proposals to make an order them, 2)Five phases of six items evaluations : we performed five phases of evaluations about six items [context] / [novelty] / [concreteness] / [form] / [space] / [expression]
The findings are as follows. 1)ON team which employed "A-dw’s method of idea forming" had high assessment score in the final proposal about both an order standard evaluation and Five phases of six items evaluations, an order standard evaluation, and an evaluation of [novelty] was particularly high in six items. 2)ON team compared with OFF team, scored higher in the final proposal at the average points of idea. It is thought that the early idea emission (A-dw) promoted the emission of the subsequent idea. 3)Contents of "Starting point Idea(Sp-I)", there is a clear difference, ON team [Non architecture (Other than building relations)] ⇔ OFF team [Architecture (Building relations)]. 4)In higher group of ON teams, compared with lower group had higher Ratio to convert into a new form and concept from "A-dw" which was similar to [Have no concept]. In other words drawing not to be connected to the contents which are targeted for a design(problem) like [Have no concept] directly is easy to lead conversion to the new recognition and interpretation that are like "unexpected discovery", and it is thought that it was more likely to lead to the high suggestion of the evaluation.
This paper is a continuation of the study examining the possibility of approximately 70,000 temples nationwide complementing emergency place and/or evacuation shelters expected to be in shortage when many disaster-affected residents appear during widespread disasters. In response to the Great East Japan Earthquake, the Basic Act on Disaster Control Measures is being partially amended and regional disaster prevention plans are being revised in terms of both hard and soft aspects such as evacuation measures and designation of evacuation shelters in municipalities nationwide in light of the importance of the roles of a diverse range of entities within the community in the event of a large-scale widespread disaster. However, major disasters forcing many residents to be evacuated for a prolonged period have been experienced in various regions since then, and widespread disasters could occur anywhere in Japan in the future. It is not easy to secure evacuation shelters with sufficient capacity assuming the evacuation of a large number of residents in the areas covered by all local governments. The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of local governments designating temples as emergency place and/or evacuation shelters, and to present observations on the possibility of temple utilization to compensate for the shortage of emergency place and/or evacuation shelters when widespread disasters occur. 1. Temples are designated most at 25% by local governments assumed for Tsunami disaster specially located at coastal region. 2. The most common reason for a temple to be designated as an emergency place and/or evacuation shelters is because it is located on high ground and other reasons include being used for a long time in the past when disasters occurred, no facilities existing in the same district, and demand from neighboring residents. 3. Many local governments do not fully understand the potential of residents being in temples. 4. Even though some local governments could house the assumed number of people in the designated shelters, one third of them either did not confirm the distance from residents or still have some residents living at radius of 4 kilometers or more. 5. One third of the temples within the local government region that have decided to use public facilities as evacuation shelters are located in districts without public facilities. Considering evacuating on foot, it is preferable that these shelters are located within 2 kilometers, and some temples are closer to houses than public facilities. The number of local governments that have designated or agreed with temples doubled after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Examining the current disaster prevention measures in each local government and gaining knowledge for the improvement of shortfalls of evacuation shelters including temples are believed to be an important perspective for widespread disasters expected to occur in the future.
This study focuses on “flexible zone” and Parklet as means to provide outdoor spaces for eating and drinking while utilizing parking lanes. The purpose of this study is to clarify advantages and disadvantages as well as common and different features of “flexible zone” and Parklet, and to explore ways for realizing similar spaces in Japan. A “flexible zone” is a parking lane that is allowed to convert to outdoor dining areas by adjacent business owners with government permission, and three examples, Castro Street in Mountain View, Theatre Way in Redwood City, and First Street in Livermore, exist in California in the United States. On the other hand, Parklet is the program launched in San Francisco that facilitates the installation of public pedestrian spaces on parking lanes. The research on “flexible zone” is based on the previous study by the author and additional field surveys. In addition, with regard to universal design that is conceived as an important aspect for the comparison with Parklet, reviews of documents regarding the operation of “flexible zones” and hearings with an urban designer in charge of the design of all three “flexible zones” have been conducted. On the other hand, with regard to Parklet, reviews of documents and previous researches regarding Parklet as well as a hearing with a city official have been conducted. In addition, field surveys of all “flexible zones” and 26 Parklets have been conducted in order to observe actual conditions and operations. Through the comparison between “flexible zone” and Parklet, the author clarifies common features and differences between them, and then explores 1) their uniqueness as methods of producing outdoor spaces for eating and drinking, 2) their advantages and disadvantages, and 3) ways for realizing outdoor spaces for eating and drinking on parking lanes in Japan. With regard to the uniqueness, both “flexible zone” and Parklet are realized through the cooperation between public and private sectors while paying lots of consideration for design, safety and comfortability. In addition, in both methods, the balance between pedestrian spaces converted from parking lanes and on-street parking spaces is considered and maintained through their permission processes as well as their spatial flexibility. On the other hand, the level of publicness is a primary difference between them, i.e. “flexible zone” is not necessarily open to the public while Parklet is required to be open to the public. With regard to “flexible zone”, effectiveness for the improvement of pedestrian and urban environment, possible safety measures by street design, limited cost burden on business owners, high spatial variability, and appropriate maintenance and operation by business owners are conceived as advantages, whereas substantial cost burden on the public sector and limited use by the public are conceived as a disadvantage. On the other hand, with regard to Parklet, limited cost burden on the public sector, aptitude for phasing implementation, effectiveness for the creation of interactive spaces, and feasibility at various locations and for a short period of time are conceived as advantages, whereas lack of unity of streetscape, limited spatial flexibility, heavy cost burden on business owners, and improper operation are conceived as disadvantages. With regard to ways for realizing in Japan, it is important to consider 1) realization methods in accordance with purposes and existing conditions of a target area, 2) responsibilities, systems and measures for securing pedestrian safety, 3) consistency with related ordinances and their necessary revisions, and 4) introduction of a phasing implementation process through pilot projects, are important in Japan.
This paper discusses the outline and the background of the phenomenon named "merged temple" (Photo 1, Fig. 1), a composite building occurred by extension of 'sub-building' covering or wrapping an existing Hindu temple, or 'main-temple', frequently observed in the Old City of Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh, India), revealing their number and distribution, morphological variations, forming process and condition, and so on, through field survey and interviews with residents (Table 3). The main points of argument and the findings can be summarized as follows.
(1) Based on the past researches, the authors pointed that Hindu temple has three characteristics, that is, the continuity (temple continues to be as temple), the immobility (temple rooted in the place cannot be moved), the variability (temple building can change its form as necessary while allowing secular uses). (2) Reviewing the basic information about temple in Varanasi, it was confirmed that numerous temples have been densely amassed in the old city, most of temples are privately owned, and that shikhara and its finial are symbolically quite important elements of temple building (Photo 3, Fig. 3). (3) "Merged temple" is defined as a permanent composite building with internal space that occurred as the result of the extension or new construction of the adjascent building covering or wrapping an existing Hindu temple originally built independently (Fig. 4). (4) Setting the criteria of merged temple, the authors revealed its number and distribution tendency by field survey, and indicated its presence in the urban space. Approximately 38% of temples in the surveyed area are merged temples and they are found somewhat more in the area early urbanized (Fig. 2, Table 1). (5) Eight morphological types of merged temple were shown based on the degree of horizontal overlapping and the covering of the finial (Fig. 5, 6). Those morphological variations seem to be generated through the competition of two forces, one oriented respecting the existence of main-temple and the other oriented increasing the space of sub-building. (6) Most of sub-buildings of merged temples are residences where their owner's family lives. Main-temple and sub-buildings are owned and sold together. While residents are often non-Brahmin, they perform daily puja and management of the main temple. (7) The function of main-temple always remains, and the access to main-temple is almost consciously opened for neighbor devotees or pilgrims even in the case that main-temple is completely wrapped within sub-building. (8) Merged temples have occurred mainly since the late 20th century. Many of them seem to have been secondarily formed through a series of extension of the sub-buildings motivated to increase their floor area. (9) Residents are strongly conscious the norm prohibiting destruction and relocation of temples. While there is a possibility that temple may be demolished with the intention of the owner, its survival is regarded as a public issue to some extent. (10) Although the norm that prohibit covering temple with building are shared among residents, its content has a range of interpretation and it appears as different architectural correspondences. (11) Based on the above findings, the authors discussed that merged temples of various shape and degree are generated as a result of the interacting of the extrinsic development pressure and the intrinsic characteristics of Hindu temple, the continuity and the immobility, in the urban space historically amassing numerous temples. There the moderate plasticity of temple building, which is secondarily sacred, works effectively as a medium (Fig. 7).
This study is an extension of existing station-level ridership model for a small sample case. The aim is to explore and explain the factors influencing subway ridership. A small sample case with dozens of stations has a higher risk of both type I and type II errors in statistic when identifying the valid explanatory variables for ridership. To reduce this risk, a procedure using exploratory regression was proposed to identify the effective variables, and then the Mix Geographically Weighted Regression (MGWR) model is adopted to estimate the relevance of explanatory variables and subway ridership. This study uses the subway stations in Fukuoka, Japan as the study case. As the result, nine effective factors are selected from candidate explanatory variables for interpreting the variation of subway ridership.
This study is a subsequent paper of research on housing reconstruction action by self-help relocated survivors after the Great East Japan Earthquake which examines a half decade process of decision making and degree of satisfaction and its relevant factors. The methodology of the study is questionnaire survey in 2016 for tsunami-affected 9 municipalities along the coast in Iwate and Miyagi prefecture (n=823 respondents). Their motivation is quick housing reconstruction in the place where they can achieve a secure feeling. It is proved that government-driven urban redevelopment project pursuing “safety” hasn't provided “secured” place for survivors to restart their life. The motivation of residents who designated as outside hazardous zone is strongly affected by their household attribution when compared to inside the zone. This implies that government-driven urban redevelopment project hasn't worked as exclusive driving force to implement the image of the city stated by the post-disaster recovery plan, but an appropriate speed of the project might have controlled the location of peoples' habitation. The timing of decision-making, the motivation inside hazardous zone, their subjective advantage/disadvantage, and the degree of satisfaction are all affected by the positive decision-making for self-help individual relocation. Self-directed decision-making increases the level of satisfaction.
This study aims to solve the following problems in emergency lifesaving operation caused by the increase of large-scale facilities with skyscrapers in big cities in Japan: The Urban Planning Act and the Building Standards Act do not have technical standards to shorten time required for giving first aid and to improve a lifesaving rate inside a building, as well as technical guidelines in planning optimal placement of emergency equipment. In case an emergency report is sent to the firehouse through a disaster prevention center, for example, measures will be taken depending on circumstances: Where an emergency elevator is available, the rescue party can use it immediately after arriving at the building. In addition to this, if AED is optimally placed, it could be possible for bystander to use AED quickly and effectively until the ambulance arrives. Carried by a worker in a disaster prevention center, AED will enable quick cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Likewise, it could be effective to place AED in elevators, as some elevator companies have recently proposed. Accordingly, in consideration of the factors referred to above, this paper intends to construct a method for calculating survival rate resulting from placement of AEDs and apply it to the model case in order to investigate the optimal placement of AEDs. The study method is as follows: A fifty-four-storied building is assumed as a model building of large-scale urban facilities with skyscrapers, the total floor space of which is approximately 400,000 square meters and whose height of the eaves is exceeding 230 meters. The average survival rate in this model building is obtained by three-dimensional calculation constructed by the Manhattan distance and the formula for calculating elevator speed. The optimal placement of AEDs is determined by using three types of survival curves (Survival Success Rate Curve, Golden Hour Principle, and Dr. Drinker's Survival Curve). In regard to the optimal placement of AEDs and the average survival rate, this research compares the differences according to the number or place of AEDs. The results have mostly common contents to three types of survival carves as follows: In case of placing four AEDs in the model building, a lifesaving rate can be improved by the placement of one in a disaster prevention center, another one in an emergency elevator controlled by the center and the remaining two in the 53rd and the 54th floor, compared with the placement of one in the center and the remaining three in the 36th, the 45th and the 52nd floor. This means that the AED placed in an emergency elevator functions effectively. The difference in the average life-saving rate over the buildings between the case with three AEDs on the optimal floors, namely, the 52nd, 53rd, and 54th floors of the model building, in addition to two AEDs, one in the disaster prevention center and one in each elevator, and the case with fifty-five AEDs, one on each floor and one in the disaster prevention center, was 0.0333 points for the survival curve of the successful survival rate, 0.0356 points for the Golden Hour Principle, and 0.0175 points for Dr. Drinker's Survival Curve. This article examines the optimal placement of AEDs as a floor plan, based on the assumption of a standard center core and emergency elevators installed in the vicinity of sidewalls opposed to each other. What remains to be considered is the optimal placement of AEDs in floor plans of a sandwich-like core and an off center core.
This article considered the trip of the investigation by Sato Yuzo who investigated the Nobi earthquake stricken area which occurred in 1891, and about "Zisin Kaoku" which he wrote it down. It is following points to become clear. The trip of the investigation by him is not clear conventionally. However, I can regard that he moved to Nagoya as during November 3 from October 30, 1891 from the advertisements that he gave in "Fuso newspaper". He stayed at Yamada-ya of Sakaemachi in Nagoya city, and he put the advertisement, made the contact information Yamada-ya. He didn't have the intention to write the book at the investigation original stag. However, the problem was actualized by investigating many damaged buildings in an investigation place and reading the survey by others, and it is thought that writing was fixed. In addition, by the survey in Nagoya by him, there was Fusataro TAMURA of the architect as companion. And TAMURA was the sons of the carpentry house which followed from generation to generation and he became the assistant engineer of the Ministry of Finance later. Although Sato investigated 160 buildings in the disaster area affected by the Nobi earthquake in about 70 days, the survey remained within the range that the general public could see. However, he also covered the buildings that did not suffer from the earthquake in the survey, and the point that considered the earthquake resistance of the building was a remarkable feature in the same book. The publication of "Zisin Kaoku" was delayed in April 1892, and it is slow compared with related books. There are a few number of mistakes in "Zisin Kaoku", but this can be pointed out as the reason for the short time editing work.
This study aims to elucidate Hiroshi Ohe's activities in the Ministry of Education and to consider the architectural view of Ohe before the world war II. Hiroshi Ohe (1913－1989) worked as a technician at the Ministry of Education from 1938 to the beginning of 1941 and was involved in the construction of the Jinmu Emperor's honoring monument and the National History Museum. This study collected and analyzed primary materials such as sketches, drawings, and documents created by Ohe during the Ministry of Education's Technical Time, which have been stored in the Ohe Architecture Atelier (formerly Ohe Hiroshi Architects). The design process of Jinmu Emperor's honoring monument from the first stage to the fourth stage can be considered a process of a gradual reduction in the conceptions of Ohe. It is assumed that the theme of Ohe's sketches in the first stage was to superpose the space containing the monument by creating a plan and sequence in order to gradually join the area on the outside to that on the inside. Therefore, it can be pointed out that Ohe's intention in the later years, which emphasizes the psychological changes in people who experience building, has already been taken into account in the design of the monument. In the later years, Ohe developed criticism against modernist architecture, advocating the principle of “interminglement and coexistence” and arguing about the importance of roofing and decoration. It is assumed that the sketch of Fig. 11 contains the themes of roofing and decoration, deviating from simplicity that is one of the features of modernism architecture. Therefore, this sketch is considered an important material foretelling the construction of Ohe during the later years.
Kazuo Shinohara (1925-2006) is arguably the most influential architect in recent Japanese architecture. Shinohara stated that “a house is a work of art” and his career was almost entirely devoted to designing houses. Besides, he accounted of his residential works as a sequence of “styles”, grouping together works that share certain traits and which belong to a specific period. Shinohara identified very early that his architectural reflections revolve the concept that he calls “urban chaos”. So it is important to analysis how the concept “chaos” be used to design so that we can realize the architectural theory of Shinohara. Chaos is the science of dynamical, of the nonlinear and the unpredictable. And Chaos phenomena are often described by fractal mathematics. This paper focuses on the planar form of Shinohara's 38 residential works and discusses the chaos (random) in the internal space and the outline by using the fractal analysis. In section 2, use the rescaled range analysis that is one kind of fractal analysis to calculate the fractal dimension of the internal space and the outline of all the house works. The fractal dimension can describe the random of each work. In section 3, analyze the data collected in the section 2 by the cluster analysis and “style analysis” that based on the 4 styles in parallel. In addition, compare the two kinds of results. The results were as follows: 1. From1954 to the late 1960s, the planar form of most of works featured to be order and simple. From the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s, numerous works are in a random and complex form. From the “House in Uehara” designed in 1976 to early 1980s, the planar form become to be order again. And at last, the works become more random. 2. The works belong to the first style are featured to be order both in outline and internal space. The works belong to the second style are featured to be random both in outline and internal space. The works belong to the third style are featured to be order in outline and maintain to be well balanced in the internal space. The works belong to the forth style are featured to be more random. Shinohara said that he use the concept “chaos” to design after “House in Uehara”(1976), but it would be that from the late 1960s, he has combine the “chaos” into his house design.
Japanese architects frequently use mimetic words when describing their buildings in texts. The mimetic words give concrete description of buildings and embody what architects intended to actualize in the design of the buildings. The meaning of a mimetic word by its linguistic nature is expansible and has associative power. It can embody from material aspects of a building to connoted conceptions behind them. The objective of this paper is to identify embodiment in architecture, of what architects considered in the design of buildings, through the examination of rhetorical expressions by mimetic words in the text descriptions of buildings published in the monthly Japanese architecture magazine, Shinkenchiku. The flow of this research is as below: 1. Extract sentences which contain mimetic word expression used by architects to explain their design of the buildings from Shinkenchiku published during 1950 - 2010. 2. Extract Subjects, Mimetic words and words expressing Represented meaning. The Subject refers to a building itself or a physical constituent of architecture depicted by a mimetic word in the sentence. The Mimetic word is defined as a sound-symbolic word that describes the Subject in the sentence. The Represented meaning is a meaning expressed by subjects being qualified by a mimetic word. 3. Classify subjects, sound-symbolic meanings of the mimetic words and represented meanings, and then cross-reference the subjects with the mimetic words and the represented meanings respectively to analyze and derive semantic tendencies when they are combined. 4. Map out embodied aspects of architecture rhetorically characterized by mimetic word expressions with a matrix in which the vertical axis is the tendency of meaning by the combination of the subjects and the mimetic words, and the horizontal axis is that of the subjects and the represented meanings. As a result, four semantic tendencies are found from the analysis of combination of the subjects and the mimetic words: (1) Scale of physical property perceived by body, (2) Qualitatively defining boundary of internal and external of building, (3) System of architectural space actualized by clearness or vagueness, and (4) Surplus aspect of space. From the analysis of combination of the subjects and the represented meanings, four semantic tendencies are found: (A) Optimization of building part by amplifying physical property, (B) Obtaining sign by primary component, (C) Conversion of surrounding components to scene, and (D) Space with effect on emotion. In the end, 26 typical embodied aspects of architecture expressed in mimetic word descriptions are identified through the mapping. In summary, architects use mimetic words to extend the meaning of buildings and reveal their relational characteristics with the surrounding environments. The mimetic expressions depict giving and receiving actions between building components and environmental elements and elaborate the active and passive relationships of each other. They also add conceptions implied beyond immediate appearances of buildings expressing architects' own sensitivity. Furthermore, they describe building configuration and space assembly as a part of the given environments within which building components behave. Through the research of the mimetic word expressions, this paper revealed a thought of Japanese architecture that is comprehended as dynamic relationships among architectural space constituent elements placed in environments.
A social relationship and a spatial configuration of Beppu hot spring, Oita where “geigi” and “shogi” have worked were investigated in this study. The study focused on condition of “shogi” and “kashi-zashiki” － a licensed prostitute quarter, its employers and their buildings － mainly in ex-Hamawaki village and also in ex-Beppu village. There were people who carry on “geiko” or “yujo” businesses in both Beppu village and Hamawaki village in the early modern period. They had a network extending over vast area such as Bungo, Setouchi and Osaka. Until around 1890, main business area of “kashi-zashiki” was placed along the Nagare River which runs Beppu village where development or settlement dates back in the beginning to the middle of the 19C. The area was originally a lowland swamp and developed by Hinago family, a top family of pedigree in the village, who runs a hot spring hotel. The business in around 1890 and the business in the early modern period had several things in common. They both hired both “geigi” and “shogi” and they also run hot spring hotels. These common features imply a possibility of some “kashi-zashiki” owner families had been running there business as “geiko-ya” from the early modern age. By the end of the Meiji period, “kashi-zashiki” business was more active in Hamawaki village rather than in the Nagare River area. This paper pointed out that this transition results from events. That is, the opening of Hoshu Denki Tetsudo rail-way in 1900, modernizing hot spring facilities or refurbishments of facilities and also real estate trading related to the development. Irie town, emerging “kashi-zashiki” area developed on a land-filled area where used to be a cove in Hamawaki town, had a unique system of landowning. Lands of other places in the town are generally owned by few “zaichi-jinushi” － a prestigious real estate owner of the area － but each “kashi-zashiki” employer owned “soko-chi” － covered area of ground by a building － and “kosen-chi” － a plot where hot spring comes － in Irie town. The paper also pointed out that there was a common feature in “kashi-zashiki” owners in Hamawaki during the modern period and hotel owners. Owners of “kashi-zashiki” consist of old landlords of the town and immigrants. The proportion of which resembles rapidly growing hotel owners at that time. “Geigi” and “shogi” worked during the end of the Meiji period was mainly from Oita, Miyazaki and some areas in Setouchi or Osaka. This geographical tendency has similarity to a network of “geiko-ya” in the early modern period. In addition to above mentioned studies, typology of buildings in Hamawaki and Irie town was described in the paper. In Hamawaki, “kashi-zashiki” buildings were “tsuma-iri” － axis of an entry constructed parallel to the ridge of the roof － and its wall was finished by lime plaster which is similar to vernacular houses. On the other hand, buildings in Irie town had its root in another type of building. This difference was caused by newness of “kashi-zashiki” district. Furthermore, difference of major business area between “kashi-zashiki” and “geigi” related business after the Taisho period was pointed out in this study. “kashi-zashiki” runs at Hamawaki but “geigi” related business run around the Nagare River in Beppu.
The entrance ceremony is one of the keys to understanding the spatial and social structure in urban space in early modern Florence. This thesis aims to explore the property values, social characteristics, and landscape features of Tornabuoni Street, which was used for entrance ceremony in early modern Florence, and to compare these characteristics with those of Calzaiuoli Street, which was the main street of Florence, and Proconsolo Street, which was also a part of the entrance route. Tornabuoni Street was part of the Roman wall, and it was included in the route in many entrance ceremonies, so this street has a historical background. Analyzing the property reports in 1561 Decima clarified that almost 60% of houses on Tornabuoni Street as well as Calzaiuoli Street were tenant houses. However, the rent in Tornabuoni Street was higher than that in the main street of Calzaiuoli. Comparing it with another street on the festival route, the rent in Proconsolo Street was half of that in Tornabuoni Street. It is clear that the property values in Tornabuoni Street were relatively high. Comparing the registration list of the noble class called “Libro d'oro” and the Decima, it was found that Tornabuoni Street had a larger population of nobles than other streets. On the other hand, Calzaiuoli Street had few nobles and much more religious and official buildings. Based on an old 1584 map by Stefano Buonsignori, half of the palazzos in Tornabuoni Street were constructed in the Renaissance style with cornice, and they largely occupied the urban block. Examining the festival documents of 1565 revealed that the palazzos were regularly adapted for important festivals as scenic devices for the festive occasions. In conclusion, through high property values, social characteristics, and an urban landscape, Tornabuoni Street obtained a privileged character, which gave it historical importance. It could be said that this street attained these privileges because of not only the thoughts of people like Cosimo I and other nobles who evaluated the historical continuity in the urban space but also the repeated festivities that offered many opportunities to highlight the historical privileges of streets like Tornabuoni Street.