The sky luminance distribution is the most basic data for the design of indoor daylight environment. There is not suitable data based on the measurement which shows the sky luminance distributions of all sky conditions. Sky luminance distributions are measured only at the few areas in the world. It is necessary to estimate sky luminance distributions by the measured or calculated value except the data of sky luminance distributions. The measured sky luminance distributions were analyzed with the function of the normalized global illuminance. A numerical equation, which shows the relative sky luminance distributions from the clear sky to the overcast sky named "All Sky Model", was obtained. The detailed descriptions on the method and equations are given in this paper.
This paper describes the principle of a new control method, called skin-load control, for perimeter zone air-conditioning of a large area office, and examines the characteristics and the installation methods of a radiation temperature sensor, which is a key component of the system. The paper underlines the importance of the convective heat transfer coefficient in skin-load control and explains how to identify it. The paper also shows that skin-load control is excellent for both control and energy conservation by examining the perimeter zone's thermal environment. The experiment results showed that it was not possible to adequately control perimeter air temperature using the conventional control method, because since it involved an open control loop.
There is an intimate relation between the size of hot water supply system and the characteristic of the hot water supply load. In this paper, we have designed the method to decide the size of hot water supply system using the moving average method aiming at the accumulated value of load and heating capacity which clearly shows the relation. The forms of heating-storage curve that we have obtained using the measurement data turned out to be very much alike. We have considered that the adequate point on the curve depends on the initial cost of system, also we showed the relation between the cost ratio and the heating capacity, and the storage capacity examining the method of data transformation based on the cost ratio.
There were many rivers and streams in district of Tokyo in the past, but most of them disappeared during the rapid urbanization and the river improvement in the postwar period. Those rivers and streams were originally the place where people could enjoy safely in the waterfront area. From the beginning of the 1970's, the improvement of the water park had partly started in the disappeared rivers and streams and the revival of them are now under way to realization. So on this report, the authors will investigate what has happened to the surface and the underground space of the disappeared rivers and streams, and then we will consider about the revival of them later.
This study aimed at examining causes and effects between the heat emission from buildings and climate changes in an urban canopy. For the first step of the study, a thermal model which focused on the heat emission from a sole building was presented based on a dynamic load calculation method and its extension. The point of the extension is the added description of the heat transfer from interior to the urban side. The results of the case study by the model show that the thermal factor of the building surface such as a wall structure dominate over the time variation of heat emission. In other words, the results imply a possibility of controlling the variation by the thermal design of the building surface.
This paper describes a new three-dimensional (3D) thermography system for analyzing thermal environment of the complex outdoor space containing man-made structures. 3D thermography is realized by combining thermography and three-dimensional geometric information (3DGI). Until now, it has been difficult to realize a practical 3D thermography system for two reasons. One is that the visual plane of commercially available thermal infrared cameras is limited and the other is that corresponding reference points for thermography and 3DGI are difficult to establish. Thus, a new equipment was developed for obtaining thermography in which the visual plane is extended to a spherical field (47πsr) and a new method is proposed for combining it with 3DGI.
Air temperature distribution inside an enclosed arcade located in the area with mild and sunny climate was investigated on field observations both in summer 1995 and in winter 1996. Air temperature at the height of 0.5 meter in the occupied zone was a little higher than outside air temperature excluding the daytime to the evening in summer. Vertical distribution of air temperature showed a slope of high temperature in the upper part and low temperature in the lower part, in which the degree of the gradient was proportional to the amount of solar radiation and the magnitude depended on the rate of ventilation.
We deal with low-rise housing areas in the metropolitan area as the object of this paper, and look upon the close-at-home outdoor spaces (e.g. paths, parks and squares) as common use spaces for neighborhood residents. This paper analyses the special character, functions and roles of the common use spaces, and the planning elements that residents can take part in conservation and re-improvement of the spaces. The method of the analyses is to compare the utilization of the spaces and the consciousness of the spaces with 3 different housing areas. As the result of the analysis, we can find that the common use spaces are tend to exist within residents' cognitive territories, some different spaces take partial charge of roles each other, and squares have some subjects for conservation and reimprovement to take over as the valuable common use spaces for residents.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the architectural conditions of urban multifamily housing with common open court designed by London County Council (LCC) between late 20's to 30's. The research method is to analyze the plan and description of 19 samples. Main findings are as follows: (1) Slumed residential area is revitalized to improve the dwelling environment, (2) Building has the open court formed U, W, and OU shape, (3) Open court is used as garden or access, (4) open court as garden is oriented to the road side, (5) Building-to-land ratio is approx. 25.5%, and floor-to-land ratio is approx. 127.5%.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of the use at public libraries in the mutual use network. The results are as follows; There are three types of the use. In the first type, people use only the libraries in their city, because their nearness is a major factor in their use. In the second type, people use not only the libraries in their city, but also other libraries in their neighboring cities, because the attraction of books is more important. In the third type, people use only those libraries next to their city, because easy access and convenience are a major factor. People younger than forty and students are greater in number on weekdays. The frequency of the visits is higher and the number of the borrowing books is greater in the second type than in the others.
This paper discusses the dual structure of users' sphere from viewpoint of rural libraries' service levels. At 11 libraries, 7 regional are in Mie and 4 are in Siga, the users' spheres are investigated and their factors are analyzed. The main results is following: 1) On rural libraries, the users' sphere is closely connected with the number of collection books. 2) Service levels of libraries makes the users' sphere extend, but it does not influence enough people who live near the library. 3) The extending of users is under the influence of the services and number of libraries in neighboring area.
This paper discusses individual care in nursing home paying attention to the relation between care environment and residents' activities. To make clear this point, observations and surveys on both residents and staff were carried out in four nursing homes. The results of the analysis are as follows: 1. The care staffs activities are affected not only by physical environment but also by the residents' activities. 2. Under the system of individual care, the advantage of a single-bed room is more important than that of a multi- bed room. 3. The system of small care unit is effective if the number of staff is enough.
The study's aim is to clarify the compositional characteristics of contemporary atrium buildings in Japan and their relationship to the building function. Materials are analyzed in two levels of composition; arrangement of space in circulation path and visual openness in the atrium. Comparing the whole composition of the buildings, three fundamental compositional rhetorics are structurized; emphasis and easing of contrast in circulation path and visual contrast by the circulation path. In conclusion arrangement of space in circulation path responds to the building function, which is thought to be one of the structures differentiating the building types as spatial composition.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the sense of volume and impression of interior-space. Subjects experienced two experimental spaces which dimensions of floor spaces are different and which heights of ceiling are operated to make a difference of a definite quantity of volume in random order, and then they compared two volumes of spaces. At a time subjects rated which of spaces had felt more 'spacious', 'oppressive', 'stretching'. As the results, the volume of higher and slender space is overestimated 6 percent on the average when the volumes of those two spaces are equal. The feeling of spaciousness is not felt in the space of lower ceiling height (under 2100mm) and of smaller floor space (one side of square floor space is under 3000mm), and the subjects felt oppression in the space of lower ceiling height (under 2250mm) and of smaller floor space (one side of square floor space is under 3300mm), and the more the ceiling becomes high, the more subjects feel stretch.
This study aims to explain the peculiar systems of dwelling life of Dai Lue people traditionally maintained and inherited in their high-floor housing, based on the cases collected in Dai people's Autonomous Region, Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, China in recent years. It also intends to understand continuity and changes of dwelling habits under modern civilization. The systems of dwelling life which seem to be peculiar to Dai Lue people have been changing in the period up to recent years, and have generally been started in 1980's. These changes are expressed in the phase of ways of people's behavior. They are the changes in ways of formation of places for acts which can he distinguished between male and female and the changes in ways of physical behavior different by sex.
A project of the farmland improvement in the lower Chikugo river was started on a large scale of 55,000ha on both sides of the Chikugo river in Fukuoka prefecture and Saga prefecture. This project enforced abolition of the irrigation system of back current fresh water, reorganization of the creek networks and consolidation of farmland for machinery agriculture. This has caused dramatic changes to the geography of this region. The most serious problem concerns the fact that the distinct characters of the environment, its history, its ecology and the principles of water control in the region have been overlooked. Then following is necessary to solve the problems. 1. To apply the principle of traditional water control system that consists of points, lines and faces --- so called "Motase" system. 2. To bring up multiple inhabitants' groups and associations who maintain the water environments and regulate each other. 3. To create green water's edges, biotopes, ecological and human spatial order, and to regulate creeks around settlements. 4. To hold acknowledge and experience about water in common, and to succeed them and good environments to the next generation.
The purpose of this study is to consider the principles of space formation of Jaipur City which is known as so called a grid (chess board) city. Jaipur City designed by Jai Singh II (1688-1743) is thought to had been constructed based on the Hindu idea of town, about which many scholars are still discussing. This paper discusses the matter in terms of typology of houses, formation of housing blocks and the distribution of the some components (religious facilities, well, gali (path) through the analysis of 43 City Maps (1925-28). This paper clarifies the basic form of neighborhood units and building types. Jaipur has the prototype of urban house called Haveli which covers almost all the housing blocks. The neighborhood units called marg or rasta which belong to the same castes are formed basically along the street. We can see various sizes and patterns of subdivision of the blocks in reality though the planning systems which form the housing blocks are clear and simple.
This paper deals with the subsidies used in the improvement of houses in the Programmed Operation of Living Condition (OPAH) in France. Concerning the rented houses, only the subsidies of the ANAH is used and there are some types of increase of subsidies to offer cheap rented houses to low-income class. However, owners of rented houses don't demand such increased subsisies as expected, because the rent is fixed for ten years. Concerning privately owned houses, the PAH offered by the government is always used and is often accompanied by other subsidies supplied from local sources.
Fifty four fires occurred simultaneously in Kobe city area until 6:00am on January 17^<th>. These areas were densely packed with old wooden houses. So fires spread one after another easily until the area about 80ha were burnt. In this paper the situations of fire outbreaks and the fires spreads are discussed mainly on the bases of real spreading fires data which were recorded and surveyed as the media of videos and pictures by Kobe Fire Department and NHK at that day.
This article aims to analyze the effect of the "photo-language" for city image, which is a kind of workshop process with photographs. By a preliminary questionnaire, we found that Tottori and Yokkaichi are typical cities which are rarely visited and have negative image. Then, we held the workshop of photograph presentation and group discussion about the image of above two cities. As a result, it is revealed that the valuation scores of the two cities rise by the process, there is a reactive effect of the discussion and the process may be influenced by the posture of the members.
We analyzed the dispositions of area select of urban and suburb in regional-core-city from the viewpoint of life structure. We get questionnaire by mail. 42% of 2,000. We analyzed by the quantitative analysis III. The major conclusions of this measurement are follows. 1. It is far different in dispositions of area select on life place, that in urban and suburb. 2. The reason of area-selection is there convenience and accumulation without neighbor area of center, but neighbor area of old center, it is there sence of intimacy. It's efficient to bring people live in suburbs to neighbor area of center, that to emphasize there smartly atmothphare
This is the study of the JIA's Strategic Study about architects and their clients. The study is based upon 6 experienced clients interviews and questionnaires and 98 general clients questionnaires. Results so far are as follows. 1)Exclusive relationship between the experienced client and the architect is still now existing, but the relationship is going to change, because of dissatisfaction among client organizations with the services delivered by the architect. In the case of the growing companies of clients, however, the relationship will be more exclusive one. 2)Both the client and the architect were poor at project programming. They don't understand the importance of the programming. 3)The gaps between clients' expectation and architects' services exist in cost planning at the early stage of the project, cost control during the project, follow-up service and maintainability design. Particularly the experienced client doesn't expect the architect's ability of cost control service. 4)Experienced clients who have prefered the design-build system, step by step, intend to use the separate system of design and construction, particularly on the case of commercial building project. This is the study of the JIA's Strategic Study about architects and their clients.
This is a part of JIA's strategic study about architects and their clients. Based upon 140 architects questionnaires, this phase is to classify architects and to analyze their services. Results are as follows: 1) Many architects tend to give priority to clients' needs than their professional opinions. 2) Many architects regard practicality as the most important factor in planning, rather than cost planning, impressive designing or scheduling. However, architects in larger firms emphasize much importance of cost planning and consulting and less importance of impressive designing, compared to those in smaller firms. 3) Architects can be classified into 3 groups according to their characteristics. 4) Those are the design oriented group, the management oriented group and the intermediate group. 5) Based upon the classification, we analyzed the actual architects' services and those future direction by each group.
This paper aims to statistically clarify the locality in rental housing situation, from the viewpoints of physical conditions of housing and characteristics of households, in Indonesian provincial cities by adducing Bandung, Medan and Ujung Pandan as examples. There are clearly locality in physical conditions of rental housing among three cities. Though Bandung shows locality based on urbanization as welle as Jakarta Metropolitan area, Medan and Ujung Pdan show locality based on special character of the region such as large scale rental housing in Medan and provision of rental housing using ground floor level of traditional elevated floor houses in Ujung Pandan. There are also locality in characteristics of households reflecting traditional household types. For example, typical household types of rental housing in Bandung, where had a tradition of a nuclear family, is mainly constituted by a small nuclear family or single family. On the other hand, those of Medan, where had a tradition of extended family, is a relatively large nuclear family or shared family among brothers and sisters or friends, and young single family in Ujung Pandan lives in small rental housing or larger owner occupied house as the dependent, because they also had a tradition of extended family. Consequently, it would be needed in Indonesia not to merely amplify rental housing models in Java cities but to consider the local characteristics of housing and their households in making rental houing policy of provincial cities.
This shows how land readjustment was promoted before the War, that is, the process from the organization to the dissolution of the association. Moreover, it shows that the private developers exsited in Suminoe District and how the housing management was. They persuaded the landowners and organized the association. They obtained a great deal of land in advance for the purpose of housing management. It was Mr. Gensuke TAKENAKA, the second president of Takenaka Shoten Co. Ltd., that organized the association. He established Takenaka Suminoe Tochi-bu and started the housing management. He sold and rented the houses and land. But he didn't succeed in selling the houses, so he engaged in renting the houses. Tujiei Jyutaku Keiei-bu participated in the association as well as Takenaka Shoten Co. Ltd. Tujiei Jyutaku Keiei-bu managed mainly the houses and land for rent. Both Takenaka and Tujiei managed over 100 houses with architects. The homes introduced the new idea of a residential housing.
This paper analyzes the incentive to the effort of the ESCO or Energy Service Company given by the building owner and that to the engineer's effort given by the ESCO, toward to increase economical results of the energy saving at existing buildings. At first, the building owner's and the ESCO's intentions about the share ratio of the fruits in case the ESCO proposes the building owner's investment for the energy saving renovation project are analyzed using Signaling Game Theory. Next, how to decide the remunerations of engineers from the ESCO is analyzed using Copmplete and Inperfect Information Dynamic Game Theory.
One of the unique features in the history of buildings in Japan appearing in and around the latter half of the 17th century is the Koshi, a wooden grille, also called the Monomi, a viewing stand built in the streetfront walls (Tuiji) of the residences of certain high-ranking Imperial Court aristocrats. This paper investigates various types of Monomi by analyzing their floor plans using historical materials, ground plans (called Sashizu) of aristocrats' residences and tries to classify them. The backgrounds of their appearing and spreading in those days are also discussed.
The result of this study is as follows, 1, In Kyoto-city 27 reinforced concrete-made elementary-schools had been built from 1923 to 1934, Kyoto municipal had a new department of the Architectural section in 1920, and since then they have been in charge of them, The period of their building was intensive till 1931, because it had the crisis of the abolition of the school district system. 2, The architectural section of Kyoto Municipal office had a standardization of the building structure, which is the span of columns and the size of the land. 3, There was the variety of the building design and the plans of the site as they were refrected by the school district system. 4, The characteristics kf the design in Kyoto schools was a great variety of the styles and motifs including Japanese-style.
This paper examines the contemporary descriptions on the church of Hagios Mokios in Constantinople, which is now lost to us, in the architectural, liturgical and social aspects. In the 8th century Constantine the Great was regarded as the legendary founder of this church and the legend of the foundantion brought the martyr's cult a certain change in the religious and social position in the capital. "De Ceremoniis", the ceremonial book in the 10th century informs us a imperial ceremony in this church. Through the description of "De Ceremoniis", the church of Hagios Mokios could be one of a typical basilica.
The dome of Santa Maria del Fiore consists of two shells, an inner one and an outer one, which are connected by eight massive ribs and sixteen intermediate ribs. The principal rib and the intermediate rib are linked through little horizontal brick arches. As for the structural role of the horizontal brick arches, there are currently four interpretations; 1) they are connecting rings, 2) they are load-transmitting rings, 3) they contributed to the self-support of the outer shell during its construction, and 4) they are for their geometrical rather than their structural properties. Structurally, the horizontal brick arches must have provided an appropriate contribution to the self-supporting of the outer shell (interpretation 3)).
The purpose of this thesis is to study KUSAMAKURA written by Soseki and thus find out the meaning of descriptive space as described by the author, and also to find out what architectural composition is connoted in the text. Through the text KUSAMAKURA, Soseki described his own inner consciousness using linguistic description and then developed this into spatial relationship. Picturesque space depicted in language was divided into four kinds of description. Also, the arrangement of materials for spatial composition was classified as three styles of layer composition. It was noted that the whole descriptive space depicted in language started as plane surface and ended in three dimensions. This method of composition was used in the definition of description to outline the descriptive space. Therefore, it could be defined that KUSAMAKURA composed plastic space from literary picture and architectural concept or thought was latent in it.
This paper deals with relations between architecture and iconography by Fischer von Erlach, who was an Austrian architect in the age of late baroque. This paper, especially, takes up Kollegienkirche and Karlskirche in Fischer's early and latter days respectively, and pays attention to relations between spatial experiments and iconographical needs in his aforementioned works. The purpose of this paper is to show the development of Fischer's architectural method, clarifying the development of the above-mentioned relations between those two works. In a word, the relations between spatial experiments and iconographical needs take a turn from interaffirmative one to internegative one.
After World War II ended, the Case Study House Program founded by Arts & Architecture editor John Entenza in Southern California gained widespread attention through its architects' thoughtful and innovative consideration of ways to solve the severe housing shortage. This study examines these architects' conceptions of the ideal house by comparing their design theories and building compositions of these houses suggested in the Case Study House Program. While these architects were brought together through the common goal to design the ideal house, their actual designs varied considerably. Therefore, this study compares the architects' individual ideologies as expressed in their designs to examine the multifaceted aspects of this program.