Through the comparison between Chinese and Japanese condominium laws, this study clarifies characteristics of comparted ownership system and space management in modern China. The findings are as follows. 1. The Chinese condominium law consists of simplified Real Right Law as the superior law, and some auxiliary laws. In China, land is granted for a fixed term, generally 70 years for residential use. 2. In China, the division between exclusive space and common space are not clear. The method of calculating exclusive area is different from that of Japanese law, and difficult to do it. 3. Although the Chinese housing management system based on Japanese Condominium Law, the whole business of management has been consigned to the property company, the role of strata council is forced to retreat as a management entity, and there are fewer rules of management bylaw but much more rules about repair reserve fund.
This study aims to discuss the qualities of common spaces of the elderly facilities with small care units that effects on the residents' daily life, especially for the severely frail elderly, from the viewpoint of meanings and values of various staying places of the residents formed in the spaces. For this objective, 3 types of facilities were surveyed, those were 2 unit-type nursing homes and 1 group home for the elderly with dementia, by means of mapping of activities of the residents/ care staffs, behavior observation. The findings are follows: 1) Quality of life of the elderly residents is influenced by formation of various staying places. Without various staying places, lives of the severely frail residents tends to be passive and monotonous. 2) It is important that there are not only many staying places but also various staying places qualitatively. They afford various social relations of the residents, and stimulate various activities, and contribute to enlarging their sphere of life. 3) Variety of staying places brings different effect to slight residents and severe residents. The former can use various places depending on their situation properly, and the latter can select particular places adapted to them.
This study focus on the relationship between physical shape and street line elements in the space of three-way intersection in anticipation. Analyzed to clarify their relationship. Seeks to compare each of anticipation by the presence or absence of street line elements. Show the results.(1）Maximum position anticipation：Showed a tendency to trend assessment of the crossing angle is different by the presence of street line elements.(2）Strength anticipation：Strength anticipation to become about 1.1 times by street line elements was found to exist.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics of settings with attachment of the elderly in their neighborhood environments. Thirty-seven people were interviewed, and 171 settings were identified. The results were as follows: 1) The elderly who had many settings near their homes tended to visit parks and public buildings to meet friends and participate in community activities. 2) The elderly who had many settings far from their homes tended to visit shops for amusement and to satisfy their individual needs. 3) It was difficult for the elderly with physical handicaps to visit places with such settings.
This paper aims to understand the human behavior semiosis through protocol analysis, in order to consider a spatial design from human behavior. The study is organized as follows; 1) Face to face interviews with those who stay at the park in Seika University, 2) Analysis of interview protocol based on C.S.Peirce's concepts of semiosis and extractions of variables about staying positions of interviewees, 3) Analysis of the relationship between interviewees' words and their staying position through logistic regression analysis, 4) Spatial and behavioral modeling and simulations with Cellular Automaton based on the semiotic analysis of step 2.
The aim of this study is to clarify the composition of exterior slanted space in Japanese contemporary architecture. “Exterior slanted space” is seen as an inclined open space within public facilities which affords a good view of the vicinity and provides a place where people may congregate. The structure of the exterior slanted space is seen as a composition between the slanted element with attachments, such as buildings or open spaces. First, the exterior slanted elements and attachments were defined. Second, exterior slanted elements were examined according to the organization of the connection between top(s), bottom(s), and side(s). Third, applied connections of attachments to the exterior slanted element were observed, leading to the distinguishment of typologies. By comparing these typologies, five characteristics were clarified as Axis, Deviation, Cul-de-Sac, Concentration, and Dispersion. The restriction of the circulation sequence varies these characteristics as Axis surrounded with volumes, Concentration surrounded with volumes, and Dispersion mounted on volume.
The analysis of the history and of the renovation costs in a wooden detached house clarified the following : A home renovation tends to occur after about 12 or 30 years after the house was built. The residents don't always use the same builders. They make decisions for the renovation by themselves. There are very few cases that an architect joins in a renovation. The house renovation costs are generally related to extension scale and its age. To continue living, preserving the renovation history and making a system that a professional should be involved in the renovation are needed.
The idea of creative industry has been used to renovate many declining areas such as old factories and warehouses by Shanghai government since 2000. This innovation brings many influences to Creative Industry Parks and its surrounding area. In this study, we aimed to clarify how Linong houses which are in the surrounding of the Creative Industry Park are influenced by the development of this Park. According to the research, we found that many Linong houses were converted to commercial shops with fast development. Because of those changes, many problems happened in this area. Through the result, this area needs unified management.
First, mathematical model of possible building space under the setback regulations of Japan Building Standard Law is developed. Second, mathematical model of building form is also developed according to the possible building space, which utilizes the maximum floor area. Third, in order to study the effects of the ease of setback regulation and building height control some simulations are done using these models for a case of residential land-use zoning district in Kanazawa City. As a result of this study quantitative relationship between these regulations and building forms such as total floor area and the maximum building height are clarified and it is also affirmed that the building height control in residential land-use zoning districts by the ordinance does not practically affect the floor area utilization possibility under the land-use zoning.
Cities are increasingly informalizing in the world. In particular, the existence of informal settlements including slum areas is the prevailing phenomenon in the cities in developing countries. These informal settlements are often regarded as problematic areas because they lack basic public services and considered as the areas to be redeveloped by the city authorities. Yet, they are, at the same time, attractive places due to their human scale nature and sense of community. This paper aims at exploring the social ecosystems space of Dharavi in Mumbai, India, one of the largest informal settlements in Asia as one case studies towards the new directions of planning which would be based on local rules developed through people's impromptu as well as incremental efforts for developing communities in informal settlements.
This study clarifies actual condition and problems of district planning activities in farm villages of loose land use regulation area, focusing on the examples of Special Planning Agreement Districts(SPADs) by Kakegawa Citie's Ordinance for ‘Machidukuri’. Kakegawa's SPAD has 3 kinds, one of which is ‘district planning type’. 9 districts as ‘district planning type’ examples have been enforced since early 1990s and have given good effect to long-term land use guideline. On the other hand, various district planning activities flexibly spread against decline and depopulation of village area in each SPAD. These phenomena and level of the active are related with position of residential groups for SPADs in self-governance system and organizational structure of each group.
This study aims to explore a primary contractor's role in conservation of textile mill as a lead for business model of using industrial heritage in Japan. In this research eight case studies were chosen from Osaka and Hyogo prefecture, as it had one of the biggest textile manufacturing areas in Japan. Results are as follows; 1) Regarding a conservation of industrial heritage, it is most important for primary contractor to judge the building's value and to have a strong leadership and decision making. The aim of the projects is not only to preserve the industrial heritage but also to perform the regional arrangement. 2) A success factor for projects of industrial heritage preservation suggests that many relevant facilities should be located around it. 3) Conservation of textile mill project requires long period and consultation, to settle on a development plan and to assemble project grant.
This paper aims to identify current situation of soil contamination countermeasures for England and Japan. It examines the legal framework and estimated stock measurement on contaminated land between the two countries. The primary findings are as follows: 1) The main differences in the Acts for soil contamination between the two countries are found in triggers for inspection, initiatives and ways of handling the whole process of remediation; 2) The number of estimated contaminated sites in the both countries is approximately 330,000. And the rate of site investigations is approximately three times in England than that in Japan; 3) Regarding the soil contamination counter measure, Environmental Act (EPA1990) and planning system (Planning 1990) are closely and jointly well operated in England; and 4) In England the local authority needs to take a strategic approach to the inspection of sites within their district boundary under EPA1990 and each contaminated site is handled by a risk based approach (CLEA) on the comprehensive evaluation of pollutant linkage and land use.
During the past 40 years, 778 projects applied to Urban Renewal Act, have been completed and an urban redevelopment project has a number of achievements in Japan. This study aims to identify the feasibility of project in the size of city by examining the support of public bodies about urban redevelopment projects of business cooperative. The results are as follows. 1) Recently, due to the high possibility of realization as a real estate business, redevelopment projects of mainly residential or in Tokyo wards have increased. 2) The proportion of the area of the public facility and the ratio of subsidy received support from public bodies have been higher in small cities. 3) By taking over public facilities by high price, public bodies were supporting redevelopment projects. 4）In redevelopment projects including condominiums public bodies were involved, there were some cases of public bodies that support redevelopment projects depending on purchasing from business cooperative by high price.
In Hyogo Prefecture, where the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake has caused damage, a project called “senior citizens self-reliance support plaza” is being undertaken to set up bases for providing self-reliance support for senior citizens by utilizing meeting spaces and apartment units in public housing. This study looks at cases that utilized housing units in Kobe City, where there are a large number of such activity bases. The activities primarily include 1) keeping an eye on senior citizens, 2) promoting health, 3) facilitating a community, and 4) establishing a platform for the supporters. Staff members called “close-watch promoters” work with local supporters to provide support to senior citizens who should be watched over. Going forward, they plan to establish bases by utilizing housing units on the first floor and to make private rooms available for consultation. Ideally, the remaining spaces will be turned into one room to hold events. And elevators are essential in housing buildings as the project is for senior citizens. It became clear that a variety of small-scale support activities that are desirable for aged residents in public housing as a benefit of living in a housing unit can be quickly implemented effectively at a low cost.
This study aims to clarify the actual conditions of the housing demand and supply in Senboku Newtown, and to clarify the issues from the viewpoint of the sustainability of the residential area, obtained by analyzing the statistical survey and the three surveys. As a result, 1）there are various houses，but new building houses are almost one's own houses, 2) the public housing ,it has a role of "Pump" , promoted housing relocation, however, the power is being weakened. Recovering the function of “Pump”, and balancing of supply and used houses are issues.
This paper aims at clearing the characteristics and practical use form of the settlement support system including the subsidy system. After 2006 years, local governments that introduced a subsidy system increased, and the governments that appropriate an area residence grant in a part of the source of revenue occupies majority. It is shown that the introduction of the subsidy system was promoted after securing a source of revenue along with the grant system foundation of the country. A form of grappling with the synthetic support that enriched economical and permanent support has appeared and the connection with the related group is planned, and the support system that it made use of the characteristics of each organization has being constructed.
As a result of my consideration of the street speces in the samurai residences area in Hagi after the 18th century, the following points were obtained: 1. In the samurai residences' area, the ideal street spaces of the Hagi Clan was "the orderly street spaces". 2. The Hagi Clan noticed the real facts that was componets of the street spaces, and directed vassals the ideal street sp aces from the begining of 18th century.
This paper clarified the characteristic of the place of Miwa-ryu Sinto Kanjo. Points are forrowings; 1. The "Shintou Kanjo dojo" is formed of the frame of ritual procedure and space from esoteric Buddhism, and equipment of symbol, icons from Shinto. 2. The characteristic of Shintou Kanjou is that, the authority of the created Shinto ritual was guaranteed by using esoteric buddhism Kanjo as a frame of ritual.
The study unveils through field and literature research the spatial structures of the two Okura-syo architectural remains built in the central part of the shogunate-owned Hida Province during Edo period and identifies the unique characteristics and the difference from local Okura-syo in the said province. •Okura-syo was categorized into "urban type" and "local type". •The "urban type" okura consisted of chambers (rooms) placed back to back and had eaves along the whole external walls. •The "urban type" was superior to the "local type" in functionality and design.
Purpose of this study is to compare the locations of okura-syos in various locations such as castle towns, spatial constituent elements, and spatial structures by looking into the okura-syo in the different Domeins located in the Kuzuryu river basin. The study explains the similarities and differences between the Okura-syos in the Fukui Domain and Katsuyama Domain and discusses that these differences or the similarities are attributed to the unique weather conditions in Kuzuryu river basin.
Kindai-Sukisha (a master of the tea ceremony in modern age) made many wooden high-class Japanese style residences. ‘Inakaya’ (country cottage) is a kind of teahouse by Kindai-Sukisha. This article regarded ‘Inakaya’ as a style of the residence in modernization. And it aims at clarifying the origin of ‘Inakaya’ and the process of change from the descriptions in the tea party records by Kindai-Sukisha. The house called an ‘Inakaya’ changed from the small hut to the reconstructed big farmhouse. The point of view of ‘Inakaya’ is that create new style of teahouse by Kindai-Sukisha himself, without an architect or a master of tea.
We study about the relationship between the construction of “Manogu Shrine” and the third generation “Majima Mokutarou” on carpenter specializing in building shrines and temples in Sado Island of Modern era.
This research aims to analyze the different functions of cai, qi and fen applied in the greater carpentry of the Yingzao fashi the oldest complete Chinese architectural manual first issued in 1103, the Song dynasty. Instead of using the units for actual measurement such as zhang, chi, cun, fen and li, cai, qi and fen, three unique modules for measurement are adopted in the greater carpentry. With a focus on this point, 48 items specified in the greater carpentry are regrouped up to clarify that fen works differently from cai and qi. It is supposed that fen is used for detail dimensions, while cai and qi are used for the structural design.
This article examines the Illustrated Plan for Keijo (Seoul) City discovered in materials previously held by Kuratomi Yuzaburo, in terms of its designer, period of production, and significance in the context of urban planning. Based on an examination of the illustrated buildings, it can be inferred that the plan was drafted sometime between November 1912 and August 1913. Furthermore, based on the design of the new Government-General building and the signature, it is possible to confirm that the German architect Georg de Lalande drafted the plans. Much like the plans concentrating Tokyo government buildings in one area, this plan took as its main axis the line running from the palace to Nandaemun station, and planned for the government offices belonging to the Government-General, city hall, and the post office to run along this axis. In line with the trends of contemporaneous Keijo city plans, this design laid out a road grid that utilized existing roads and waterfront spaces utilizing existing water systems.
The present paper aims to elicit a possible architectural genealogy concerning the composition of internal vaultings covered on the main part in early Armenian churches, through the typological analysis. As a result, two lineages for the churches without dome and three for the churches with dome are recognized. Whereas one of the lineages with dome was developed as the vaulting compositions for framing dome initially, other two are regarded as the combinations into which the conventional longitudinal vaulting types without dome and the square domed bay type surrounded by four barrel vaults like a cross merged.
Ralph Adams Cram's architectural book, “Impressions of Japanese Architecture”, reflects his view and appreciation of 7-12 centuries Japanese temples and shrines, which style logically developed from the exigencies of wooden construction, and his idea against Westernization in Japan. Its subject matter was actually understood as a close resemblance to the architectural ideal advocated by “The Craftsman” magazine in the American Arts and Crafts Movement, reflecting an ideological Western architectural trend, a return to honesty and simplicity in construction. In this architectural journal, after 1910s, the texts of Japanese architecture in Cram's “Impressions” became even associated with the Organic Architecture, in the seeking of American national and future style.
This research deals with the critic Karel Teige (1900-1951) who played a role as the important person in the modernization process of the Czech architecture in early 20th century. This research is focused on the aspect as the architecture critic from his activity, and aimed for presenting peculiar positioning as the architecture critic in the history of Czech modern architecture. In this research, this article is aimed to clarify his thought of the architecture in the early 1930's , which is seen in Teige's theory of architecture on his book "Nejmensí byt", and aimed to clarify the parts of the process in modernization of the theoretical architecture of the Czech at the time.
The aim of this study is to clarify the character of architectural space as information in the “Complete works of Le Corbusier”. For that this study analyze the relation of a caption and photograph in the ‘Le Corbusier & Pierre- Jeanneret Œuvres complétes’-en 8 volumes) in 3 aspects below. 1. Written subjects in the caption are classified spatial subject, architectural subject and out of architectural or spatial subject (environmental and objective subject). And analyze the relation between written main subjects and sub subjects within and out of the photographs. 2. Captions are divided 4 informational functions, (spatial information, architectural information, time information, message information) and then extract 15 informational unit types of caption. And characteristics of each informational functions are analyzed according to the combination of 15 informational unit types of caption. 3. Captions that have multiple meanings are analyzed according to the combination of 15 informational unit types.
This paper aims to consider that there are two intentions of preservation coexisting in the grant-in-aid system for preservation of ancient shrines and temples through its process of formation and the end. Multiple intentions of preservation, such as historic sites, ancient styles of shrines and antiques, occurred in the formation context of this system. The system was formed by overlaying these intentions of preservation. I try to prove this system has been one of turning points in the process of generation of the concept of architectural preservation in Japan.
This research presents an interactive 3D modeling system from point cloud of architectural physical model which includes non-convex polygons. A physical model, computer graphics and virtual reality is acknowledged as an effective visualization method, but the creation of them requires a lot of works and costs. 3D Laser Scanner (3DLS) enables works and costs decreased. However, there are some problems such as existence of too many points and lacks, and so on. Therefore, the system “Poly-Opt2012” was developed to create digital 3D model from an architectural physical model. In conclusion, the proposed method was evaluated feasible and effective.