This study was aimed at improving the sound insulation performance of floors in conventional wooden construction houses using simple and low cost measures. The main conclusions were as follows: 1. Laying a carpet on the floor led to a marked decrease in the penetration of air borne sound from the room above, but had little insulating effect against noise from impacts on the floor above. 2. Placing glass wool into ceilings in the room below was effective in reducing the effects of both airborne noise in the upper room and noise from light weight impact sounds on the floor penetrating into the room below. 3. And it is found that easy sound insulation construction plan for use of various construction materials.
Quantitative methods for predicting aeroacoustic noise radiated from balusters of buildings have been expected as a tool for its effective reduction. We applied a numerical method of solution based on Lighthill-Curle equation. As a basic step, we attempted to predict characteristics of the sound radiated by airflow around a row of square cylinders at Reynolds number 1000 by 2-dimensional analysis. We also made a comparison of solutions of an isolated cylinder wake flow at the same Reynolds number by 2- and 3-dimensional analyses, as a preparation for further improvement of the method.
In order to examine the relationship between Air Humidity Sensation (AHS) and skin relative humidity, a series of experiments of three different conditions on Air Humidity Sensation was conducted with subjects of both sedentary and ergometer activity conditions in hot environment. Skin relative humidity was identified by applying measured mean skin temperature and sweat rate. For the experiment in which only AHS was asked, predicted mean skin temperature and sweat rate were applied. After analysis, it has been confirmed that the Air Humidity Sensation has a good correlation with the relative humidity of the air at the skin surface.
Posture sitting directly on a floor is used as relaxation posture in Japanese living style. It is necessary to obtain contacted area between the human body and a floor to calculation of the human heat dissipation through a floor for heating design. There are the previous studies regarding the contacted area, but their reproducibility has not been verified. The contacted surface areas of standing, sedentary, lying posture and posture sitting directly on a floor were estimated. As a result, in sitting with legs stretched, there was a gradual correlation between the thickness of fat and contacted surface area ratio. The subjects maintained their posture followed by two kinds of instructions: Instruction-A: The subject passively maintains posture, Instruction-B: The subject actively maintains posture. Under the instruction B, reproducibility was obtained. After half a year had passed, the same experiment was conducted. The obtained data were closed to the data in the first experiment.
A theoretical approach to the optimum volume of rock bed and its charged thermal energy for ah air-based solar heating system in charging mode is presented. The following results are obtained : (1) As a result of system simulations, the charged thermal energy increases generally along with the increasing of rock bed volume, and the charged thermal energy has an upper limit corresponding to air flow rate. The minimum volume of roch bed which can be charged until almost upper limit is regarded as the optimum volume. (2) The relationship between the optimum volume of rock bed and the air flow rate is approximately obtained as a solution of simultaneous equations for two models on the assumption of infinite flow rate or infinite rock bed volume, and this numerical solution is found to be linear approximately. It is found that the linear approximation model derived from these two models agrees well with the solution of simultaneous equations.
TRNSYS was developed as a dynamic system simulation program, however, a Flat Plate Collector (FPC) model included in the standard TRNSYS library is a steady-state model. The purpose of this paper is to develop and propose a transient FPC model which takes the effect of thermal capacity into account. Firstly a conventional FPC model and two transient FPC models were simulated. One of those is Barker's model downloaded from Internet, the other is proposed by us. Then we made an error of Baker's model clear. Secondary, typical hot water supply systems using these models were also examined. As a result, the proposed model is accurate enough for practical usage.
In this paper, the relationship between ventilation efficiency and air outlets/return-intake systems in atrium space were analyzed by experimental studies and also by numerical simulation based on computational fluid dynamics(CFD). The conclusions are as follows; 1. In the case of cooling and the occupied zone being limited the ventilation efficiency has increased by arranging the supply outlets at the lower part of the atrium. 2. In the case of a vertical supply from the floor, a exhaust system at the ceiling is more desirable than that of the wall. 3. Effective arrangements for both the heating and the cooling modes are to supply the air from the wall at a height of 3500mm and exhaust it at the wall, and to supply it from the floor and exhaust it at the ceiling.
This paper presents the application of passive ventilation system with crawl space heating to the practical house. Ventilation rates, in door thermal conditions and heat loss with ventilation were measured and discussed. The results are as follows; 1) Proper ventilation rate realized during whole year except mid summer, just by operating the number of exhaust stacks, such as one for the heating period and two for the other season. 2) Estimated heat loss with ventilation was 10 % larger in the measured ventilation rate than that in the constant 0.5 ach. The difference was corresponds to the difference of ventilation rate. As a result, airflow fluctuation did not increase the heat loss. 3) Floor surface temperature in the living space was 1-2℃ higher than in door air temperature by crawl space heating. Therefor, in door thermal comfort of this system was similar to low-temperature radiant heating system like a floor heating.
This paper's point is as follows: 1. This study proposed that a cogeneration system is introduced to the plant of the district heating and cooling systerm, and generated electricity on this plant is sent to the filtration plant or the sewage plant, in order to reduce quantity of carbon dioxide and to cut the thermal energy rate. 2. To make clear consumption of electricity of the filtration plant and the sewage plant, and operation of the district heating and cooling systerm, we investigated these facilities. As the result of this investigation, it was especially realized that the consumption of electricity of these plants is much bigger than that of office buildings or houses, and it is so flat. 3. As the result of the estimation of this proposed system, quantity of carbon dioxide was able to be reduced by 11.7 percent.
The purpose of this research is to find out psychological mechanism of thermal evaluation about continuous and various temperature change. After experience of continuous and various temperature change - subjects experienced it by their own walking between rooms-, subjects evaluated all of the route in total. This evaluation in total compared with that in walking. As one example of physiological responses, skin temperature was measured. This results were corresponded with psychological responses. Research method was as follows. We conducted three experiments. Experiments were designed to be able to see the influences of exposure temperature range, width, pattern and season. We made three chambers, and all of them are connected. Each chamber had 2 doors which could come in another two chambers. Temperature in three chambers were controlled respectively different. Subjects moved between these three chambers in many different order and evaluated their sensation. Subjects were 6 in experiment 1, and 27 in experiment 2 and 3. Results were as follows. Overall thermal evaluation was affected by temperature range of that course. Temperature was the most effective factor for evaluation in walking, but relative position of that temperature in a course was very important to evaluate in walking, also. This was different point compared to overall evaluation. Experienced temperature at first part was to be the standard to evaluate next temperature. Average skin temperature after walking, have linked to overall evaluation not to the evaluation in that point. Four factors which we selected in this experiment, didn't show significant relation to thermal comfortable sensation.
Ozone depletion in the stratosphere is now recognized as a major environmental problem, because which results in a significant increase in solar ultraviolet radiation that reaches the surface of the Earth. The purpose of this study is to know characteristics of DUV that is one of the biologically weighted ultraviolet radiation. Through analysis of observed spectral ultraviolet irradiances and global solar radiation values at Sapporo, Kanazawa, Tsukuba, Kagoshima and Naha, the followings were shown:(1) The tendency of increase and decrease of daily accumulated DUV during the years 1990-1996. (2) Seasonal change of daily accumulation of DUV. (3) The ratio of DUV to global solar radiation based on daily totals. (4) The correlation between DUV and global solar radiation.
Skin temperature has been recognized as a major factor in judging the thermal sensation. Analysing data reported on sweating, whose rate seemed to be represented by skin temperature, provided that the thermal equilibrium had been attained. This paper, first, describes about the results of experiments conducted on thermal sweating of sedentary subjects, in which the linear relationship between the mean skin temperature and sweating rate was confirmed. Applying this relationship into the heat balance equation, a simple equation for predicting the mean skin temperature was introduced as an index of human response to the thermal environment.
Kruithof demonstrated the preferred combination of illuminace levels and color temperatures. However, a seasonal change and the gender difference in such preference have not been sufficiently examined. Following the previous study, four male and four female subjects were exposed to four different conditions of color temperatures of 3,OOOK and 7,500K combined with room temperatures of 22℃ and 30℃ at 200lx in summer and winter. Physiological variables such as skin temperatures, heart rate, finger blood flow, blood pressure and oral temperature were measured. Thermal sensation vote, thermal comfort vote, sensation votes of illuminance and relaxation were recorded at 5-min. intervals. As a resurt, evaluation from psychological and physiological responses indicated that 3,OOOK was more preferred than 7,500K at 200lx in winter but vice versa in summer.
The objective of this paper is to clarify the environmental performance of the traditional houses in mountain region of Japan. On-site field surveys regarding outdoor climate were carried out in two rural settlements. Indoor climate was measured in five traditional houses located at both settlements for one year. One hundred and five residents answered questionnaire about their life style and living environment in summer and in winter. Mountain topography and settlement's location affected the air temperature distributions over the settlements. The moderate heat island was found in Ogimachi both in winter and in summer. In traditional houses with thatched roofs, a relatively small daily temperature range and long phase difference were represented in indoor air temperature fluctuation. These phenomena result in heat capacity of the traditional houses and evaporative cooling from a thatched roof. Shimura et. al. proposed the comfort zone for the Japanese which covered higher temperature and higher humidity than that for Europeans and Americans. Japanese traditional house can fairly control its indoor climate in summer to be suitable for the Japanese.
A product of "passive cooling wall (PCW)" system has been developed and evaluated its cooling effect. The system consists of water-permeable ventilable bricks with evaporative cooling effect to offer a comfortable spot at the outdoor and semioutdoor space. Knowing the micro-climate around the setting area of the system, the predicable method of cooling effect at the planning is necessary to make the system practical. A analytical model based on the (k-ε)turbulence model is used to verify the availability of this predicable method. A correlation between the date of calculation and experiment was examined in comparison with the data of average of temperature, humidity and velocity. The tendency of distribution of temperature and humidity was good corresponded on the whole, except for velocity.
This paper's point is as follows: 1. As a concept for residential system for resources circulation, we propose a "Site-scale circulation" for saving energy and resources in the life and "Wide area-scale circulation" for recycling of building materials and household waste. 2. To put into practice this system, we planned an experimental house which has high endurance, high facility of pulling down, and supply & treat functions in it. 3. The result of the simple estimation of this residential system for resources circulation, quantity of primary input energy is estimated to reduce about 50 percent. In relation to this paper, an experimental house is to be constructed from March, 2000.
The purpose of this paper that is a continuous study is to make clear the effects and problems and to obtain basic knowledge about planning of 3-dimensional streets of an urban multi-unit housing. This paper examines the relationship between activities and spaces on the 3-dimensional streets through questionnaires and interviews. We divided the 3-dimensional streets into areas setting at last paper, and analyzed the characteristics of the spaces at each of the areas and the characteristics of use through questionnaires, and examined the relation between activities and spaces. Secondly, We examined views and use of 3-dimensional streets through interviews.
The purpose of this study is to clarify of regional environment for the elderly. This is based on the results of the questionnaire given to the elderly. The results of the analysis are as follows. 1. The elderly of residential home is positive in regard to the everyday outdoor behavior. 2. In the case of the elderly of residential home, the personal contact in the new regional after relocation is difficult. 3. As for the elderly, the distance affects the personal contact. 4. As for the change in the personal contact range of two years, the elderly of home tend to reduce to the neighborhood and the elderly of residential home tend to reduce to the residential home.
The usage of occupational therapy rooms in rehabilitation hospitals was analyzed from the following three perspectives. 1. The area of the occupational therapy room, the number of patients and occupational therapists, and other items were compared between rehabilitation hospitals and general hospitals in Japan. 2. Patients' usage of occupational therapy rooms were classified into four types by using cluster analysis. We assumed that patients' usage of an occupational therapy area depended on the type of exercise items a therapist selected, how many persons used the area, and how much assistance each patient needed. 3. Patients and occupational therapist formed some territories in occupational therapy rooms.
We define the facilities for visitors to use on foot. As one of them, we survey 5 art museums to study the visitors' sitting behaviors. The results are as follows : The users' situations before and after visiting art museums, have effects on sitting behaviors. There is a high correlation coefficient between the rate of the number of users' not sitting, and the average of times of users' sitting. Sitting behaviors are influenced by the length of the users' stay and the length of the users' not sitting before arriving.
The purpose of this study is to clarify how to use the wheelchair in accommodations for the elderly. For this objective, different types of accommodations for the elderly were surveyed by means of observation and deep interview. The results of the analysis are as follows. 1. The moving speeds of the wheelchair are about 2-30% of walk by oneself in the elderly. 2. The moving ability and the distance to the physiology act affect the behavioral patterns of wheelchair users in the elderly. 3. The distance to the physiology act had better be short in the case of wheelchair users in the elderly.
This paper proposes a Kripke frame that represents logical and empirical requirements with which the validity of planning action is verified. The frame is composed of a consistent set of states in planning and an equivalent relation among the states. It is shown that the frame is equal to S5 frame in modal logic. Therefore, it is possible to apply S5 axiom system to the proof of the validity of planning action. This paper also shows that the axioms and some theorems derived by the axiom system can be associated with the empirical understandings concerning the validity of planning actions.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the actual use of outdoor space and the neighborhood relationship and to compare the residents' consciousness in daily life between Lilong and new residential quarter in Shanghai. It is found that there is a kind of identical relation between the territorial recognition and the urban space structure of residential quarter. It is also found that the residents' consciousness about privacy is different between the above two quarters, that is to say, the consciousness about privacy is opener in Lilong.
This paper is devoted to test the size-density hypothesis in classical p-median problems in which the sum of users' travel distance is minimized. It is known that multisource Weber problems on a continuous plane show the relationship that the facility size is proportional to the demand density raised to the one-third power. By using numerical examples, we show that the relationship sufficiently holds also in large size p-median solutions with the Delaunay network. We lose somewhat this relationship with less connected network such as the minimum spanning tree or an actual network, but some relationship still exists between the facility size and the demand density. This rule can be applied to seeking approximate solutions of p-median problems.
Japanese master-builders "DAIKU" usually construct timber houses by their own design without design by architects. The design drawings consist of "ITAZU", "HASIRAZUE#, "TUKAJYOUGI", "KITYOUMENVKOYADANMENZU" and the main drawing is "ITAZU" which illustrates the basic timber structure planning. This paper aims to clarify the design method of horizontal members, the process of drawing and the variation of framing plans on "ITAZU" drawn by master-builders.
This Study aims to understand development and activities of foyer in the UK and to examine why housing associations (HAs), which have traditionally provided housing and relevant services, undertaken foyer projects. Foyer is a facility which supports young people to be independent by providing safety temporary accommodation, practical and educational training, information for job seeking. HAs have started developing and managing foyers. The finding is that HAs now have taken significant role as a developer or manager of foyers. For HAs, foyer project is a sort of solutions to alleviate residualisation of HA housing. For HAs which own and manage many properties, some of them see foyer project as a way to spend their surplus for social investment.
This paper aims to statistically analyze physical types and dwellers characteristics of condominium buildings in 7 metropolitan area, by using the 1993 Housing Survey of Japan. As a result, it is estimated that there are about 53,338 condominium buildings in 7 metropolitan area, of which more than 80 % buildings concentrate in Tokyo and Osaka metropolitan area. High-rise building which has 50 to 99 housing units and mid-rise building which has under 30 units are the most typical building types. Another typical one is high-rise buildings having more than 100 units which is a component part of large housing estates. Each building type has a clear relation with site area and floor area ratio. About half of high-rise small units building, which locates at area of highly designed floor area ratio, contains units for shop or business use as well as housing units. The dwellers who use a housing unit as a office and rental or issued housing are very common in high-rise or mid-rise small units condominium buildings than those of mid-rise small units buildings in housing estates. The majority of condominiums contain a variety of age of householder and older building has a tendency to contain the elderly households more than one-fifth of total owner units.
In previous studies, the writer has pointed out similarities between elite detached kitchen structures and vernacular houses in early modern Japan. This paper explores the role of great kitchen (5daidokoro) structures within the overall service system of the early Edo period elite residences of the daimyS class. Analysis of contemporary plans (especially the diagrammatic Yashiki-zu in Shomei) and illustrations suggests that in the largest residences, the great kitchen was used as an informal entrance to the residence as a whole, and to prepare meals for the lower household in the male part of the residence (the female zone had an entirely independent kitchen). Separate upper kitchens were used for the preparation of meals for senior household members and important guests. In smaller residences, however, the great kitchen might incorporate accommodation for household staff, and archaeological evidence suggests that this had also been the case in the simpler daimyo mansions of the sengoku period. It is suggested that the the origins of the residential plan of the early Edo period great kitchen building are probably to be sought in the mediaeval period, and relate to residential aspects of its function at that time.
The Kenninji-Monzen area, located around the Kenninji Temple, was part of a Higashiyama area in Kyoto. In the beginning of the 18th century, the farmlands of this area dominated by the Kenninji Temple were quickly transformed into housing lots to increase their revenue. But the development of this area as the housing lots was not well along. There were a lot of untenanted lots remained there, and, in addition to that, most of this area was burnt down by the great fire (Tenmei no taika=1788). As the result, some steps were taken to raise a tenant of them later.
This paper traces the transition of the thatched vernacular house in Shinshu area from the medieval to the post-medieval. It targets the post between the ridge and the beam in Sasu-gumi which is one of the roof truss structures. The post tends to be seen in the upper class's house during the initial stage of the post-medieval era. The post probably comes from the post called Munamochi-bashira which can independently stand from the earth directly to the ridge in the medieval vernacular house. The paper concludes that the post forms important links which are missed between them.
The objective of the present studies is to clarify historical characteristics of the modern judicial architecture of japan. The Tokyo Court was established in 1871 and its building was constructed in 1875. During that period, a daimyo's mansion.which a preceding body of the justice Department had temporarily used, was renovated and a court was placed inside the building. However, the arrangements of the court and the internal structures of the facilities were modernized and differentiated from those of a town magistrate office of the Tokugawa government. The main elements which constituted the prototype of the new-built Court House wereconfirmed.
From the study of the Japanese buildings and the exhibits at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in 1904, St. Louis, it came to clear that Japanese buildings were built in the three areas, Japanese government place, each Japanese section of the exhibition buildings by the U.S.A., and in the 'PIKE' that was an entertainment place. All Japanese buildings were traditional Japanese style, and made by Japanese carpenters like the exhibition at Philadelphia 28 years ago. But we can recognize some element of transformation in the technique and the materials in that buildings. It is one of the transitional time at the fair of St. Louis through the international exhibitions in 19-20th century.
The bill about "Housing Society" was formed by The Ministry of Home Affairs in 1919. The law had some problems from the beginning. So some propositions about the revision were introduced to the TEIKOKU Diet. But the essential points weren't revised. The worst problem of "Housing Society" was the member of societies couldn't repay for the depression and the earthquake. The number of "Housing Society" slumped about 1950 in spite of some countermeasure. After the 2nd war, the law was used with the Government Housing Loan Corporation. But it's purpose (supply of housing to middle-class people) was lost. And the law died stillborn in 1971.
This paper focuses its attention on the existence of seven buildings known as "ama-beya" of the western style houses located in the former foreing settlement of East Yamate in Nagasaki. We survey the characteristics of "ama-beya", and describe how Chinese advanced from Guangdong and Fujian into Oura, tracing the etymology of the word "ama". For the twin reasons of the connection between those Chinese and the "ama-beya", and the coexistence of rental housing with the "ama-beya", we may conclude that Chinese were involved in the construction of the seven buildings.
This study aims to clarify the characteristics of the plans of the Hoysala temples in south India, in terms of shapes, walls and arrangement of niches of spatial units through the composition of navaranga. The Hoysala temple is composed of several spatial units such as garbhagrha, sukanasi, navaranga, portico, mahamandapa. Though the spatial units have square, rectangular and cross plans, the temple plans are based on almost same size squares, i.e., garbhagrha, sukanasi, the central ankana of the navaranga. It is pointed out that the difference of plan types is based on the difference of the shape and walls of the navaranga.
The maniere de mantrer les jardins de Versailles edited by Louis XIV represents his thought on the gardens and their observation. This paper's issue is to clarify the natures of this guide, here translated in Japanese, and of the visit method, comparing with the verse by La Fontaine. Firstly, its style is very simple, composed only of the enumeration of objects among which the fountains' beauty is insisted. Secondly, its promenade is static, i. e. it consists of special points to stop and to view, but the method for the bassins or the parterres is different from for the bosquets.
In Italy, it was looked for the national style, guaranteed by the history of the nation, in the second half of the nineteenth century. Eclecticism was considered as the national style. But it was turned down by a medievalist C.Boito, and was officially rejected in the congress of Italian engineers and architects. Simultaneously the dispute about the national style came to an end. But this end of the dispute was a sign of eclecticism, which was insisted only for the new. Thus, after 1890, the new style was demanded regardless of the problem of the national style.
Cultural differences in the experimental sand-play constructions of 18 Japanese and 8 foreign graduates are investigated from a psycho-social point of view. Spatially pluralistic style is dominant in the constructions of the Japanese graduates, while centralized style is dominant in those of foreign graduates brought up in the countries under the influence of continental civilizations. Spatially centralized style represents an image of aggressivity and confrontation. This image symbolizes their modality of being-in-the-world. From this viewpoint, we analyze the characteristics of spatial images of continental civilizations, such as center, axis mundi, universal space, verticality, plastic form, symmetry.