To clearly show the acoustic performance of multiple-dwelling building, we study the followings. (1) The insulation level attained by wooden floor covering tends to be smaller in actual buildings than in public laboratories. (2) The insulation level in our full-scale experimental building is applicable with a satisfactory accuracy to actual buildings which differ in floor slab thickness. (3) Prediction was conducted from the level in the experimental building and the sound absorbing coefficients is determined in multiple-dwelling buildings at the time of their completion. The predicted values agree well with the values measured in the multiple-dwelling buildings in use, with an error not more than one rank in L grade.
We examined a prediction accuracy of Diffusion Approximation for Ross'es radiation transfer equation within plant canopy. Three kinds of plant radiation fields were chosen : (1) a horizontally homogeneous field, (2) a vertically homogenous one, and (3) two-dimensional one. The examination was carried out by comparing the results from Diffusion Approximation with the exact solutions. The validity of Diffusion Approximation was confirmed.
Considerable number of models for the estimation of hourly direct or diffuse irradiation have been developed both in our country and overseas countries. This report compares the models in order to find the most appropriate model applicable to the estimation of hourly direct irradiation and diffuse irradiation from hourly global irradiation observed at various sites in Japan. Two Japanese models and six foreign models are selected for the comparison. More than 60,000 hourly global and direct irradiation data observed at fourteen sites of JMA (Japan Meteorological Agency) are used for the comparison. It is found that five of the six foreign models give the better estimations than Japanese two models. Among the eight models, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the Reindl model is the smallest at seven sites out of fourteen sites. Although RMSE of the five foreign models are similar, the estimation of the Reindl model is the best at the sites in high latitude. This indicates that Reindl model should be recommended for the application to various sites in Japan.
Daylighting in buildings can save energy consumption for artificial lightings. On the other side, it makes energy consumption of construction higher to raise floor-to-floor height or enlarge windows for daylighting. It is concerned that amount of saved energy for artificial lighting can't call in amount of increased. This paper works out, compares energy consumption and CO^2 emission due to construction and operation in buildings of 3 types planning daylighting; 1) setting only lighting controllers 2) setting lightshelves 3) put atrium side by side.
This paper described the field measurement results of the local mean age of air which was defined the time of air reaching to the measuring points, and the local air change effectiveness in the wooden detached house. The evaluation of infiltration is indispensable because there are many variation of the infiltration (natural ventilation) in comparison with the office building. However, it is difficult to evaluate the amount of infiltration quantitatively as for the infiltration because it changes by the difference in temperature outside the inside and the wind speed and direction. When ventilation is evaluated by the measurement of local mean age of air, they must evaluate local mean age of air of the amount and change of infiltration. The air change effectiveness changed in the amount of infiltration and age of air of the infiltration were put in the consideration was examined which was by this paper. As a result, how to calculate the amount of infiltration of every measurement point by using response factor method with the outside wind speed and a difference in indoor and outside temperature was tried, and have a good result which get age of infiltration air.
Ventilation calculation is important for prediction of heating/cooling load and indoor air quality in residential buildings. In past several decades, many simulation programs are developed for building research and design, but they generally need many input data and complicated modeling. A simplified and accurate prediction method is essential for speedy and convenient ventilation calculation during building design and performance evaluation. In this paper, thousands of ventilation cases are calculated by COMIS ventilation simulation program for a single room house. Using simulated results and ventilation theory, a simplified model and chart for ventilation rate is proposed in consideration of building air-tightness, type of ventilation system and climatic condition. By comparison of COMIS program and the simplified method, it can be found that there is a good agreement with relative error of less than 5 %. In addition, this simplified method is used for a study on building air-tightness level of a solar house having a forced supply ventilation system of heated outdoor air by solar collectors.
The results of the experiment on the air leakage prevention with the pressurized under floor air-conditioning are described for correct estimation of vertical air temperature distribution in the space. It was found that the air leakage must be less than 25% of supply air volume to maintain the vertical temperature differential within 2 degrees. A special chart on the control target for air leakage through the access floor with the circulation air volume of less than 25% is presented. The newly devised type of non-air leakage access floor is presented to give the temperature differential within 2 degrees.
The authors manufactured a hot water supply system with solar panels. Water in a storage tank was heated by the fluid path through solar panels and a heat-pump as a back-up heater. This system was operated in three modes through a year, and following results were obtained. (1) In the case that using pattern of the hot water was based on an energy conservation handbook, the maximum hot water demand occurred in supplying to a bathtub. Then for the maximum demand it was necessary to prepare 300l hot water which was more than 50℃, in the storage tank. In other time, it was necessary to prepare 100l hot water which was more than 50℃. (2) The efficiency of solar energy to heat water in the storage tank was obtained. The prediction control of heat-pump operation was possible by using neural network. Furthermore, the authors showed an operation control method to supply for the maximum demand of hot water and to conserve energy.
Urban area can be considered as an assembly of various shapes and sizes of urban canyon. The climate of urban canyon is primarily controlled by micrometeorological effects of canyon geometry, though it is also affected the mesoscale phenomenon in urban boundary layer. This study presents an analysis of the air flow characteristics for urban canyon, based on three dimensional wind components data which are measured with four ultra-sonic anemometers mounted along pedestrian bridge The summary is as follows : 1) The strong circulation flow is derived from southerly sea-breeze during daytime and counter-circulation flow corresponding to land-breeze is also apparent in the early morining. 2) As for the parallel component to the street, its direction changes due to the deflection of upper wind direction from right angle to the street.
Impression of interior and exterior environment of a super high-rise apartment was studied by field survey on inhabitants and around habitants. The results are as followings. 1. Few inhabitants chose this apartment because it is a super high-rise building. 2. A turning point exist around particular floor in the evaluation of outside view, of which height is influenced by outside situation. 3. Oppression of the super high-rise building can be felt at a distance of over 700m. 4. The exterior environment is evaluated better by inhabitants than by around habitants. People who know inhabitants evaluate more favorably than those who do not.
The hypothesis that wayfinding strategy differs with individual and changes with environmental condition was investigated in an experiment using a user-controlled space-sequence simulator which was designed to allow a subject to move through a model space. Three scale models of an identical maze pattern each with different visual information were used in the experiment. The experiment was conducted five times 5, 12, 36, 128 days after the first experiment. Analysis of the results indicate that some people change information for way finding according to the visual information on the route, others use various information in spite of difference in environmental conditions. It is also revealed that people can take the right route by obtaining information on the spot even if they have no clear memory in advance, and it depends on information on the route and individual ability.
In this paper, we study the size structure of common space area in a typical floor plan of the high-rise housing projects. The results are as follows; 1) Through analyzing the net percentage of residence and the area size of common space such as hall and corridor, balcony, we classified floor type into 7 groups. The characteristics of these groups makes practical the size estimation of common space in typical residence floor. 2) The area size of common apace and space configuration, which is related to 7 groups of 1) and access pattern, is under the influence of the shape of typical residential floor. 3) The indications of habitability are related to feature of the common space area size, and we find the significance of planning process of high-rise housing projects relating to these indications.
In the present study, undertaken in Hirosaki City, Aomori Prefecture, we have investigated the change of the housing plan from samurai houses to urban independent residences, from the Meiji to Showa eras (before world war II). We aimed to clarify the succession and the modification of the "front facing principle", the primary factor underlying the modification, and the time of the modification. Conclusions; The "zashiki" rooms of samurai houses in the Hirosaki feudal clan faced the front entrance of the land following the so called "front facing principle". In addition, there was a ground plan unique to the Hirosaki feudal Clan. This "front facing principle" and Hirosaki's unique ground plan have been succeeded by matcing plan of urban independent residences build after the Meiji Era, that is, south fasing "zashiki" on south facing land and north facing "zashiki on north facing land. South facing "zashiki" rooms on the north facing lands, however, emerged in the early Showa eras.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate and analyze the Tung Song Hong (TSH) Corehousing project in Bangkok provided by the National Housing Authority by looking at the residents' profile and extention process of their houses. It was found that residents' mobility is not high and they have been created their living environments, extended and remodeled their houses step by step under their management. There are common spatial pattern of the houses, even original corehouses varied. TSH project played an important role to give an opportunity for the residents on their living environmental formation process.
This is an experimental study with eye-camera to investigate eye fixation behavior in 7 demented elderly, 4 mentally retarded and 7 normal persons, while their walking for wayfinding in hall space. The results are summarized as follows. The hall is more difficult than corridor in terms of wayfinding specially for dementia group, due to more complex visual noises. The dementia group tend to have the narrowest range of eye fixations. Therefore, the dementia group has difficulties to search on appropriate visual cues. The dementia persons who unable to reach their goal, tend to walk straight ahead to the other end, due to limited and biased visual search. The mentally retarded group tend to have two extreme characteristics of either narrower or wider range of eye fixations.
The purpose of this study is seeking for relationship between the opening and supply system facilities by analyzing the rooms available and the IOS rate. In the analysis, a different method of opening was examined in the administration method of large-scale multi-purpose rooms, offered as a Japanese-room/an assembly/exercise. Furthermore, using the different opening method of the facilities by the establishment/administration, the IOS rate could be inspected for it's effectiveness and used as a guideline for the situation. Also with this different method for opening rooms, the IOS rate could estimate the number of people able to fit into a room in the facility in case of an emergency.
This paper aims to clarify relationship between behavior and spatial structure of a nursing home for the elderly, focusing on "activity in place" of the residents in common space. Methods used were mapping of activities of the residents, behavior observation and deep interviews. The survey was repeated five times in order to follow longitudinal change. The findings are as follows. 1) Having private rooms, residents did not always withdraw into their rooms. 2) Several types of "activity in place" was observed in diverse place of common space, those had different meanings for the residents. 3) Each resident took part in various "activity in place" in everyday life on his/her own way, and as a result he/she formed diverse behavioral environment. 4) Especially semi-private space played very important role in personalization of common space by residents.
This is the final report which aims to investigate the way of planning of the library system to community area. Firstly, the paper describe the way of planning the library system to regional area based on our theory which had been carried out since the first report. Secondly, we show the library network plan to Aichi prefecture as a case study by using the method mentioned above. In the case study we show that how many libraries and figure of books shall be planned in the regions.
This study aims to investigate the state of the management of Chinese theatres and theater companies. The findings of the study are surmerized as follows: 1) Governmental subsidy of theatres and companies has diminished relatively and yet company members are guaranteed to keep the minimum standard of living. 2) Theatres have been required to be self-supportive. So recently multi-purpose halls and complexes have been constructed. Some theaters have tended to ignore technical maintenance due to financial difficulty. 3) The performances produced by members crossing over each company has been introduced and in these situation the infrastructure for theatrical activity provided by government are useful.
This study is mainly considered in the points that follow, through a questionnaire survey to suppliers of compound fire resistance coverings approved specially by the minister. 1.The extent of the estimated relative story displacement by the big earthquake and typhoon. 2.The concrete measures on the detail design against the displacement. 3.The extent of the construction tolerance in erecting steel frame, or manufacturing and installing coverings. 4.The concrete measures on the detail design against the tolerance.
Smooth action of a wheel chair user and a helper in transferring to a stool and taking a shower by a shower chair was examined by experiments. 14 experimental spaces for transferring to a stool and 20 experimental spaces for taking a shower were set up by combining size of room and door, and door position. For each space action of transfering and taking a shower by a wheel chair user pretending hermplegia and a helper was done simulatedly. Analyzing data recorded by video camera, it was confirmed that action in the 1400mm×1600mm toilet room and 1800mm×1800mm bathroom was smooth under every condition. And especially door position was important for smooth action.
I tried to study how to understand the functional performance of space and space organization. Through a newly devised representation with numerical scale of architectural space, an objective grasp of performance therefore is made possible. The principal effect of the index "comprehensive distance of way" is an objective grasp of characterestic of architectural space and space organization. This paper reports the size distribution of distance of way and the relationship between size and space characterestics. I made an computer program for the practical calculation method and applied it to several case of space condition.
A part of architectural space, sometime, has a sub-part which is morphologically same or similar to the part. This type of structure of architectural space is called "IREKO" in Japanese or nesting structure. The nesting structure generates variety in architectural form although it is very complex and its concept is not so clear. The aim of this paper is to make clear the concept of nesting structure and its characteristics. We give a couple of definitions of the concept of nesting structure through the discussion on an example of Chinese Rose Window. The first definition of nesting structure suggests relevancy to the fractal theory. The second definition introduced by schema grammar produces a theory of nesting structure. That is, a set of architectural space is expressed by a series of terms and the nesting structure is corresponding to a solution of an abstractive equation system which is defined by schema rules. We show that the equation system can be solved by algebraic procedure and a set of forms of architectural space which has a nesting structure is defined as the solution.
As Basins are geographically closed, they have often been treated as planning sphere. This study aims to qantify the degree of the dependency of basins uslng "Gaibuizondo", which is defined by population, commuting population, size of basin, and the amount of habitants' income, and to apply "Gaibuizondo" to the method of setting planning spheres. The study revealed that the degree of "Gaibuizondo" are fixed and peculiar to each basin, appling "Gaibuizondo" to the method of setting planning spheres was validated.
Shikoro-buki is the traditional farmhouse design of Senshu area in Osaka prefecture. In this paper we analyzed the transformation of farmhouse design in the fringe of urban zone by using the Shikoro-buki as a indicator. The main results are as follows. 1) In the farm villages with the low agricultural productivity, the facade of the houses are strongly influenced by the character of inhabitants (farmers or not-farmers). 2) The distance from the urban area relates to the facade of farmhouse in the farm village. In the village near to the urban area, the facade of Shikoro-buki decrease. 3) In the local community, there are a ranking of houses and the Shikoro-buki is situated at the top of them.
This is study makes clear the role and coordination of Master Architect(MA) in an Environmental Design Process, in order to situate "MA" and "Block Architect(BA)" in the process of collaboration method. We analyzed the minutes of the design meetings attended by "MA" and "BA". In Particular ; analyses of the following are carried out; 1)the MA's position, 2)"the design item", 3)the Coordination item, 4)the relation between Coordination and the Coordination item, 5)the action of Coordination, 6)the shift of the design item, 7)the shift of the coordination item, 8) the shift in Coordination, 9)the relation between each Coordination action. As a result, We understand the MA as playing two roles:one, as "Architect Coordinator" and the other, as "Architecture Coordinator", both which guide the Environmental Design.
The objective of this study is to construct an expert system for zoning using mesh data. We create a knowledge base, collects and compiles data, and constructs system inference rules to classify all meshes to one of 12 zoning districts. The inference feature of this system consists of three phases. The first phase decides an outline of the zoning, namely all meshes are temporarily specified as one of residential, commercial, industrial, and mixed areas. The second phase classifies residential, commercial, industrial, and mixed areas into one of 12 zoning districts according to detailed indexes. The third phase coordinates the results, arranges sites of a certain scale, and respecifies meshes that are isolated from specified areas. After experimentally applying this system to Fukuoka city, we found that 80% of the results matches the zoning produced by the Fukuoka authorities. We therefore concluded that this system performs quite well.
Discussed in the following paper is the characteristics of single-family houses newly constructed in the Southeast Nada of Kobe, one of disaster areas heavily damaged by the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. It is pointed out that the changes of single-family houses are summarized as the decrease in ground floor area and the increase in total floor area which lead to the increase of three-stories houses, the increase in pre-fabricated houses, westernization in room setting, and the widened parking space, and that these new characteristics of single-family houses would result in the substantial changes in the spatial aspects of the neighborhood.
Discussed in the following paper is the process of housing reconstruction in the Southeast Nada of Kobe, one of disaster areas heavily damaged by the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. It is pointed out that there still remain many vacant lots where housing construction faces divers obstacles, and that the composition of housing type in the neighborhood is in the process of profound change. There on one hand is drastic decrease in multi-family housing units of wood structure for low income people, and on the other hand it should be noted that many buildings of non-wood multi-family housing for the upper income were newly constructed.
This paper contains a report on examination of landscape photographs of sightseeing resources by using Hayashi Quantification Theory. Result shows as follows ; (1) Sightseeing photographs consist of four factors ; waterfront, mountain and hill, architecture, and festival. (2) Composition of the sightseeing photographs are classified into six typical groups ; landscape of waterfront, landscape of waterfront and festival, landscape of festival, landscape of natural resources, landscape of architectures, and landscape of amusement. (3) Viewpoints of the each typical composition need to involve open space, and background scenery of the resources plays an important part in the sightseeing photographs.
This paper describes the french system for protecting architectural and urban heritage (ZPPAUP). The ZPPAUP was enacted into law in 1983 as part of the descentralization to replace antiqated systems especially those concerning surroundings of Historical Monuments. Under the ZPPAUP's system a region rather than the state is authorized to give approvals with a municipality taking the lead through all procedures. The ZPPAUP's system is not prescriptive, therefore its documents can resemble either more strict safegarded sector or more general land use plan.
Contractors and suppliers make shop drawings to start construction and parts production. Approving those shop drawings by architects and clients is just decision making process of detail design during construction process. The approval of shop drawings tend to be delayed because of a client and architects' endless re-examination of design. If almost of all shop drawings decided in advance actual limits at several stages, construction cost and term would be stably controlled. In this paper we want to clarify above process, and develop a schedule planning system which timely offers clients and architects coherent shop drawings to stimulate them to make decision easily at early stage. Therefor we explore the scheduling system on genetic algorithm to find optimum solution both clients-architects side and contractors-suppliers side.
This is an investigation on Sanskrit characters (Honzon, Shujis of Honji buddha) written on the munafudas (dedication boards) of shrines and temples. Quite understandably, all the Sanskrit characters disappeared from munafudas of shrines after the law of the separation of Shintoism and Buddhism was promulgated in the Meiji era. However, the percentage of Sanskrit characters on munafudas in the Edo period is approximately 26.6%. Sometimes the same shujis of the main buildings can be seen on a building with no enshrined divinity like a worship hall. Naturally munafudas of temples have Shujis of the sacred divinity in Sanskrit characters, but in some cases, just like in the case of shrines, the Shujis of the sacred divinity of the main building are also written on the munafudas of a temple gate and a priest's living quarters. The percentage of munafudas with shujis is roughly 26.2 %, and they are chiefly found in temples belonging to denominations established before the Kamakura period, like the Shingon sect, the Tendai sect and the Jyodo sect.
In this study, I investigated, by picking up elementary-schoolhouses in Kyoto called "Bangumi-Syogakko", the development of schoolhouses plans. The summery of this study can be given below. ・From 1869, most of schools were newly built and started as schools. Newly built schoolhouses were also used as the "machi-kaisho", and the structures of schoolhouses were primarily for the "machi-kaisho", ・After the middle of the Meiji period, the main buildings of Japanese style were built in middle of school area, and this plan came into existence.・That plan was handed down to the plan of the schoolhouses made of the rein-forced concrete.
The purpose of this study is to grasp the situation of Hoshigaoka-Charyo in the early days. Then I consider the character, the circumstances and the meaning of this house. Especially, I take notice of several changes of the plan for this project. In conclusion, it found two sides to its character, intention of artistic accomplishments and spiritual. Then one may say that there were two situations, a sign of revival of Cha-no-Yu in the modern era and the Sens' scheme. It follows from what was been said that this house was placed the dawn of modern sukiya-style.
The purpose of this study is to consider a sceanic phenomenon from the topolagical viewpoint. In this paper, a whole structure of places is sugegested through the analyses of place-names around 'Kamowakeikazuchi-jinja' shrine, especially the place-name called 'Kamitsuyo-no-Ura' bay. The summary of conclusion about the analyses is as follows: the first, a daily structure of places on Kamigamo area is found out as double topological strucure which gives the area systems of disposition and signification. The next, 'Kamiyo filed' is suggested as one of the fundamental dimensions on which the topological structure bases, through the interpretasion of 'Shin-Kokin-Wakashu' poem no.1868.
In the first part, this paper aims to clarify the concept of <Veduta>, <Vedutismo>, <Vedutismo Fiorentino> and to point out the importance of them for a city research. In the latter part, in the case of Florence, historical city-images in <Veduta> are traced. By means of that some indexes to find the ideas for the creation of the city of Florence are extracted, which constitute the spiritual core for both activities to draw a city and that to build a city・