This study is focused on the relation between the residential area and the public transport system in the city, and tries to find out new ways for urban residential planning. The aim of this study is to research the actual state of the residential area in the area along the railway, and to prepare a base outline of its spatial characteristics. This outline material aims to be a useful basis for designing, updating and maintenance of the residential environment located along the railway in the future. The research method is primarily done through visual observation of the buildings facing the railway, the state of roads around the stations, pedestrian routes, the railroad route form, and the use of the land area along a railway line. The results showed that the area along the railway consists mainly of low-rise wooden buildings functioning as residential area, and that a lot of problems concerning city planning were identified.
By the mid of 19^<th> century shophouse have became one of the most predominant urban architecture in Southeast Asian Countries, however, as an uncolonized country, the emergence and development of shophouse in Ratanakosin, the old core of Bangkok, were different from those of the neighboring Southeast Asian Countries. They were freely constructed without the control of any ordinances or building codes but were shaped by demand of the royalty and Privy Purse Bureau. They could enjoy full use of shophouse space without any requirement for the construction of front arcaded walkway. By this reason, although Ratanakosin shophouses were developed in the same period and influenced by those of neighboring countries, their formation process and spatial formation were different. This research demonstrates that with the fragmental and periodical city planning of Ratanakosin, shophouses formed to be the predominant urban form with their simple spatial patterns. This paper clarifies formation and distribution of shophouses. It also discusses the typology of shophouses and transformation of shophouse plans in order to obtain the basic conclusion for more comprehensive research of transformation process of shophouse spatial pattern in the following paper.
Increasing of double-income, non-blood and single or couple family has revealed the limit of the nLDK housing for nuclear family. In this paper, spatial organization model for future family is proposed and based on the model works of houses are analyzed. We hypothesized that family functions are substituted by the habitation network which builds relationship not only between individuals other than blood relatives, but also between individuals and regional society are substitute for family function. The notion of the Open Common is proposed as a domain in which a resident interact with other people who constitute this habitation network. Furthermore, a model plan and existing houses of the free adaptation type are presented and analyzed.
The aim of this study is to clarify the difference of the principles of layout structure between the old Essex Design Guide and the new with the analysis of the respective backgrounds. The cul-de-sac in modern estate design was invented by Unwin (1863-1940) and Parker (1867-1947), and has been developed to the one in the old guide. The cul-de-sac in the old guide is used as a method to create a Townscape and to control car traffic. On the contrary, deformed grid was adopted by the new guide with the concepts of permeability and legibility. The deformed grid is used in the new guide from the point of view of the interrelationships between buildings, spaces and human activities.
The objectives of this paper are clarifying actual features of the orientation to lifetime homes in newly built residences in Japan. Wheel chair movements possibility around rooms and the fundamental facilities such as toilets, bathrooms, washing basins and kitchens, is specially investigated. As a result, the features of orientation to lifetime homes, that is corridors width, door openings and their relations, are clarified to be far away from the reasonable states. Furthermore, the following items are clarified as a direction for improvements; 1) Most numbers of investigated residences are not proper from the viewpoints of sustaining self supporting lives by using a wheel chair. 2) Difficulty of wheel chair movements is proved in the turn of toilets, bathrooms, washing basins and kitchens. 3) Enlargement in door openings and corridors by more than thirty centimeters is generally an actual resolution for realizing self supporting wheel chair lives in an averaged value.
This paper dicusses the arrangement planning of libraries in regional areas, based on encouraging users' selecting activies. We try to build a selection model and analyze the spread of service areas and the sphere of selecting activities. Comparing with previous research further, we summarize the conclusions as follows: (1) It is worthy to note that in the areas where selecting activities can be permitted, the service area becomes larger than the model based on setting up single-library-using as the planning premise. (2) Although the service area differs in collection-of-books of a library, if the characteristic libraries have been arranged every 7km-10km, service efficiency becomes the highest according to selection model. (3)The sphere to which selecting activities are easy to take place maybe differs in many different areas, and various situations need to be examined in detail now, but as a methodology, it is clearly clarified on theory that this method based on selecting activities is effective for arrangement planning.
This paper focuses on children's centers from a viewpoint of teenagers. There are more than 4000 children's centers in Japan. We survey these centers whether or not they have special programs for teenagers, and how they are used by them. We picked up 4 centers, which have unique programs for teenagers, and conducted detailed case studies. As a result we have found these points. 1) The percentage of children's centers which have special programs for teenagers is very small, 10.9% in 1996 and 20.5% in 2001. However, increase in these five years is amazing. We can expect more percentage in the near future. 2) We have found great regional differences in establishment of children's centers and introduction of special programs for teenagers. In Tohoku area, there are many children's centers, but very few programs for teenagers. In Metropolitan and Kansai area, more centers have special programs for them. 3) The main visitors of children's centers are primary school pupils and their parents, although some centers offer programs for teenagers. Old centers, which were established earlier than 1996, have very few programs for teenagers. Programs for teenagers in children's center consist of special activity programs for them, priority time for them, and exclusive spaces for them. 4) We have found many variations of programs for teenagers. Presence of special stuff for them has big impact on actual activities and utilization.
The aim here in the report is to study and validate how it influences thinking process by introducing the idea-generation method of brainwriting(BW) to the first stage of space designing with the group work. We've set the subject for the space designing and analyzed comparatively. The method of our analysis is based on the data of 2 groups: One is the group which supports the idea of BW. The other is the group which advances the idea freely. The results are following. 1)We've got 5 patterns through the procedures for making proposal document. The 1st group's data showed the pattern to develop their thought in most cases. 2)When we paid attention to the supporting group of BW, the number of language data in one topic and the amount of idea sketch were increased. We've found lots of idea development with sketch even when they make the draft proposal. 3)It was proved that compulsory jumps to abstract thought with BW lead to think developmentally and create better idea.
We have developed the Urban Space Sensitivity Analysis System to grasp the emotional change induced by urban space in terms of four dimensions of meaning from the relationship between psychological quantities and brain wave values. We have two experiments using this system with the VTR picture and the CG picture of the actual urban areas. We could have predicted continuously the emotional changes by the urban spaces and could have described them on a time axis along with spatial information. We have inspected the effectiveness the VTR picture and the CG picture by comparing them and have made clear the influence of the urban space elements upon the human sensitivity.
In this study, we aim to explain the quality obtained from our experience in each place and try to make clear the relation between an optical flow which appears in a view when walking and the composition of buildings. The observation took place in 3 areas : Chayamachi-area, Sonezaki-area and the area in front of Osaka station. These areas were different scale, they had different building forms, and different densities of the arrangements. After, we classified visual experiences into six types. We found that these experiences were expressed the relations between our walking routeswe find that these experiences were expressed the relation between our walking route and the composition of buildings. and the composition of buildings.
This study is part of a complex research on office environments evaluating current Japanese workplaces. Qualitative and quantitative data from group interviews and questionnaires investigated the use of the following 'secondary spaces': meeting rooms, informal meeting tables, copy areas, drinking corners, toilets, smoking spaces, and resting spaces. Workers' satisfaction with these secondary spaces and with their overall work environment were analyzed with cross tabulations by age, gender and smoking habits. Toilets, smoking- and resting spaces were identified as important secondary spaces for work related thinking, informal interaction and getting information, privacy and relax. Correlation analyses identified significant relationships between satisfaction with secondary spaces and overall work-environment satisfaction.
This paper aims to examine the modal characteristics of the rural houses in Lao P.D.R., and their transition which is recently outstanding within the stream of development. The target village is located along the national rout No.13 in the mountainous area, about 150km north from Vientiane Municipality, and we mostly focus on the houses of "Lao Loum", the majority ethnic group in that village. The main results can be concluded as : The houses are classified into 5 types such as one-story brick house, earth floor house, stilt house, two-stories house (half-brick and half-wooden, former stilt house), two-stories brick-house, then, while the stilt house is still in the majority, the number of brick houses or half-brick-half-wooden house so-called "permanent house" is increasing. According to the examinations using various social and economical indicators, it is supposed that the taste of the villagers surely head to the above "permanent house".
In the 1980s in England, the new urban left proposed development policies in opposition to Thatcherism. Westway Development Trust in London is a social enterprise and is considered to be one of the most innovative projects ever done. The trust developed unused plots of land under the motorway into profit-making commercial areas and social service areas. The profits from these commercial ventures were then distributed to social welfare projects and this made the trust financially independent. In this paper we analyze the process and the factors that have lead to the business success of the ventures. We also focus on the necessity of obtaining public partnership at an early stage, and the remarkable management skills of the director.
This paper aims to clarify the formation process of migrant fishing village of Japanese during their colonization of Korea. Research reveals the background and formation of Japanese migratory process in order to illustrate their fishing village forms and spatial pattern by raising Geomun-do Island as a case study. In this research, we clarify formation process and spatial pattern of its village. Clarifying of functional development process of the village is also another objective of this research. It appears that coastline and its roads, wells and location of progenitor's settlement plays a vital role in form and spatial structure of the village. Road system of the village was constituted from roads running parallel with coastline and small alleys stretching perpendicularly to them providing trapezoid shape of lands. As places for housework or community gathering places, two wells adjacent to the progenitor's premises play a significant part as cores of housing development of the village. Though this seashore village is tiny in scale, fishing, trade and pastime activities provide a multi-facet function to the village as other modern cities.
This paper aims to examine the process of rehabilitation and regeneration of natural environment, and to clarify the partnership patterns and characteristics on management of Mersey Valley Countryside Warden Service(MVCWS) in Manchester, the U.K. From the findings, it became clear that rehabilitation and regeneration have been completed and opened to the public as parks or open space, so that present focus has shifted to conservation. Management of these open spaces in Mersey valley is undertaken by MVCWS by partnership. This makes clear of responsibilities and roles of management, and can contribute to efficient management by sharing resources. Current tasks are obtaining funding and planning for future management by making balance between nature conservation and meeting with the needs of the users.
This study tries to clear the changes of slope area landscape in the central part of Tokyo during Edo era to present. The slope area which hadn't been used became a residential section gradually caused by the increase in the population. Then, the space which was a boundary was lost between the heights and the low land And, three factors influence space formation in the slope area. They are the original geographical features, the particulars of the land use, the conditions of the land possession. Much is a slope at present though many stairways existed on the road in the Edo Period. And the stairways which have landscape based on the natural geographical features are being lost in the central Tokyo by the large-scale re-development.
In recent years, structures using new materials and methods have increased even in historic districts. Creating a target image is especially difficult by the subdivision of sites and the construction of various styles of residences in samurai residence area. Therefore, creating and operating design guidelines have become important subjects. Murakami was created as a castle town in 16th century. Now it is precious area where has samurai residence and preserved by Niigata prefecture. In january, 2000, municipal government enacted "The ordinance to conserve historical townscape" and started operating design control. The purpose of this study is to clarify how a design guideline is operated by the ordinance in Murakami.
Complicated financial relationship between stakeholders of building could be serious obstructive factor for refurbishment of deteriorated existing buildings. In order to provide alternative financial system for refurbishment, the paper discusses on feasibility to separate property status of in fill of building from building's skeleton by redefining in fill as movable property. Based on the analysis of legal cases, the paper identifies legal requirements that give in fill legally independent status from buildings' skelton. Then the paper discusses whether the legal requirements are feesible from the aspect of arachitectural design. Through the analysis on building methods and building uses' combination, the paper gives conclusion that identified legal requirements are feasible from the aspect of arachitectural design of building.
In building construction projects, the roles of specialty subcontractors are distinguished from those of general contractors. The specialty subcontractors are composed of various types of trades. The general contractor coordinates those specialty subcontractors and controls projects according to multipurpose elements such as quality, schedule, cost, safety etc. In this study, the authors focused on the gaps between the general contractor and the specialty subcontractors. The gaps are found in the scope of works and the treatment about alliance of cooperative company. In addition, the behaviors of the specialty subcontractors reflect the movement of construction industry and market in Japan.
Kagami-bari is a roof structure style widely used in Shounai Region, where a small beam directly supports the ridge beam. First, the area of distribution and the various nomenclatures for the style were surveyed. The process of building extensions to the Abumi-ya (a sea merchant family's office and residence in Sakata) was analyzed as a study case for dating the periods when Kagamr-bari was introduced into townhouses. Then, examples of Kagami-bari in surveyed structures were compared to clarify how this style spread throughout the region.
The transformation of the spatial composition concerned with the residential area of the Samurai class in the castle town is not clarified thoroughly in the previous research. This paper deals with it, based on the Ako castle town, by exemplifying the composition through its Lords' shift. As the result, with its shift, the discorded phenomenon that the status of each Samurai did not correspond with the appropriate residential size appears in the castle town mainly by being changed in the amount of its feudatory's members. Through this process, the surplus is lots and the cooperative dwellings are prepared gradually for solving its dicord within the Ako castle town. This newly founded system of the land-use is considered as a policy to have made the status of the dweller accord with the size of the residence in the spatial composition of the castle town.
On the transition process of the ceremonial places for the Fujiwara family in Heian period, the following points were clarified: 1. Fujiwara-no-Morozane lived in much residences, these were also respectively used as a ceremonial place. 2. Higashisanjo-den(東三條殿) was also used as a ceremonial place. However, that was not ceremonial exclusive use residence for the Fujiwara family. 3. Higashisanjo-den was not used only for the grand ceremony, but also used for the another ceremony.
This paper examines nine company's residential areas of Oji Paper Co. Ltd. in KARAFUTO (present southern Sakhalin). About each area, it carried out under explanation with the viewpoint of development circumstances, site planning, housing, and welfare buildings. Those company's residential areas are classified as an urbanized type and a remote district type. However it had same components and construction in domestics, because both had the purpose of recruiting employees in KARAFUTO where was developed on large scale after 1905. It had gradually changed into intentional site planning and improved habitability, especially in Showa era. As measureres against fire prevention of dwellings, massive firewalls and R.C. apartment houses were constructed. Housings and welfare buildings provided city-amenities for employees in KARAFUTO.
Nagoya Imperial University is the last Imperial University under the old system of higher education, established in the wartime, 1939. Prefectural Govemment of Aichi contributed funds and land for a new campus in Higashiyama hills, developed as a residential area since 1920's. A specific design concept, to preserve the natural landscape, has been taken in this residential development. Technical advisors, Yoshikazu Uchida (architect), and Seiroku Honda (landscape architect) perceived the characteristics of the site through the surveys. Several site plans were studied, and finally in 1942, a site plan was complete by Seizaburo Hirokawa, an associate of Uchida. This site plan represents the ideas of the advisors for preserving the natural landscape. They paid attentions to the characteristics of the site and the design concept of the residential development of Higashiyama hills.
This research is about the traditional architectural documents on viharn(Buddha hall) in Lanna, northern Thailand. Prior to this study, 3 short texts about this subject were published. I discovered 4 other texts at The Social Research Institute, Chiangmai University, during the survey trips around 1993-4. After studying these texts, I found that the system of determining proportion of viharn architecture was to divide the length of main beam into parts and use one part as a unit to determine other elements. There were various systems of unit dividing as 6(and 3), 5(and 10), 4(and 2) and 13 parts. The 6 parts dividing system was used widely follow by 5 parts and 4 parts. The reason that system of 6 parts dividing was widely used come from method of measurement. Peoples in the old time measured length by their body parts as wa(two hand straight), sok(elbow), kueb(palm) and niew(inch). 1 kueb was divided to 12 niews and 1 sok was divided to 2 kuebs. To divide any length to 6 parts was the way to use niew, kueb and sok. This study also showed a similarity of measurement system between viharn and traditional house architecture studied before. Although emerged in different building types also with different regions, these 2 architectural types could be compared to each other in mathematical thinking.
Giovanni Battista Ferrari (1561-1623) was a Jesuit friar who had an intense interesting in the scientific culture of the early seventeenth century Roma. His horticultural book, Flora overo la cultura di fiori (1638), dedicated to one of the member of Lincei Academy, strongly reflects this intellectual atmosphere, which was the mixture of the new and the old style of knowledge. Analyzing Ferrari's geometrical flower bed designs from the point of view of astrology and cosmology, this study researches the design principal of the early modern Italian gardens and points out the reflections of contemporary scientific culture that is represented by Lincei Academy.
Bruno Taut has worked in Berlin to design a lot of houses for workers from 1910s to the beginning of 1930s, which can be summarized into three stages, namely 1) the stage of garden city movement, 2) the stage of utopian imagination and 3) the stage of spatial formation of suburban housings around the large city. In 1930s he has written some essays on Siedlung, especially "Siedlungsmemoiren" or "Architecturlehre", from which his final stage of synthetic thought on Siedlung could be extracted through critical analysis. Namely he criticized the modem functionalism and rationalism, and came to set the ideal on the integrated organic method of design respecting the harmony between each part and total form, and also locality or tradition, which can be estimated as the critical inheritance of each stage in his thought on Siedlung.
In France, the Low-Cost Housing Public Office of the Seine Prefecture played the most important rote in garden city construction from 1915 to 1939. To build garden cities on the outskirts of Paris, the office first obtaine prefecture financing to Government financing fiom a garden city ideal to economic restrictions, there was a real risk of discontinuity. The office was not as independent as the Japanese private promoters or the English independent garden city societies.
The aim of this study is to indicate an autonomic aspect of contemporary Japanese architects' discourses. Prized architects' discourses in the "SD REVIEW" are the materials of this study. The method is to collect sentences having subsidiary verbs from these materials, and to classify them into 2 categories from a viewpoint of contents, and into 4 categories from a viewpoint of sentence structure. Considering the relationship between the grammatical aspect and the import of a sentence as a structure which generates understanding about the writer's architectural design, the author defines a sentence having subsidiary verbs as a rhetoric emphasizing accomplished fact in the writer's unfinished project. Consequently this study shows that contemporary Japanese architects' understanding has been influenced by a rhetorical artifice or a description itself.
In SHITAMACHI, 60-KEN blocks lined up orderly with houses along, when the castle town of Edo was built. This study aims to clarify how space constitution of merchants town passed through city reorganization, after MEIREKI conflagration, on the way to the end of the Edo period. It is apparent that there is a wide difference of city- reorganization methods between the center and the outskirts in the merchants town from the mid-Edo period onward.