In the first part submitted prior to this part, we studied why residents are doing illegal construction practices in 70 rai community, Klongtoey, the slum improvement project area, Bangkok, Thailand. As a result, illegal construction practices are limited only within the acceptable level among people.
Based on the first paper through referring to “licit/illicit”, this paper defines “licit architecture” as the house, which incorporates various practices such as deviated from construction rules, taboos of faith and common laws within the acceptable level among people. The aim of this paper will clarify “licit architecture” by focusing on the taboo on house space.
Composition will be analyzed in terms of the house space. House space can be classified into nai baan (inside house) and outside nai baan. Spaces blonging to nai baan are living, bedroom, kitchen, toilet and bathroom and alter room. Spaces belonging to outside nai baan are naa baan (forward nai baan), raan baan (backward nai baan) and veranda. “Extending forward model” and “Full two-story building model” are laid out at naa baan while “Extending forward and backward model” and “Extending forward, backward and second-floor model” are laid out at naa baan and raan baan.
Buddhism and spiritual faith will be analyzed in terms of necessary things and taboos of faiths. Things of Buddhism alter are three types. Things of spiritual faith are sacred posts, shrines and charms. The taboos are on the existence of things, the layout of things, the orientation, the elevation and the remove of things in 70 rai community. The taboo of existence can be classified into three types; a1) Each house must have two sacred posts and shrines. a2) Each house must have at least one of two sacred posts or shrines. a3) Each house may have neither two sacred posts nor shrines. The taboo of layout can be classified into two types; b1) Shrines must lay out at the position of having sunlight. b2) Things for the spiritual faith must lay out at outside nai baan. The taboo of orientation can be classified into three types; c1) Front side of Buddhist things, shrines and their heads while sleeping must not turn to face south or west. c2) It must not turn to face only west. c3) It may turn to face west. The taboo of elevation can be classified into two types; d1) Shrines must lay out at the highest position in the house. d2) Shrines may not lay out at the highest position in the house. The taboo of construction, remove and relocation is only one type; e1) Two sacred posts and shrines must not construct, remove and relocate without the ritual.
Those taboos can be classified into three types. First, the taboos can be seen in only another area including 70 rai community such as a1), b1), c1) and e1). Second, the taboos can be regarded to be seen in only 70 rai community such as a2), b2), c2) and d1). Third, the taboos deviate from another taboo such as a3), c3) and d2). As a result, “licit architecture” can be defined as the house which observes the taboo on the construction, remove and relocation, and layout, at the same time including practice deviated from the taboo on the existence, the orientation and elevation.
The population of Japan has declined since 2008. In the future, it is predicted that varied areas will experience depopulation. Especially in the residential suburbs of Japan, imbalanced age structures are major problems. Therefore, management strategies for diversity of age structure are currently required. In this study, we focused on coal mining city as an example of advanced shrinking area. In this study, we aimed to clarify transformations of age structure according to changes of company housing areas in the point of housing type in Omuta city, Fukuoka prefecture.
Methods are as follows. First, we studied the location and transformation of company housing area primarily by using maps, literature materials and aerial photographs. Second, we investigated housing type composition and age structure mainly by questionnaire data of National Cencus. Finally, we analyzed and evaluated the diversity of age structure by defining "Age Structure Similarity Rate".
Through this study, we made the following things clear; 1)In Omuta city, there were 87 company housing areas of Mitsui group and they were located in DID in 1960. Therefore, we could suggest that the urban area of Omuta city was developed based on company housing areas. Furthermore, Omuta city has a characteristic of the monotonous depopulation, compared to Shiranuka town which experienced the sharp population decline along with the end of coal mining industry.
2)In Omuta city, there are various types of current uses in company housing sites. Regarding housing use, we could confirm detached houses, sold compnay houses, employment promotion houses, improved houses, prefectural and municipal houses, apartments, condomiums and company houses.
3) i) When detached housing areas were developed for coal mine workers based on support system for house ownership by coal mining company, the sharp population aging and imbalanced age structure happened in M town. ii) When detached residential areas were normally developed and company houses were sold for workers, the populatopn aging has advanced with the passing of the years both in redeveloped areas and sold company housing areas, and finally imbalanced age structure happed in K town. Additionally, it appears that private rental houses constructed in company housing sites contribute to diversity of age structure in K town. iii) When developments of detached housing areas and constructions of detached houses happened in phases and employment promotion houses were constructed, the balanced age structure was implemented in N town. iv) When varied housing supplies in company housing sites such as continuation of company houses, constructions of detached houses in phases and constructions of various public houses (employment promotion houses, improved houses and prefectural houses) were conducted, the more balanced age structure was implemented in H town than M town, K town and N town.
From these results, we demonstrated that combination of various housing supplies can contribute to diversity of age structure. Moreover, we found that not only housing type, but support system for house ownership also influenced age structure. In Omuta city, the support system for house ownership caused sharp population aging in M town. Therefore, we need to consider not only housing type but also support system for house ownership in order to form the diversity of housing stocks and age structures. Additionally, this study’s methodology can be applied for study of other residential areas and can be important to as a current state analysis by local government.
In this research, I focus on (1) the situation of the disaster prevention plan concerning the earthquake, (2) the status of the evacuation of the tenants at the time of the earthquake, the assistance of the staff, the situation of help from the outside (Local government, Local resident), (3) disaster relating to the earthquake, It aims to clarify the above problem for "Residences for elderly people with service".
In the survey, I conducted a hearing survey on staff (managerial staff) for five "Residences for Elderly people with service" located in the area where the maximum seismic intensity was observed to be less than 6 at the "2016 Tottori Chubu Earthquake" occurred in October 2016 It was.
The results are as follows:
(1) Although there are cases where facilities standards and manuals for disaster prevention of "Residences for elderly people with service" are determined for each prefecture, they are not decided nationwide uniformly. In Tottori Prefecture, no disaster prevention manual has been formulated, and within the prefecture, correspondence is left to each "Residences for elderly people with service." For the "Residences for elderly people with service" targeted this time, only two of the five properties were planning evacuation targets for the earthquake. Regarding collaboration with the outside, in cases where the establishments operated by group companies are located on the adjacent site, they assumed that they should rescue each other. In addition, there is only one case among the "Residences for elderly people with service" targeted this time, but there are cases in which we have agreements with residents in neighboring areas.
The participation status of the tenants in the evacuation drills differed depending on the high housing conditions, and there were some properties where only the applicants participated in the floor residents with vertical evacuation.
(2) For the evacuation of "Residences for elderly people with service, " they used stairs as well as common apartment houses, but in the case of walkers and wheelchair users, one staff member is burdened, those who are bedridden Evacuation behavior was taken with two staff members enclosed in a sheet and held.
(3) Even with an evacuation plan, it is actually difficult to act according to the evacuation plan. It was caught in the judgment of the evacuation destination from both the property evacuated outdoors and the property staying indoors.
In order to find out the existential values of city halls, which are designed to function as the hub of community life, the second questionnaire survey conducted in 2016 following the first survey in 2006 included additional questions about whether the usage of citizen space has changed before and after the experiences of natural disasters.
Through the observation of transitions in a decade, the study identified, as a whole, no significant changes in the way city halls and citizen spaces were used in 2006 and 2016. Also, no characteristic differences depending on localities or population sizes were identified. The roles of citizen spaces in city halls in the daily life of community residents are identified to remain stable and not to be significantly affected by experiences of natural disasters or time within the span of a decade.
From answers to the question in the 2016 survey about the use of city halls and citizen spaces in connection with natural disasters, no nationwide trend was identified, as each municipality treated public spaces differently during emergencies.
Construction investment has been on the rise since 2011. However, the lack of construction workers and engineers is a serious problem. As the amount of construction project is forecasted to increase until 2020, securing the construction workers and engineers is an immediate agenda for the government, local government, and construction industries.
On the other hand, since 2010, usage of “Cross Laminated Timber (CLT)” has started in Japan. It is attracting attention to reduce carbon emissions by utilizing timber resources as an alternative material for building structures. The authors focused on the fact that assembly construction methods including CLT could shorten the construction period that would lead to saving the workforce and improving the construction work environment.
Fukushima Prefecture decided to develop a total number of 4, 890 public housing, and by 2017, 4707 were built. One project has been constructed by CLT structure with a short construction period of 5.5 months.
This research is about the efficient construction by CLT panel on a low-rise residential building. An actual project “Iwaki CLT public housing for revitalization” had been analyzed which has 57 units on four divided buildings by three stories. Previous researches mainly focus on the structure of the CLT construction, but analysis of planning methods and especially on the productivity of CLT constructions are also in need.
To realize “Iwaki CLT Public Housing for Revitalization”, the authors have proposed several manifests for efficient construction. The hypotheses on design methods and construction schemes were made with the design and building team KIAMI (Fukushima CLT Society), together with two previous researches on “YUGAWA CLT Collective House (2015)” and “TSUKUBA CLT Test House (2015)”.
CLT panel construction had been carried out smoothly from 24th November to 29th December 2017. To prove the hypotheses, a man-hour survey had been conducted during the panel construction process on site. As the research results show, a total of 1, 875 CLT panels (933 wall panels, 499 slab panels, 443 appended walls) have been measured. “Panel setting time” and “crane-up time” for each panel and the number of workers who handled the process was recorded. Finally, design method theories and construction management schemes were created by analyzing research data and documents.
As a result, it is possible to show the agenda for CLT building to improve construction efficiency by introducing CLT.
< Design method theories on panel structure planning >
1. Adequate panel clearance should be chosen. It should be set to 1mm for each CLT panel. Excessive clearance between panels for allowance of panel settings are likely to hinder construction accuracy.
2. The joining method choice by accuracy is more critical than flexibility to have trouble-free construction.
3. Reducing the number of panels is effective for shortening the construction period, and it is practical to design by large panels.
<Guidelines for construction planning and management>
4. Work time tends to converge due to learning effects. Target operating time of CLT wall panels installation can be set to 5 minutes 20 seconds.
5. It is important to manage the order of installation for each work and panels. The panel set order should be planned without panel supports.
The purpose of this study is to propose a scenery development method for the Japanese garden. The Japanese garden usually imitates the beautiful natural scenery. Historically, the garden was prepared for a person of high rank, but nowadays, ordinary people enjoy it in their dairy life. It is very common we make some kinds of garden in various scales, landscapes, streets, parks and houses. The buildings and houses with gardens are very common. However, it is not so easy to make good-looking gardens. We have several garden components, such as trees, grasses, ponds, waterfalls, bridges, and stones. The problem is how to arrange and combine these components in order to make a garden beautiful. To solve this problem, we investigated the Ninomaru garden of Nijo castle as a good example because it is one of the famous sightseeing spots in Kyoto and its scenery is highly appreciated by a number of people including foreigners. We have performed the evaluation experiment using 95 scenery garden photos by 40 subjects, and clarified the following points:
(1) Five viewpoints were identified in the Ninomaru garden. These five viewpoints were spaced at 20-30-meter interval.
(2) Viewpoints at the corner of the neighboring building have multiple gazing areas. This is because that the view angle at the corner of the building is wide and the flexibility of the placement of the garden elements is high.
(3) When a garden scenery has the structure of near side shrubs or gardens stone and far side of stone bridges or garden stones across the pond, it tends to become a pleasing scenery in the longest direction of the pond.
These findings would be of help to choose proper sites for viewpoints and to arrange various garden components when we design a new garden. We would like to evaluate other Japanese gardens in the same manner whether these findings are universally applied to Japanese gardens or only to the Ninomaru garden.
This study examines the relationship between human behavior activities and the street typology of Kampong Kebon Kacang in the central Jakarta administrative city of Indonesia. Using mixed qualitative methods of interviews and observation, the survey was undertaken in two selected community groups representing 110 houses and 693 activities. The survey revealed that while condition of house is related to street openness, the type of activity in the settlement is determined by the width of the street, openness and amenities. The paper suggests the need for street-level modifications such as re-blocking with lots while conserving the positive aspects of kampong urban structure.
This paper focuses on a typical local town, Takayama, Gifu Prefecture, and clarify how this town accepted the City Planning System, which became the national standard, through the local government’s efforts to acquire the management base.
The City Planning Act of 1919 had been standardized to apply to local cities throughout the country. The law was amended in 1933 and it was applied to towns and villages that met the conditions. On the same time, it was a time of Regional Improvement when local towns and villages were required to merge with one another and to carry out self-management preparing basic property as a basic municipality.
Adjacent to Takayama Town, Ohnada Town actively promoted an urbanization plan within the own town area, but just before the merger, it was adjusted to a connection with Takayama. On the other hand, the vision of management in a wide area as “Mountain Capital” including the post-merger was shaping up in Takayama Town. In other words, in a small city with limited developable area in a mountainous region, the policy of expanding the network of surely connecting bases over a wide area had become clear through the leadership of Mayor Naoi.
It was after Naoi became the mayor in 1921 that the town had an active urban vision as an organization. In the early days of the vision formation, hilly area had been planned and developed steadily into parks with the noticeable relationship to the Japan Garden Association. At the same time, there was a task to overcome the disadvantage of the ‘Hida side’ to access Japan Alps, which attracts huge attention as a national park candidate. Then Hida Alps Club was established that sought to connect Takayama with Mount Norikura and Japan Alps. A personal network which connected Mayor, personages, officials, and national engineers become the mother body of "Mountain Capital" concept that created a foundation that contributed to sightseeing. As a result, Mayor Naoi acquired a comprehensive plan centred on the park system in the suburb hilly area and the tourism road connecting with the Japan Alps. Together with the four towns and villages, a city planning area was decided based on this concept similar to the regional planning.
This concept had been nurtured since before Takayama became a city planning city, and formed as a comprehensive city management plan in conjunction with the parks and roads construction regardless of the city planning area. The main projects contained in this comprehensive plan were in accordance with the city planning standards, but carried out steadily with coordinating among the related parties, without waiting for the city planning decision. The designation of this city planning area became the climax of the primary city planning in Takayama. In the process of regional reorganization, simplified city planning system for town and village played important role outside the planning system, as a framework to bundle up infrastructure developments necessary to control various actors and resources in order to promote regional management.
During high economic growth period, due to industrial transformation and urbanization, living industries, for example fishery and agriculture, have declined in the metropolitan area. In this study, the district where fishery disappeared with such background is called “a former fishery district in the metropolitan area”. Urayasu Motomachi District, composed of 3 areas: Horie, Nekozane, and Todaijima, is a typical example of it, and the target area of this study. The district ended the fishery in 1971, and started the urbanization from opening the subway (in 1969). This study is focusing on the spatial transformation and inheritance in “a former fishery district”, where fishery disappeared due to industrial transformation and urbanization. Particularly, 1) Understanding the transformation of the entire district, 2) Finding some specific spatial characteristics. Our goal is to clarify the spatial characteristics of “a former fishery district”.
Originally, the district started from the residential area and surrounding farmland of the fishery town. Before the development during high economic growth period, the residential area of Horie and Nekozane was a center of the district, from the viewpoint of population and commercial accumulation. However, the land improvement project and the new transport infrastructure constructed in the surrounding farmland changed the situation. The new commercial accumulation was made in the area around the subway station or along the new trunk road, and the former commercial accumulation was almost disappeared. The population was rapidly increased in the surrounding farmland area, and the center of this district was moved.
Focusing on the residential area in 3 areas. In all of them, street networks and block compositions have not changed so much between the time of fishery and now. We can regard it as the inheritance of spatial composition. In addition, we can point out some inheritance of historical components (ex. temples, traditional houses). Oppositely, waterfront space has changed its spatial role. In the past, it was a front place of the district, because it was a place of living industry. However, parking / greening / river-dike construction made the place back, even though it remains a public space. In addition, with the extinction of living industry and commercial accumulation, apartments and parking were radically increased, and the area was changed its role.
The built environment analysis in a selected block found some townscape characteristics. In the relationship between alleys and streets, we can see the “MICHINIWA” composition. Even though the land-use was entirely changed, some original built environments have been inherited from the fishery time. Between each 3 areas, we can guess the relationship between the difference of the townscape characteristics and the difference of street networks and block compositions. The difference of streets and blocks are inherited from the fishery time, so we can point out that the difference of townscape characteristics.
Our conclusions of spatial transformation of “a former fishery district” are as follows:
1. With the industrial transformation / urbanization, the center of the district has moved from a fisherman’s residential area to the area around the subway station or along the new trunk road.
2. In each fisherman’s residential area, even though the land-use of each site has radically changed, there are some characteristics of space composition.
3. There are some differences of the space composition between each fisherman’s residential area, and each townscape characteristic reflects the differences.
Most suburban areas face the social issues of aging and declining population, and decrease number of public and commercial facilities. However, the inflow of new generations and diversification in residents’ lifestyles is also happening simultaneously. Therefore, in order to effectively reorganize suburbia for the coming decades, it is significant to observe facility transition and its location trend in the era of population decline and aging societies. In this thesis, the Midorigaoka-machi (Midorigaoka) area and the Shizimicho-Aoyama (Aoyama) area were chosen as case studies. The facilities of these areas have been collected from residential maps and classified into 7 groups and 29 types. The transition and present situation are determined by the differences between the “Land Use Plan,” “District Plan,” and the characteristics of each zone in the area. Furthermore, spatial-autocorrelation and questionnaire surveys have been used to elucidate the location trend and residents’ utilization of facilities.
As a result of observing the facility transition in the overview of the entire region as well as in each district, three inferences were made: 1) the dine-out and purchasing facilities have decreased in number with the decline in population and aging of society; 2) the number of life-services, welfare-services, and educational facilities have increased; 3) Midorigaoka-Machi area, which was developed earlier, finds itself having decreased number of facilities in comparison to Shizimicho-Aoyama.
By analyzing the relationship between facility location trends and the characteristics of each district and zones, the following two inferences were made: 1) none of facilities gather at any particular Specific Zones or Land Use Plans; 2) the District Plan gives more effect to accumulation of facilities than the Land Use Plan.
Through the spatial auto-correlation analysis, three location trends were observed: 1) Both facilities with aggregation trends and facilities not showing such a trend existed; 2) There were two types of cases: where the facility toward aggregation was due to the decrease of its number and where the aggregated trend of the facility type existed through the construction of new facilities neighboring similar facilities.
From the results of the questionnaire survey, the following two points were found: 1) Residents use facilities that are used daily in their residential area; 2) Most residents move to urban areas or near huge shopping malls to use recreational facilities and facilities which are otherwise hard to use on a daily basis.
In combination, the nine statements above made the following points clear:
i) the mechanism of facility fluctuation:
a) the trend of fluctuation depends on the facility group;
b) the facility mostly increases at/beside the main artery;
c) the demographic difference between two detached residential areas results in distinction in facility types
ii) the mechanism of the facility aggregation:
a) two patterns of aggregation were stated;
b) a District Plan has more possibility of controlling facility aggregation than a Land Use Plan;
c) aggregation by decreasing number of facilities happens at the inner parts of the residential area;
d) aggregation by increasing number of facilities happens at the edge of the residential area.
In Japan, the number of super high-rise condominiums have been rapidly increasing since 2000 in urban redevelopment areas. Now these condominiums have gained great popularity because of their convenient locations and excellent views. On the other hand, it is necessary to build interaction in the local communities in order to take measures appropriately such as large scale repair of building and disaster prevention.
The purpose of this study is to grasp residents’ characteristics, their relationships, shared community facilities and residential environment of super high-rise condominiums, moreover, clarify related factors of neighborhood relationships towards activation of residents’ interaction, especially focusing on parents of children and elderlies.
We conducted questionnaire survey for residents in nine super high-rise condominiums in Musashi-Kosugi area, Kawasaki city. In addition, we carried out field survey of shared community facilities and on-site outdoor spaces of each condominium, and interview survey to each management association.
Approximately 80% of the residents have the will to continue living and attached to the local area. Also, approximately 70% of the residents go out over six times a week, 70% of them often talk with neighbors, and 40% of them have relationships with family members in the neighborhood. In addition, we cannot recognize a difference of each characteristic of age group, household members and scale of living space according to the level of floor where each resident live on.
Focusing on parents of children, the majority of them have active relationships with their neighbors. Especially both their high willingness to participate in the local activities and their high utilization of shared community facilities have correlations to their active neighborhood relationships.
On the other hand, a certain number of elderlies have conversations with neighbors frequently, however, they have inactive relationships with family members in the neighborhood. Also, some elderly people have high willingness to participate in the local activities, nevertheless, the degree of their willingness to manage in the neighborhood association decline as their ages go up.
The factors related to the strength of elderlies’ neighborhood relationships are the degree of willingness to continue living, length of conversation time a day, and the degree of attachment feeling to the local area. Meanwhile, most of them don’t use shared community facilities, and there was little correlation between the high willingness to participate in the local communities and the active neighborhood relationships. Therefore, it is estimated that they need much time to form active neighborhood relationships.
In order to activate the interaction in the local communities, it is necessary for parents of children to enhance use of shared community facilities and outdoor spaces for children playing. Moreover, we consider that it is important to change the rules to make easier to use shared community facilities and to make more safety playground at outdoor spaces. On the other hand, it is important for elderlies to build places to make natural connections through the same interests such as hobbies and to create the opportunities of pleasant activities by using shared community facilities and on-site outdoor spaces.
The actual situation of population distribution in cities varies greatly depending on the date and time, and the earthquake occurrence time can make a big difference to the extent of damage. As estimated by the national government and the local municipality, the earthquake occurrence times follow three patterns: (1) winter at 5 p.m., (2) summer at noon, and (3) winter at 6 p.m. Such damage estimations consider data from a census conducted once every five years as demographics. Although the reliability is high, the problem is that the findings cannot reflect the recent population situation, consider the trend of population by the day of the week, or reflect a realistic picture of the daytime population dynamics because these are statistics pertaining to a night population. NTT DOCOMO has developed a new technique to determine population statistics called Mobile Spatial Statistics (MSS), which estimates the actual population based on mobile phone operation data. It can serve as a tool to understand the population distribution of cities with rapid fluctuations. However, there are few studies that focus on understanding the population dynamics of a single day at times of normalcy and clarifying issues on local disaster response using MSS. Therefore, this study indicates the possibility of the application of MSS in times of normalcy to earthquake damage estimation and disaster prevention plans.
This study consists of four parts. The first part reveals the features and accuracy of MSS by comparing them with population census data. In Nagoya city area, MSS at 4 a.m. on a weekday exceeded the census population data in all ages because about 10% of the MSS’s population comprised visitors from other municipalities. However, the excess rate was 4% to 20%, thereby showing that the MSS maintains accuracy.
The second part elucidates the local disaster characteristics of Nagoya city by combining the classification of daily population trends and building collapse risk on a weekday (Wednesday, July 12, 2017) and on a holiday (Saturday, June 3, 2017), Classifications into five characteristics based on daily population trends were performed using cluster analysis by MSS on the population within a 1 km square. By combining those classification results with building collapse risk, it is clear that there are differences in the areas and time zones in which the risk of disaster increases.
The third part, with regard to population inflow areas by classification results, examines the risk of victims who are unable to return home. A past estimation used the Person Trip Survey (PTS), which has been conducted once every 10 years on weekdays in each city in Japan. This study estimates the number of victims unable to return home by using MSS. Therefore, it considers not only the latest population data but also that of the holidays. Using it together with the PTS could lead to formulating detailed measures.
The fourth part analyzes changes in local disaster response capability based on changing trends in the aging rate and the composition of fire brigade volunteers in population outflow areas by classification results. In particular, during daytime on weekdays, there are areas and time zones in which disaster risk will increase because the proportion of elderly people who require assistance during a disaster increases, and the fire brigade often work outside of the area. A series of analysis results using MSS can effectively serve as basic data for earthquake damage estimation and disaster prevention plans considering the day of the week and time.
While reconstruction projects and land use regulations have been implemented according to urban recovery plans in each area affected by the tsunami following the Great East Japan Earthquake, the impact of these projects and regulations on the industry sector has been pointed out. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the relationship between business recovery and the implementation of urban recovery plans after tsunami disasters such as urban reconstruction projects and disaster risk area designations. We developed time series panel data of each establishment before and after the disaster using individual data of the Economic Census, inundation range data, reconstruction project area data, and disaster risk area data. The panel data can help identify the status of establishments and analyze the factors affecting business recovery.
First, using the panel data, we examined the influence of inundation damage and business characteristics on business recovery. Inundation damage caused by the tsunami was one of the factors promoting the failure of establishments: the greater the inundation depth, the smaller the survival rate, and the longer the impact on survival. Business characteristics were also related to survival. Smaller establishments had smaller survival rates. Moreover, the survival rates of smaller establishments decreased signiﬁcantly, especially when the inundation depth was large. A comparison by industry sectors revealed that the survival rate of inundated establishments was lower than that of non-inundated establishments in all sectors, but the difference in percentage varied depending on the sectors. In some industry sectors, establishments were likely to exit, while in others they were likely to survive.
Next, we examined the influence of the implementation of urban reconstruction projects and the designation of the disaster risk areas on the survival of establishments. Since reconstruction projects were implemented and disaster risk areas were designated in places where the inundation damage was large, and because the composition of the establishment characteristics varied greatly inside and outside the areas, it could not be determined immediately whether project implementation or area designation themselves had a negative impact. It was thus necessary to show that survival rates differ inside and outside the areas, independently of the influence of inundation and business characteristics. We created contingency tables based on inundation depth, industry sector, and employee size and ran independence tests. The results revealed that there was a signiﬁcant difference between the survival rates of establishments inside and outside the reconstruction project areas after controlling the depth of inundation, industry types, and number of employees. The same applied to the survival rates inside and outside the disaster risk areas. In other words, besides inundation damage, industry sectors, and number of employees, implementation of reconstruction projects and designation of disaster risk areas were some of the factors that impeded survival.
This paper develops 3D isovist graph analysis system by expanding 2D isovist graph system which has been developed for urban design analysis tool. 2D isovist graph has been assumed to be humans’s isovist area as a network of isovist edges on a plane parallel to the flat ground. 3D isovist graph enables to evaluate the space with a geography which has height difference. For this purpose, at first, it is tried to clarify the difference between 2D isovist graph and 3D isovist graph by the case-study using virtual geography model with numerical index as NS(Neighborhood Size), MD(Mean Distance), MSD(Mean Step Distance), which are popular index as well in graph theory analysis. The difference between 2D and 3D isovist graph is verified by color maps and scatter plots and numerical result of these index. Furthermore, by applying this model into real geography data of a university campus, it is confirmed that 3D geography influences people’s sight in the campus quantitatively. Then the effectiveness of the 3D isovist graph in practical campus design field is verified.
As the result of the first case-study using virtual geography shows clear difference between 2D and 3D isovist graph according to the verification of color maps, scatter plots and numerical values of three index. Second case-study with real geography in a university campus which has height difference also shows a difference between 2D and 3D isovist graph. Comparing correlation coefficient of NS and MSD value both 2D and 3D isovist graph, few conspicuous disparities are found between both. However, conspicuous disparity between 2D and 3D are found from the color maps. Moreover, there are differences of position of Max and Min value of the index comparing both 2D and 3D. Although the position of Min MSD value in 2D isovist graph is in the center of bottom ground surface of the geography, the position by using 3D space model analysis is around the edge of slope faced on 25m level from the sea . This result shows that 3D isovist graph can find more certain position along with empirical laws than 2D.
From the results obtained in these case-studies, when we use 2D isovist graph analysis though its actual geography includes height difference, we will have a risk of misunderstanding actual condition of humans’ sights. This also gives evidence of effectivity of 3D isovist graph. The detailed influence of the geography which is shown in MSD value is found quantitively and graphetically by using 3D isovit graph. These influences which are shown in MSD have been instinctively expected using such as contour models and computer graphics in practical campus design field. 3D isovist graph analysis gives more certain quantitative evidence for decision of design.
Improving the algorithm of Dijkstra’s method enables plotting more points and making larger and higher dense maps of 3D isovist graph. This makes it possible to expand the application field of this system for larger area, for example, regional design and urban design.
This study clarifies the stopper effect for urban expansion of recent Green Belt policy in local cities of UK, taking West Midlands and Stoke on Trent Green Belt as case studies. Through the empirical analysis method of planning documents and field survey, the followings are concluded.
1) While the origin of Green Belt as modern urban planning instrument could be gone back around 1900, it was after 1955 Circular that Green Belt applied to all over the country.
2) The purpose and objective of Green Belt have been kept since the beginning of 1955 Circular to present National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) fundamentally.
3) As the controversy on Green Belt, there has been that Green belts have restricted economic development in places and region which need development, have been a weak instrument of regional strategic planning, have forced too much growth on towns and villages beyond the Green Belts, and have done little to improve the appearance of open land or to promote the provision of recreation, etc.
4) The Green Belt policy of NPPF is enforced through the adoption of Local Plan by central government and the planning permission system for each development. Especially the releases of Green Belt by housing developments are done after clarifying ‘exceptional circumstances’ which means that local authority conducts strategic housing availability assessment, for example, on the planning process of Local Plan.
5) In the case where there is less land for necessary housing supply like Solihull, releases of Green Belt are done on the edge of urbanized area with smaller scale along sustainable development concept but outside Green Belt like Lichfield there in no release and necessary developments are distributed on the adjacent of urbanized area or existing settlements with larger scale developments, some of which are not touched on the Green Belt boundary. These kinds of strong gaps between inside and outside of Green Belt cause the increasing of housing price differences.
6) Regarding on the effect of metropolitan region level citing West Midlands as an example, the population of almost cities inside Green Belt declined in 1980s and 90s but all cities outside were increasing. After 2000 inside cities also changed into population increase but outside cities have been kept increasing up to now.
7) In the case of Green Belt for depopulating city like Stoke-on-Trent, since the first adoption of Green Belt there has been less boundary change. While urban regeneration policy has been activated in many city centers since Blair Labor Party Government of 1990s, urban regeneration including housing intervention has been conducted also in Stoke-on-Trent. These locations were near city center or town centers. Green Belt has kept the effect especially for ‘the support of urban regeneration’.
When we consider the future area division system in Japanese planning instrument some lessons of Green Belt could be applied to it.
This paper aims to clarify the relationship between subjective well-being and environmental cognition. The elementrecall method was used to capture environmental cognition. The results of the analysis show the following:
1) Being able to recall many or relatively diverse elements within the respondent’s neighborhood positively correlates with subjective well-being. Meanwhile, the spatial distribution of the recalled elements does not correlate with subjective well-being.
2) Well-being and ill-being have different relationships with environmental cognition. The relationship between ill-being and environmental cognition is affected by sex.
3) Being able to recall elements that are not visited daily positively correlates with subjective well-being.
Jibutsudo is written in ’Meigetsuki’ (The Record of the Clear Moon) of Teika Fujiwara. There is Jibutsudo in Teika Fujiwara’s house at Ichijyokyogoku. The precedent study depends on ‘Kokusho-kankokai’ book. We should assume the original handwriting book of the Reizeikeshiguretei series the first historical materials. I compare the original handwriting book with ‘Kokusho-kankokai’ book.
‘Kokusho-kankokai’ book does not have one written character ‘Do’. The original handwriting have one written character ‘Do’. I performed the confirmation.
Jibutsudo is ‘Sankendo’. A certain Jibutsudo is a small building near a house.
I showed a scale of Jibutsudo by an original handwriting book. I reconsider it about Jibutsudo. I show an own plan.
In ancient China, although the changing dynasties frequently, the architecture of “Den” has hardly changed. It is limited to the Emperor's residences. On the other hand, Japan’s “Den” is regarding as originated from China, but the meaning of “Den” has changed greatly. Initially, the last word “Den” was limited to the residences of the Emperor’s family, which resembles China, but it used in the residences of nobleman as the age declines. The Commons and differences are existing in the way of using “Den” between Japan and China. I would like to clarify the transition process of “Den” in Japan while considering the reason for those differences.
In this paper, I mainly use historical records and nobility diary 4 books, Nihonkiryaku, Hyakurensyo, Hontyoseiki, Shoyuki. I am conducting surveys by reading whole passages, as it has seen that the last word of the residence changed from “Tei” to “Den”, “Den” to “Tei”, or mixed use of “Den” and “Tei”. So as to clarify the transition process of “Den”, I gathered all the descriptions used in “Den” and “Tei” of the residences from historical materials, clarified the actual situation. Following information was revealed about the
① The mixed use of “Den” and “Tei” starts in the Emperor ichijyo. Biwatei is the first example. Which is the Michinaga Fujiwara’s residence, and serve as the Imperial Palace of Emperor itijou. There is an existence of Michinaga Fujiwara in the mixed background.
② Since then, along with the Satoteirika, cases of mixed use of “Den” and “Tei” are increased. Such as Nijou, Kyogoku and Takakura. It is possible that the back of Satoteiri influenced the transformation of “Den”.
③ The increase in the number of “Den” and “Tei” mixed use is remarkable during the inseiki period. Despite being nyoin and Emperor’s father, it uses “Tei” instead of “Den”.
④ On the other hand, in nobleman’s residences and villas outside Heiankyo, “Den” used in place of “Tei”. The location may be related to the deviation of the principle.
⑤ The percentage of cases where the part that should be marked as “Tei” is larger than the case where the term “Tei” is marked as “Den”. Den’s transformation is “Den” closed to the “Tei”, but we cannot treat them as the same, it will hinge on the content of the articles. This is a big difference from the last word of “Den” in China.
⑥ Sanesuke Fujiwara was highly conscious of using “Den” and “Tei”. However, did not thoroughly use it. The usage of “Den” runs in a groove.
The mixed use of “Den” and “Tei” was hit in the Heian period while Emperor itijou, Michinaga’s period. The time when Japan's unique culture had developed against the cultures of the Nara period when China’s influence was strong. During the period of the inseiki, the increase in mixed use of “Den” “Tei” also estimated as a reflection of urbanization of Heiankyo.
In this research, based on the field survey and the literature survey, the mechanism of the heating system of the Neesima’s residence was clarified, and the following findings were obtained. 1) The heating system of Neesima’s residence is a hot air heating system, which was extremely rare in the Meiji era. The structure of the heating equipment was closer to Cockle Stove than Calorifere. 2) The outside air is taken in by creating a wind path under the floor. This method was used as a heating and ventilation method for school buildings in the United States around 1860 to 1880.3) The exhaust duct from near the floor of the first floor was passed through the furnace to enforce exhaust by the chimney effect. This can be expected to be a countermeasure against having to install the furnace on the first floor instead of the basement floor and arranging the air outlet near the ceiling. 4) The first and the second dormitory of Doshisha University, which were completed in 1876, are similar in size and the plan of the Neesima’s residence. Therefore, Japan's first hot air heating is likely to have been the same heating method as Neesima’s residence.
How did architect Antoni Gaudi get the idea from anatomical study to make sculptures of Sagrada Familia church? We know that he studied so hard to find out the ideal form for each sculptures, however we don't know where his idea came from.
This paper discuss that A. Gaudi was influenced by an aesthetician Pau Mila y Fontanals. Pau Mila was a professor of aesthetic in Barcelona at that time. He is a brother of aesthetician Manuel Mila y Fotanals on whom the author did research in the previous paper. Pau Mila’s original drawing which was used for his classes are archived in La Reial Acadèmia Catalana de Belles Arts de Sant Jordi. These drawings emerge the philosophy of this aesthetician indicating that the anatomical study was essential to find the best form in nature beauty. On the other hand, he wrote one book about his aesthetic theory ”Estetica Infantil” which explains his ideas. Juan Matamala, the one of the disciple of A.Gaudi, wrote that it was the Gaudi’s favorite book. Thus it is reasonable to compare the ideas of the aesthetic of Pau Mila y Fontanals and the architectural theory of Antoni Gaudi in this paper.
In this paper, the author compares on the ideas of Art, Ornamentation, Creation, Poem, and Architecture.
On Art, A. Gaudi was influenced by a lot of artistic knowledge from Pau Mila y Fontanals. Especially in Italian Renaissance Art. And also the anatomical study for Sagrada Familia’s sculpture was based on the idea of the aesthetic method of Pau Mila y Fontanals. The Origen of the creation process for the sculptures for Sagrada Familia is as same as that of ideal the painting of Pau Mila y Fontanals. On the ornamentation, A. Gaudi said that the ornamentation by itself can be an architecture. Therefore the amount is not an important but the content is more important. Pau Mila y Fontanals wrote the same theory. On the creation, A. Gaudi said that the artists don’t create but discover. The principal of the aesthetic of Pau Mila included the same idea of A. Gaudi that tried to discover some ideas from nature.
On the Poem, the background of the words of A.Gaudi which express on the truth of beauty came from Pau Mila’s Philosophy. On the Architecture, There was a few influence form Pau Mia y Fontanals theory in the theory of A. Gaudi. The author defines the influence on Architecture from Manuel Mila y Fontanals was much stronger than that of Pau Mila y Fontanals. Therefore the author find that Manuel Mila y Fontanals had several influences on A. Gaudi’s aesthetic idea for architectural design.
Through previous three papers, these studies was started from the words of J. F. Rafols’ book saying that A. Gaudi was discipline of the brother Mila y Fontanals, and the author found that there were deep aesthetic influence and background in the theory of A. Gaudi’s architectural theory.
The purpose of this report is to clarify the Japanese landscape gardener Shigemori Mirei’s theory about the gardening from his descriptions about “Modern”. He is a person who had a great influence on Japanese gardens from both practical and theoretical perspectives by leaving the results of the survey with many publications and works. In this research, we try to clarify his thought with documents, which he has left by taking an approach to explore a part of his theory about the gardening. The “Modern” that he used is distinct from the concept of “Modernism” in the architectural field. For the above fact, we focus on the description of “Modern” written by himself to structure the meaning of description expressed by Shigemori in this research.
2. Overview of the descriptions about “Modern”
We can find the descriptions about “Modern” from “Garden Pleasure of Create and Appreciate” in 1958. He held up the phrase “Eternal Modern” as his principle of gardening to make “Nature” reach “Super Nature”. The descriptions about “Nature” and “Super Nature” are used before the descriptions about “Modern”, and are thought to be a pioneer of the idea of “Modern”. The descriptions about “Modern” are categorized into following four.
I.Context describing the characteristics of tea ceremony
II.Context describing the characteristics of the old garden
III.Context describing the characteristics of the contemporarily designed gardens and architecture
IV.Context describing the attitude and thought of the author who creates the gardens
3. Context in the descriptions about “Modern”
In this chapter, we analyzed the theory of “Modern”. His ideal was to draw up the “Modern” of the past tea ceremony and to create garden by “Abstract expression”. “Creation” and “Abstract expression” are regarded as the life of tea ceremony. The descriptions about “Modern” is used to explain his works for the first time at his work collection in 1964. The descriptions about “Modern” after his work collection is used not only for concrete things, but also for a conceptual things indicating “IV.Context describing the attitude and thought of the author who creates the garden”. The author aims for “Eternal Modern” beyond the era, regardless of past or modern time.
The characteristics of the descriptions about “Modern” of Shigemori Mirei, which has become clear through this paper are as the following.
①Shigemori has already used the descriptions about “Modern” not only for modern things but also for past tea ceremony and old garden at the beginning of use of the descriptions about “Modern”.
②The descriptions about “Modern” is also used as an example showing simply new things such as “Garden tree”, “School building”, “Architecture” which is a modern era.
③With the publication of the works collection in 1964, the descriptions about “Modern” will be used also for his works.
④After the collection of the works, the descriptions about “Modern” is developed not only for concrete things and works but also as conceptual things such as “Ideal” or “Truth”.
⑤Especially in the later years, he often uses the descriptions about “Modern” as a term explaining his garden.
We perceive that the process of the change as a gardener and as a researcher observing the old garden or the tea ceremony. This process is integrated as his idea.
(Section1) This is part 2 of the study which analyses Kazuo Shinohara’s design logic expressed through the conception of “ordinary/extraordinary” that is consistent through the four styles and clarifies the correlations between his logic and his works. This paper is intended to identify how the change of words modified by “ordinary/extraordinary” across the four styles (identified in previous paper) are correlated with the change in structural forms and spatial forms.
(Section2) We classify structural forms into independent structures and ancillary structures and measure their volume, number of vertices, and surface areas. With these, we classify structural forms into several types through cluster analysis. The results are as follows:
1. Structural forms are classified into twelve types.
2. Seven types out of twelve have corresponding relationships with the four styles.
3. Many small simplex structural forms are identified in the first style. No structural forms are recognized in the second. In the third style, volumes and surface areas are especially bigger than the other styles, emphasizing the expression of structural forms. There are many small complex structural forms in the fourth style.
(Section3) Spatial forms are quantified by counting the numbers of vertices, curved surfaces, notched surfaces, and spatial units, and measuring notched surface areas and the length of intersecting lines. Using these numbers, we classify spatial forms into several types through cluster analysis. The results are as follows:
1. Spatial forms are classified into nine types.
2. Six types out of nine have corresponding relationships with the four styles.
3. There’re many simplex forms in the first style. Many forms have staircases in the second style. No specific tendency is identified in form in the third style. Many notched and intersecting forms are found in the fourth.
(Section4) Through theses analyses, we examine the correlation between the text and the structural forms and between the text and the spatial forms. The results are as follows:
A. Correlation between text and structural forms
1. Neither affirmative nor negative “substances (objects)” appear in his texts for the first and second styles. Other than the tendencies toward small simplex structural form in the first style and “no structure” in the second, there’s no correlation.
2. For the third style, “substance (object)” is identified in the texts. The coexistence of affirmative “ordinary” and “new ordinary” substances (objects) corresponds with the structural forms that are expressed more largely and strongly than the other styles.
3. For the fourth style, affirmative “ordinary/extraordinary” “substance (objects)” are identified in the texts. There’s a tendency toward small complex structural form but there’s no clear correlation.
B. Correlation between text and spatial forms
1. For the first style, affirmative “extraordinary” spaces and scale are identified in the texts. There’s tendency toward simplex forms, but there’s no correlation.
2. For the second style, both “ordinary” space and irrational, abstract and neutral “extraordinary” spaces are affirmed in the texts. There’s a tendency toward spatial form with staircase, but there’s no correlation.
3. For the third style, “space” is not identified in his texts and there’s no tendency toward spatial form, therefore, there’s no correlation.
4. For the fourth style, correlation is found between the texts―“extraordinary” spatial fragments and forms, and their conjugation― and the spatial forms that have many notched forms intersecting with multiple spatial units.
This paper focus on the repairs/modifications process which have been carried out at the Yoyogi National Stadium and clarifies the following four points:
(1) In 1978, the special committee on the repairs/modifications works for the Yoyogi National Stadium proposed the surface coating of fair-faced concrete walls as a policy to extend the building longevity.
(2) The arena in the Main Gymnasium was modified from the original two pools to a floor space in response to the change of social conditions caused by the oil crisis or the needs of the times to enhance service availability of public facilities.
(3) The repairs/modificaions reports published in a monthly magazine titled “Monthly National Stadium” covered only the large-scale works carried out forthe Yoyogi National Stadium. However, the research reports on the main rope and anchor blocks of the Main Gymnasium were not included.
(4) In 1977, Kamiya, Kawaguchi, Inoue and Murohashi were nominated as members of the special committee on the repairs/modifications works for the Yoyogi National Stadium. Since then, they persevered in their efforts to conserve the Stadium.
Visual information has a strong influence on human behavior and it is important to confirm how building and urban form looks like when planning architectural and urban design. Although physical models or perspective images are used to confirm the appearance of space in general, these methods can be said to be sensory and qualitative evaluation methods. Based on the above, the authors aim to develop a method to quantitatively obtain the appearance of surrounding spatial components inside and outside the building, and to apply it to various kinds of spatial analysis.
The tool for analyzing geometric appearance feature that the authors developed in previous research can obtain apparent size and visual distance for each type of visual object. However, despite the presence of discrete multiple visual area units in the visual area to one type, the tool could not subdivide them. In this research, we propose a method for subdivision of visual area and automatically visualizing omnidirectional detailed visual area constitution.
The flow of a case study for verifying the proposed subdivision method in this research is as follows.
Step-1: In order to obtain the features of the geometric appearance, we use geometric calculation with 3D model using gaze vector array by Fibonacci lattice.
Step-2: We propose the subdivision method as a combination of three processing; type division, object ID division, and area division.
Step-3: We evaluate four types of their combination procedure; (1) type-ID division, (2) type-area division, (3) type-ID-area division, and (4) type-area-ID division.
We confirmed that (3) type-ID-area division is the most effective in subdivision of visual area units through the case study. However, since non-negligible errors occurred, we proposed the way to correct errors and confirmed its effectiveness.
From the above results, we could propose a method for computing and visualizing detailed geometric appearance feature using architectural 3D model.