In this study, we measured the physiological index (sympathetic nerve, parasympathetic nerve) and the psychological index (questionnaires of feelings factors) during fire. As a result of this study, we understood following result. 1. High sympathetic nerve value and low parasympathetic nerve value were observed during some trainings in which participants have difficulty to forecast next required action, 2. The correlation coefficients among feelings factors were relatively high. 3. The correlation coefficients between sympathetic nerve and parasympathetic nerve to feelings factors were relatively low. Nevertheless, Maximum of parasympathetic nerve value tends to be low in the condition of high feelings factors.
Sound attenuation data of double lined elbows to be used for acoustic design in air duct systems are few, so the total of sound attenuation values for two single lined elbows is generally used. In this paper, for evaluating sound attenuation of double lined elbows, insertion loss values for 37 kinds of double lined elbows are measured. They are formed from three combinations for two single lined elbows, three kinds of connection directions and seven kinds of duct lengths between the two elbows. Those insertion loss values measured are compared with the total of sound attenuation values for two single lined elbows.
In a room with only natural light from single large window, the impression of modeling of the human face at that window varies with relationship between the positions of the window, the model and the observer. An experiment was carried out to investigate the modelling of a mannequin doll's face at an actual window. It was found that the angle of the visual line from the observer to the window and the orientation of the model's face systematically affected the modeling score. However, the quantities of light from inside the room and outside the window did not significantly affect the evaluation, because the ratio of the light from these two directions was almost constant for this experiment. A multiple regression model with variables relating to the quantities of light and the position of the observer relative to the model satisfactorily explained the perceived modelling.
The heat transfer coefficient of the wall of a building used to be measured in the wind tunnel test or obtained from field test with a small heat flow panel attached to the building wall, but there is a problem to adopt the value as the surface heat transfer coefficient of the entire building. Consequently, it is necessary to newly develop and expand the measurement method for the architectural heat transfer coefficient. For this purpose, the authors developed a method of measuring the convective heat transher heat flux in the field, using a SAT meter and pyrradiometer, and reported the heat transfer coefficient of the rooftop surface exposed to the sunshine in the previous paper. In this paper, the convective heat transfer heat flux of the rooftop at which surface condensation is caused due to upward terrestrial surface radiation at night time is obtained from the thermal conductive heat flux of the large SAT meter, nocturnal radiation and dew weight changes, and the heat transfer coefficient in downward heat flow is discussed.
In Japan, from the viewpoint of energy conservation, residential houses are more highly insulated and airtight. Authors already showed an outline of the database of detached houses in Nagano City area. This paper, which is a series of study on application of the database, describes the trend of airtightness of well-insulated and airtight houses in Nagano City area, its characteristics of each building construction, the relationship between airtightness and indoor thermal environment. These results are shown as follows: (1) For the past ten years, the degree of airtightness of residential houses constructed in Nagano City area has greatly increased. The percentage of a house with an envelope leakage area less than 2.0cm^2/m^2 of the floor area is 77%. (2) There are some features in an envelope leakage of each building construction. (3) Airtightness of residential houses affect temperature difference between 5cm and 1.5m above floor level, and radiant temperature difference. In a border of 2.0cm^2/m^2, there is a significant difference into its relationship with significant level of 5.0%.
The purpose of this study is to clarify heat and moisture behavior of the underground space and its surrounding ground. Field experiments of the basement were carried out at Tsu located the middle area of Japan. Temperature and relative humidity in the room air, water chemical potential in the ground and so on were measured during about one year. The main results are shown as follows. 1) Moisture condensation of the envelope surface is occured at the floor and the lower parts of the wall through spring and summer. 2) The average depth of water table is 4.2m and became to shallow after the large quantity of precipitation and the maximum change of the variation was about 85cm.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the effect of air temperature and floor temperature on the occupants1 comfort sensation in the hot water floor heating system. This paper also considers the contact areas between floor and human body to quantitatively determine the heat conduction between the floor and the subjects. The present study deals with the effect of heat conduction with regard to modified mean skin temperature. The subjects (7 female college students) were exposed to the following conditions : combinations of air temperatures (18℃,23℃) and water temperatures (25℃,30℃,35℃,40℃,45℃) in still air and RH 40% . The subjects were exposed to these conditions while sitting on the floor, sitting on a chair and lying on the floor. The following results were obtained: The skin temperature of the body parts in contact with the floor was affected by the floor temperature. The thermal sensation vote was neutral at a mean skin temperature of 33℃. Levels of thermal comfort and acceptability of the floor temperature was rated as 'satisfactory' at globe temperatures above 20℃. The permissable comfort level of the floor temperature was found to be approximately 25℃ at globe temperature 20℃. New weighting coefficients to calculate mean skin temperature are derived on the basis of Hardy & DuBois formula.
Many sources of volatile organic compounds (VOC) including smoking, combustion and building materials have been identified in indoor environment from several studies. In this indoor VOC source, emissions from building materials have become current interests, and several methods to evaluate emissions from materials have been developed. Chamber test method is used to evaluate emission rate of compounds emitted from materials. But few have been made to comprehend the effect of environmental conditions on emission rates in chamber test. In this paper, emissions from three vinyl wallpapers and two gypsum boards were examined by several conditions of chamber. Compounds emitted from materials were analyzed and the influence on emissions rates by environmental conditions, such as temperature, relative humidity, ventilation rate and loading factor was evaluated. And it is found that emission rates of compounds are depended on environmental conditions, and the increasing of temperature, relative humidity and ventilation rate of the chamber accelerates emissions from the materials. Because the concentration difference of the chamber was not large under the experiment condition, the influence on emissions rates by loading factor could not be evaluated.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate effects of air cleaners on indoor air concentrations of formaldehyde (HCHO) in air-tight houses. We developed air-cleaning devices with honeycomb type filters made of transition metal oxides, which can decompose HCHO into carbon dioxide even at ordinary room temperature. In many cases, observed concentrations of HCHO exceeded O.lmg/m3 (WHO guideline) in newly-constructed houses. The device effectively reduced the initial HCHO concentration in a closed room and suppressed an increase of the concentration after temporal air exchange by opening windows.
This study is to propose the measurement and estimation method of drainage load generated in the drainage stack system of a high rise apartment, grasp the actual status of the drainage load generated by using this method, and collect fundamental data for new planning. Using the drainage stack systems of a real 9-story apartment, the drainage load generated in each system was investigated every day in each time frame for over about one month in this report. From the result of this measurement, the maximum number of simultaneous drainage generated per each system during the period were grasped, and the maximum drainage load flow rate was calculated by multiplying the value above with the average flow rate of a fixture. By comparing the value thus obtained with the calculation result of the existing calculation method of drainage load, a difference from the actual load was grasped quantitatively.
The quality of the collected rainwater and the falling dust as the quality factor were examined in the rainwater usage system. The relation between the weather elements and the collected rainwater quality was analyzed. Moreover it was shown that a source of pollution could be estimated from the velocity and direction of the wind. The falling dust that it accumulates during the rainless time shows it with the importance in the pollution of the rainwater. The falling dust was collected with the device that presumed a glass slide. The falling dust diameters were measured with a microscope. The falling dust almost increased during rainless time and it decreased by rain. The degree of falling dust showed the amount of decrease when it rains. The falling dust has positive correlation in turbidity, COD and rainless time. The rainwater-collected experiment was carried out with three cases in the initial rainwater exclusion quantity. Each stored rainwater quality was almost the same. However, the difference in the settling impurities was large, and the effect on a removal of the polluted things by the initial rainwater exclusion was admitted the settling impurities. The large falling dust of the easy grain way of the precipitation could be considered with the settling impurities.
Energy consumption and thermal environment in residential houses in a densely populated area of Osaka were investigated in order to solve energy and environmental problems. The results showed that the energy consumed for cooling is three to four times higher than in the other areas of Japan and that the indoor temperature in the investigated area could rise over 30℃ in summer without a room air-conditioner. Along with this study, we analyzed the thermal environment in an alley during summer. It was found the incident solar radiation, the heat discharged from air-conditioners, and the air exchange rate between the alley and the upper air space have a great influence on the thermal environment in the alley.
In this study, velocity, temperature and humidity fields in urban area were analyzed using a new three dimensional plant canopy model developed by the authors. The model for the plant canopy developed here considers the following effects : (1) drag force of the planted trees, (2) shading effects on shortwave and longwave radiations, (3) production of latent heat from the plant canopy. Three cases were carried out here in order to evaluate the relaxation effect of plants on the outdoor thermal environment. In easel, green area ratio of ground surface was assumed 10%, while the green area ratio of ground surface was changed to 100% in case2. Furthermore plant canopies were set on the ground surface of case2 in case3. By comparing the distributions of scalar wind velocity, ground surface temperature, MRT (Mean Radiant Temperature) and SET (Standard Effective Temperature) in these three cases, effects of the plant canopy were clarified.
A numerical model for the computation of the wind field, air temperature and humidity in the atmospheric boundary layer including the urban canopy layer was developed for urban and architectural planning. The model is a k-ε type used widely in the environmental engineering. The ensemble-spatial averaged three-dimensional Reynolds equations, equation of continuity, turbulent kinetic energy (Adequation) and turbulent energy dissipation equation (ε-equation) are solved together with equations of heat and moisture transfer in the air. Inside the urban canopy layer, effects of buildings and other urban structures on the momentum transfer are modeled by introducing a form drag force, and volumes of them are accounted for by a spatial averaging procedure. The values of the coefficient for eddy viscosity evaluation C_μ and turbulent Prandtl number P_<rt> are defined as the atmospheric stability function and compared with Level 2.5 model. Numerical results by the new model show that the flow behavior of the air in the urban canopy layer is extremely affected by the existence of buildings and thermal stratification.
We calculated heat demand and heat load density using building survey in Fukuoka City. And we made heat load density map per town. Heat demand is calculated multiplying total floor area for 9 uses that put together 22 building uses by energy consumption per unit area. And heat load density is calculated dividing heat demand by block area. The ratio of total floor area for houses, business and commercial is high in Fukuoka City. Estimated annual heat demand is 28966.3 TJ/a and estimated heat load density is 0.85 TJ/(ha・a) in Fukuoka City.
In order to reduce the emission of CO_2 and other reactive gas, it is necessary for our local governments to take effective actions to set an example not only for the citizens but also for private enterprises in each governing area. Recently, "Environmental Management System" has been introduced as one of the effective ways to reduce the impact against the environment by all kinds of activities, including the operation of buildings. There are movement in some of the local governments to take the steps so called "PDCA cycles" in order to carry out the energy savings and economizing resources in the operation of local government's facilities, as one of the management systems. In this study we have conducted a research on local governments in Japan that hold population of more than 100,000 and discovered that there were several flaws in each steps of the present management systems.
There is "traditional" cave architecture called " Yao-Dong" in China's Loess Plateau. The perspective of this paper is to discuss the cultural and social environment of Yao-Dong, which is related to that of Yao-Dongfs surroundings. And the purpose of this paper is to clarify the physical character of Yao-Dong, that is the approach for this perspective. In conclusion, Yao-Dong has the position of superior "refined" cave architecture. According to the criterion of "primitive"・"refined", that can be seen in the several classification of Yao-Dong, compound classification of Yao-Dong also can be done.
The purpose of this paper is to grasp the roles played by community centers called "KOMINKAN" and the contents of events held in them. There are two types of events held in KOMINKAN; one is sponsored by KOMINKAN itself and the other is planned and performed by residents. Nara city was selected as a typical city in suburbs within commuting area for Osaka-city, and the former events were paid attention to. KOMINKANs are characterized by analyzing the types of events and the location of KOMINKAN in which they were played. There are 21 KOMINKANs in Nara-city. We got information about events in all KOMINKAN from the data published by Nara-city and by a questionnaire about events. The results are summarized as follows. 1) In the areas of small population, more events are sponsored by KOMINKAN. KOMINKAN have sponsored many events to reduce the decrease in population ant to activate the area. 2) Popular events which many people participate show regional characteristics of Nara-city and are useful in actual life of people. However, there are less popular events. KOMINKAN have to grasp needs of people and to provide the events suitable for needs of people. 3) People demand the events which all of them can participate in as they want and which are performed by a popular, prominent person.
This paper as a case study on participatory design of Kani Cultural Center Project, examines the relation between citizen' opinions and transformation of architectural plans through quantitative and qualitative analyses on the plans and opinions proposed in workshop at every design stages. The conclusions are as follows: 1) Design workshop is a very effective way to reaching consensus among different bodies as well as deepening citizen's environmental understandings. 2) Citizens tend to focus on the elements which could be controlled and changed by themselves.
Recently the roles of school libraries are expanding and changing according to the development of information technology and the flexibility of learning methods in many developed countries of the world. In Japan most elementary school teachers expect its changes and start to use new functions of school libraries for their classes. In this study, at first the location and current conditions of libraries in the elementary school buildings are clarified. Secondly the schematic models are proposed for constructing diverse functions such as learning space, work space, personal computers, exhibition space in libraries.
This study aims at finding problems of facility planning for aged society, using questionnaire survey with an inter-generational comparison of evaluation on development of a residential area under the land readjustment enterprise project. Under a rapid increase in population, this area has enough commercial facilities to satisfy the residents, but it lacks in public ones. The aged residents' usage rate of facilities in the residential area is generally higher than that of the other residents'. And the aged go to those facilities on foot more often. Therefore, the result shows the importance of further improvement on facilities within the residents' walking distance, in order to provide residents easy access to stores, clinic and other public places that are essential for their daily life.
We have examined qualitative images on a shoji screen which transmitted different sunlights and object-shades. The method we used was to set up a 1/3 scale shoji screen model before several sunlights and objects and observe images of light phenomena. The sunlights were direct setting sun, sky light, 5 all together. The objects which we placed between the sun and the screen were a tree, a pond, a louver, 5 all together. Then we asked architectural students to evaluate each slide picture. Results: 1. We have obtained the following 9 factors for the qualitative images of a light transmitting shoji screen: I. dynamic⇔still, II. warm⇔cold, III. soft⇔hard, IV. transparent, V. bright⇔cloudy. We could arrange relations of evaluative images such as serenity and pleasantness with these qualitative images from the responses of subjects. 2. We also have obtained causal relations between the conbination of each sunlight with object-shade and these images. 3. We also have obtained causal relations between light phenomena, including average luminance, luminance pattern, or shade, and these images of the shoji screen.
Qianlong Jingcheng Quantu, the the oldest map of Beijing in the Qianlong period (1750), pictures the various institutional facilities and Beijing-courtyard houses called Siheyuan in the Inner City of Beijing. The street block which form the whole plan of Beijing are different district though they are considered to follow the strict grid pattern. The Beijing is compose of almost infinite Siheyuan and Siheyuan-type facilities. The type of Siheyuan relates to the block division and subdivision system in larger scheme. Firstly, this paper distinguishes the chronological order of street patterns based on the analysis of maps and literature, and then considers the connection of the courtyard type and its related site. In addition, this research discusses transformation process of the Beijin-courtyard residences, with following analysis on courtyard subdivision development. This paper aims to illustrate the historical formation and transformation of physical residential environment of Beijing, and to propose a guide to the historic architectural-and environmental conservation.
From the beginning of the 1990's, old town redevelopment projects have been increasing in Shanghai. And recently, the projects by methods of returning residents have been introduced in addition to methods of transferring residents. This paper examined the advantage and disadvantage of each method, and the actual situations of a redevelopment project in Jinganqu - an old town in Shanghai. And this paper also examined the price evaluation method of the houses for returning residents, analyzing some cases in detail. Finally, we considered the implications for promoting old town redevelopment projects in China.
This paper deals with the control of spaces by the regulations in a Zone of Protected Architectural and Urban Heritage (ZPPAUP), which was enacted in 1983 to protect the historical landscape. In the regulation of protecting landscape, all elements forming old quarters are classified into 41 categories, and examined in view of two aspects; namely, the historical and cultural value of the space itself, and those values of the entire urban space. Then problems concerning the urban heritage are indicated on two maps using a legend in order to arrange the landscape. Then the facade of each building must be repaired in accordance with the traditional style, so as to protect the urban structure.
This report is based on the result of our first report, that we grasped the characteristics of temperature-humidity change in the period of populated urbanization, and pointed out that change of population density has a little related to that. We analysed the effect of primary factors of urbanization on temperature-humidity change throughout the sires I of multidimensional quantification method, in order to make clear the relationship between various factors of urbanization and temperature-humidity change. These factors are not only the type of meteorological condition and geographical features of city, but also types of cities divided in according the indices of population, industry or land use, and distance from an weather point to DID area, selected from viewpoint of the conditions of urbanization in 1960 and the change of these from 1960 to 1990.
The urban space is an overlapped composition of many kinds of land use, and each land use formation has its special space composition according to demand of land use and planning control. In the case of land readjustment project in densely built-up area, the blocks and plots in project area are rearranged by replotting design method. Even through the alteration of land use rezoning plan and road network plan after redevelopment, the situation of land mixed use still continued naturally. For observing influence factors of residential environment transformation in urban redevelopment project, we examined the relationship of land use and the blocks and plots after land readjustment project in Danbara area, Hiroshima city in this paper.
The first purpose of this paper is to evaluate individual participation in the planning and improving process of living environments through the workshop method. The second is to make clear the correlation between durability of community development and actual participation. Though workshop corresponds to people with active attitude delicately, there are many passive people who entrusted others with the plan by the workshop. Therefore it is necessary for improvement of living environments to have "the individual correspondence worked together with the workshop" and "durable workshop based on the small community".
Following is the change of heiziku from Heian to Kamakura period. The heiziku, with karadomen put on 3 sides of doorflames was concluded at Hondo in Ishiyama-dera-temple later in 11th century, so heiziku was completed. But karadomen had been used on windowframe since the middle 10th century. In Kamakura period, heiziku became disused at butsudo), but used athonden in shurines. In Heian period, nagesi as doorframe spread housing style butudo. In the late, uesing with small pillar was planed. In Kamakura period, nageshi was used in wayo-style and housing style, and used before waraza spread.
In the early Heian period, Kukai introduced organized esoteric Buddhism to Japan, and formulated a plan to make three-dimensional Garbadhatu and Vajradhatu Mandalas in stupas and Buddhist halls. By this time in the Shingon Buddhist sect, the outlook on the buddhist world of Garbadhatu and Vajradhatu Mandalas had permeated as an idea of architectural space. Though the Tendai Buddhist sect also adopted esoteric Buddhism, Garbadhatu and Vajradhatu Mandalas as an idea of architectural space had only a small influence there. In Buddhist halls we can observe more varied compositions of Garbadhatu and Vajradhatu Mandalas than in stupas. And under the rule of the retired Emperor Shirakawa, Garbadhatu and Vajradhatu Mandalas had been very influential upon the space of Buddhist architecture of the Imperial family and the nobility.
Kanba and Ocha-ya were official buildings peculiar to Mouri-Han during Edo-Era. Kanba was feudal office and also used as a lodging by feudal lord. Ocha-ya was lodging used by feudal lord. Through the examination of historical materials, following results are ascertained; (1) Plan of Kanba is classified into 3 classes; divided, connected and self-contained type. (2) Kanba was ordinarily adjoined to Ocha-ya or included in Ocha-ya site.
This paper examines the hard flat stones called Teppeiseki as the roofing material in Suwa district. The stones began to be used on roof in the Edo era to press roofing boards. The roof with boards and the stones varied during the Meiji era and finally changed into the roof with the stones and no boards. Above all the roofing made only of the diamond-shaped Teppeiseki stones prevailed for its good rainproof. The Teppeiseki stones started to cover the roofs of storehouses for cocoon in the 1890's and then spread to houses in the first quarter of the twenty century.
Tokugawa household (KISHU FEUDAL CLAN) Palace in Edo was atypical example of feudal lord' s palaces situated in Edo. This is a study on the coversion of this palace. The results are as follows. This palace was converted into the Temporary Impeial Palace and the detached palace at the early time of Meij period. Then, the private spaces were utilizd without mach change, but the pablic spaces were destroyed and changed for spaces of various purposes.
In 1882 Osaka Prefecture enacted regulations called Kanbutsukogyojo-narabini-Yuranjo-Torishimarikisoku, of which name was changed into Kanbutsujo-oyobi-Yuranjo-Torishimarikisoku at the revise after 6 years. These were issued for some kinds of recreational facilities like amusement park, pleasure gardens, exhibition space or fairground. We examined the criterion of appointing a facility as the object within the regulations. And we made the architectural image, concerned with the object, clearer, by analyzing some examples of facilities which were actually regulated. As its result, this paper especially clarified the concept of amusement park around Osaka in those days.
William Halfpenny's Modern Builder's Assistant of 1757 was fundamentally published as pattern-book of various kinds of buildings, houses for a country seat in particular. In the first part of the book, he translated a part of the first book of Andrea Palladio's I Quatro Libri. The second and third parts of the book are a collection of drawings of buildings and architectural details by four designers including W. Halfpenny. On the basis of the stylistic analysis of his translation and the proportional study of drawings of buildings, the Modern Builder's Assistant exactly and vividly reflects the trend and transition of English architecture in the 1750s.
In this paper, I tried to clarify Charles-Edouard Jeanneret's construction of modernistic thought and its beginnings. First, from "Vers une architecture" by Le Corbusier, I dealt with "le volume" and "la surface" as noteworthy words, and I tried to understand their meaning, Futhermore, I tried to find the beginnings of his thought towards these concepts from the influence of intellectual currents in his early stages. I think that in his early stages, he developed "le volume" as cubic architecture and "la surface" as ornament on the wall. As a result, it is important that the beginnings of his thought on these concepts were found in his earliest architectural educaion.
This paper is a study on architect V. Scamozzi's "correlation of architecture and painting-sculpture" that has relation to the concept of "universal architecture", which is indicated in his book "Dell' Idea dell' Architettura Universale" in the 16th century Italy. His "correlation of architecture and painting-sculpture" is shown in his view of "separation". The "separation" is based on his "science" that means intelligence, and his attempt is to make architecture independent from painting-sculpture at that time. This study is the first step to make clear the scamozzi's concept of "universal architecture".
Le Corbusier's architectural polychromy was analyzed on following 3 aspects. 1. The influence of De Stijl, which introduced polychromy into architecture before Le Corbusier. 2. Relations between purism's painting theory and architectural polychromy. 3. Relations between usage of equi-directional planning grid and architectural polychromy. The conclusions are as follows. 1. Architectural polychromy is the application of purism's painting theory. 2. To apply purism's painting theory to architecture, standard planes have to be established in architecture. 3. Identified with the standard planes of architectural polychromy, the imaginary standard planes to be provided by the equi-directional planning grid are able to apply purist's painting theory into architecture.