The purpose of this study is to clarify the foundation process of the establishment of junior high school association accompanying the school education law. In Japan, some junior high schools were maintained by the association of municipal corporations in the post-World War Ⅱ period. As a result of nationwide comparison based on quantitative index, the municipal association system had been adopted in some prefectures in which many small-scale municipal corporations located.
In 1947, a new junior high school system for compulsory education was established, and location and school building development were major issues. In Mie Prefecture, I examined the process of developing an independent school building for 10 years, the tendency of location selection when setting up a junior high school by multiple local governments, and cases of disputes related to location selection. From these, I clarified a part of the planning issues related to the location of regional facilities.
“Gekijo” is an ambiguous Japanese word whose concept was borrowed from “theatre”, “teatro”, “théâtre”, etc. of Western cultures, which is used to express a particular institution type alongside those of “hakubutsukan (museum)”, “toshokan (library)”, “byoin (hospital)”, etc.. The problem with its ambiguity can be seen at two different levels: the level of the institution type itself, and that of individual institutions belonging to the institution type. The purpose of this study is to clarify the concept of the word as a technical term and this paper deals with the problem at the former level mentioned above.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the interrelationship between the spatial characteristics of play spaces in childcare facilities, their usage, the ease with which caregivers can observe children, and to clarify the architectural planning requirements for play spaces that support children's independent activities. Twenty-seven childcare facilities with attached play spaces were selected from architectural magazines, and nine interviews were conducted. From the results, the requirements of play spaces that support children’s independent activities are that they should be located close to the nursery and visible from multiple locations, spatially variable, and not dedicated to specific activities or children.
The purpose of this project is to examine the transformation of shrines that have progressed with re-urbanization and to discuss the issues of shrines at the turning point by clarifying the spatial change and development process through a survey of shrines that have been developed under the initiative of the private sector in Tokyo ward area. Through the research, it was clarified that the shrines have progressed due to the unique development, changes in visitors’ behavior, and the creation of new value. On the contrary, the relationship between the various powers surrounding the shrine was found to be unbalanced.
In the event of a major urban disaster, it is unclear whether the present housing assistance will work effectively. Microsimulation is a useful research approach to make preliminary considerations. To carry out a reliable microsimulation, census microdata was used, and the household’s behavior model was developed using an Internet-based questionnaire system. Besides, the microdata of rental housing and construction sites of prefabricated housing was generated. Based on these foundational works, a microsimulation model that illustrates the temporary housing situation following an urban disaster was developed. This article discusses the microsimulation details, the results of calculations, and its usage.
This paper attempts to clarify procedure model of flat agricultural districts in suburban area by examining the spatial composition of surrounding area of country elevators and the appearance of them. Firstly, units of analysis were defined to examine the spatial composition of flat agricultural districts based on land use, its distribution and its density. Secondly, the typical patterns of the appearance of country elevators were analyzed by the variations of arrangement of elevational elements that compose the view from the surrounding viewpoint field. Finally, four procedures and procedure model of flat agricultural districts were isolated by deploying the above-mentioned data.
The purpose of this research is to investigate the association between the urban environment, including the area environment of the place of residence/place of work and commuting environment, and the mental health of workers in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The study reached to following conclusions: 1) Association between the evaluation of urban environment related to work, which includes area environment of the place of work and commuting environment, and mental health was verified. 2) Building types known as “Danchi” have a negative association with the mental health of workers.
In our research, we evaluated the relationship of compact plus network and the water risk (hereafter : 3 indicators) in the residence attraction area. Also, I aimed to get a new perspective on the upcoming direction in the setting of the residence attraction area. As a result, the relationship of 3 indicators can be classified into five groups, revealed that the challenges and future direction in each group is different. Therefore, we made a simulation. In the city that relatively high quality contraction rate, water hazards have decreased, and the compactness and networks are more relaxed than trends.
This study clarifies the role that streetlights played in the development of open port in Niigata during the Meiji era by analyzing administrative documents (Kaikaku-sousyo) and old photographs of the Meiji era. In September 1897, 275 streetlights were equipped in Niigata, a port town by Kusumoto Masataka in the Meiji era.Streetlight had two types, Lighting basket (Tentou-kago) and Lantern (Akari-gi).Streetlights were equipped at crossings and entrances to bridges.The fuel costs (oil costs) of the streetlights in Niigata town were covered by the interest of the relief money (Bikoukin) in case of bad harvest and disaster.
This article examines the joint materials for brick buildings in the Chukyo and Osaka areas before the earthquake, based on the report published by Condor in “NOTES” by a field survey in the area affected by the Nobi earthquake that occurred in 1891. The following points have been clarified.
Conder reported 19 joint materials for brick buildings. The possibility of a chronological index based on brick joints has been pointed out, but according to Condor’s report, there are large regional and individual differences before 1891, and it is not possible to use this as a chronological index.
This article examined the price of Western nails in the prewar period after the middle of the Meiji era. The following points have been clarified.
After the middle of the Meiji era, the price of 2 inch and 1 barrel of Western nails in Tokyo before the war can be found by using “Kinyu jiko sankosho” and “The annual statistical report of the Tokyo chamber of commerce and industry”. The price of Western nails in the prewar period can be seen to have a strong positive correlation with the price of round steel, which is the raw material.
This paper clarified the following three points regarding the Japanese military site setting in Yongsan, Seoul from 1904 to 1907, which was an important occasion to bring about the urban change in Seoul in the early 20th century. First, Yongsan was selected as the area for setting military site in Seoul because the geographical characteristics matched the location conditions required by the Japanese Army. Second, the military site area of Yongsan was finally confirmed in three stages. Third, the first Yongsan military site contained 5.7 times the area required for the military base stationed at the time.
This thesis clarifies the spatial structure of the Shinsei-shotengai and the transition of its operators based on the historical documents left behind by Yoshimura Shokai, the company that built and leased the market. Looking at the construction process of the Shinsei-shotengai and its relationship with land ownership, it became clear that Yoshimura Shokai, the builder of the Shinsei-shotengai, was in charge of adjusting the relationship of rights. The characteristic wooden building with strip windows was read from a structural perspective. We found that 60% of the tenants in the Shinsei-shotengai had been replaced in less than three years.
This study verifies the accuracy of the map of the Herat’s Old City created in 1915 by Oscar Ritter Von Niedermeyer. The map has been used as a reliable source of information on the Old City in the early 20th century. It is compared with the satellite image of Herat City in 2016, and the examination of the city walls, the major facilities, and road networks shows that the map is fairly accurate. It concludes that the parts of the Old City shown on the map but no longer existent may be considered relatively credible.