In measuring the sound transmission loss of glass panes, there are many important factors such as the size of specimen, the test opening and installing conditions. Therefore, many researches were performed in order to examine the influence of the factors. In order to measure the test specimen in the standardized conditions, additional test requirements for installation of glass panes is included in ISO standard 140-1 and 3 (ISO method). However, it differs from the conventional Flat Glass Association method (FGA method), in which the sound transmission loss has been measured by following the actual Japanese window installation. Therefore, it is important to make clear the difference between the two methods, because we have already accumulated performance data of many kinds of glass panes and also clarified the influence of the niche (niche effects) by applying FGA method.
Recently in the community of lighting field, people tend to attach great importance to the qualitative aspect of lighting environment. Going with this trend, it is very essential for lighting planners and designers to be fully conscious of "Direction of Light" as well as "Density of Light" in interior spaces. This paper first brought into focus "Light Distribution Pattern" people sense or feel with their own eyes. In second place, "Cubic Model" of lighting environment was proposed to aim at giving the systematic expression of distribution pattern. In addition to that, a series of numeral simulations were carried out to apply the proposed model to some virtual spaces. In conclusion of the study, the following two possibilities or advantages of "Cubic Model" were cleared: 1) "Density of Light" and "Direction of Light" can be informed in easier indications. 2) It is highly possible to compare reasonably "Light Distribution Pattern" among different lighting conditions and/or different spaces lit.
Related surveys were carried out in summer of 1992 and winter of 1993 on indoor climate, life style and energy consumption in residential buildings, which are located in eight city areas of different climatic conditions. Indoor temperature was measured in each living room for at least a week with originally designed automatic temperature recorders, and life style factors were investigated with questionnaires. In this paper, daily mean living temperatures of each region and it's regional differences are described, and the reasons of regional differences of living room temperature are discussed. The main results are as follows ; (1)Regional mean living room temperature in summer depends on mean outdoor temperature. (2)Mean living room temperatures of Sapporo in winter are higher than those of other 6 cities of Honshu and Kyushu district for about 2-4 ℃. It is suggested that these differences depend on life style.
This paper describes the concept and the first-stage development of a computational thermal manikin. The computational thermal manikin will be finally used to accurately predict the thermal sensation of a human in a room, by computer simulation. Human's thermal sensation directly depends on the heat transfer characteristics between the human body and his surrounding environment. The thermal environment around a modeled manikin will be examined by numerical simulation of airflow, thermal radiation, heat conduction, moisture transport, solar radiation and so on in a coupled way. In this paper, flow and temperature fields around a modeled manikin have been investigated with CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). The convective heat transfer characteristics of the modeled manikin are predicted, for several types of flow field, I.e., stagnant flow, horizontal uniform flow, downward uniform flow, and upward uniform flow. The CFD simulations are conducted using a low-Reynolds-number k-ε turbulence model. In order to model the complicated shape of the human body, a generalized curvilinear coordinate system (Boundary Fitted Coordinates) is used. The obtained results agree well with previous experimental data.
This study aimes to evaluate network system of urban energy recovery and heat supply. In this paper, loop network system of heat supply using hot water as heat transfer medium was examined. As the first step of the study, energy flow in loop network system was formulated. Then the application of the system to plants of district heating and cooling was calculated and the effects of heat recovery and its utilization were evaluated.
This paper investigated the possibility and the limitation of sounds to improve the nonspecific evaluation of the environment. Subjects evaluated the combined environment of eight kinds of sounds, two levels of temperature(19,24℃(SET*)) and two levels of illuminance(5,530lx) in a room on seven points bipolar scales of 23 adjectives by Semantic Differential Technique. Subjects were 21 male students. The result shows that a few kinds of sound stimuli can improve the uncomfortable evaluation in the 19℃-5lx condition. But the same stimuli were found not always to have the similar effect on the negative comfort resulting from the another thermal and lighting conditions.
This paper describes a method to calculate exergy and entropy balances of a leaf with an emphasis on photosynthesis and secretion. The purpose of investigating such balances is to have a better understanding of the exergy-entropy process of a leaf, which is a fundamental member of trees as a shading device with evaporative cooling capability for passive cooling of a building, together with the exergy-entropy process of various building environmental control systems such as lighting, cooling, and heating systems. We have derived the exergy balance equations for a leaf, taking into consideration not only the dispersion of energy due to the absorption of solar radiation and heat transfer, but also the dispersion of carbon dioxides, water vapor, and oxygen. Example calculation showed the following: exergy consumption within the leaf is 94% of the supplied exergy, which is the sum of the exergies of solar radiation, effective sky longwave radiation, and water; a half of the rest, namely 3%, is stored within the glucose, and the other is discharged with water vapor into the environment of the leaf and then consumed totally until the water vapor reaches the environment.
Structure of space on town house of town in village were analyzed on following 2 aspects. 1. Relations between sites on town house and town house, and form characteristics of town house were analyzed, in comparison with region roundabout. 2. One of the important factors of town in village is that many town houses have hinterlands. Characteristics of block plan and plan on town house from the viewpoints of relations to hinterland.
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate 'the reserved spaces' which are small, open to the other rooms and sometimes contain the circulation, for elaborating the alternatives of the housing unit plans with bedrooms and living, dining rooms. Because of such spatial characteristics, 'the reserved spaces' allow the common usage to the family or specific usage, by relating or irrelating other rooms. The reserved spaces' assure the residents that they make the diverse and flexible life which is stemmed from their spontaneous living style.
This study intends to propose A PLANNING METHOD OF LIVING ENVIRONMENT from analysis of the viewpoint of interaction of two planning methods for an area of living space of interior and exterior factors. THESE TWO PLANNING METHODS are, namely planning of taste , and planning of intersociality by constructing method of sphere of space, and sphere of consciousness around openings. THE NUMBER OF LAYERS for each sphere of space around openings, THE PATTERN OF CONSTRUCTION for space form, and THE UNIT SPACE OF LIVING are derived from a concept of the element of living space for connection of "interior space" - "openings" - "exterior space" of housing. In this paper, analyzed of the pattern of construction for SPACE FORM and the number of layers, for instance, in each sphere of space around openings.
In the Part2, "Infill-transfer-system" and characteristics of interior arrangement are investigated. 1. Dwellers do not recognize any specific problems with "Infill-tranfer-system" Smooth moving has been done from the former to the present tenant. 2. At the "Free-Plan" dwellers units, the interior arrangement are even individualistic. 3. As for the Infill changes after the occupation, changes of finishing are considerably done. 4. It was clearly recognized that most dwellers take great interests in their interiors, and hope to live in the dwelling units for a along time.
The purpose of this paper is to make clear the relationship between the residents' activity and the housing layout. The result are as fellows; 1) The activity staying in "node space" is promoted by the open planning of the common space in the residental building. 2) Arranging "node space" aiternatively, the residents can interchange with not only the ones in the same residental building but also the ones in the other residental building. 3) The reciprocal use is promoted in the place where "functional space" and "node space" are arranged densely. 4) Although "functional space" and "node space" are arranged effectively, the stretch of activity is cut off by the property of "functional space".
This is a study on facility network planning of play-lots for infant and children on the environmental conditions in the city. And the purpose of this paper is to make clear the characteristics of user catchment on play-lots. A survey on this purpose is a questionnaire about play-lot utilization forms of infants and children (from 1year old to the second grade of elementary school). A questionnaire survey is practiced for their parents or relative. As a result, some characteristics are cleared, and they suggest a necessity of play-lot network planning.
The aim of this study is to understand the relationship between sites of theatres and urban form under the socialist system. We analysed the sites and distribution of 251 theatres in Peiking and Shianghai according to the investigating and hearing. We realized the following items: 1) From a visual point of urban form, theatres have three types which are (1) the theatres in the street, (2) the halls in the area of working groups and (3) the theatres in the housing estates. 2) Now many problems have been appearing about the theatres and halls of (2) and (3).
Voxel, the 3-dimensional counterpart of pixel, is able to have real spatial information. Additionally, through the medium of object oriented data structure, the Voxel Object is constituted, and as a set of Voxel Objects, the Space Object, a model of real space, is defined. This description method of space is very easy and brief for analysis and simulations of spatial matters. This paper proposes the Voxel Object Oriented Data Structure, its effect for architectural planning and its implementation for execution on computer with object oriented programming language C++
The space transformation is accelerated by current urban renewal, although the conservational development method is practiced in historical cities in China. This study aims to analyze the space transformation based on a concept of historical city form, with a special concern to the change of the relationship between physical form and it's function. In the conclusion, it can be mentioned that the transformation of historical city form of Suzhou between 1949-80's is mainly caused by the change of function like land use's change from residential to industrial or public facilities. More over, it is necessary to make clear the transition and influence of development system and urban planning system in next step.
This is the basic study about urban history of Far East Russia. This paper aims to clarify the formation of block pattern around former Semenovsky Bazar in Vladivostok, from three points of view such as block pattern, land lot and urban unit. Block pattern and land lot pattern were made by 1870's. The development of urban unit was seen by 1880's at first, and it means dividing a land lot to rent tiny ones by land owners. Building construction became more active from around 1900 to middle of 1910's and it made urban unit more various and facade of buildings more united. This form has been partly destroyed since 1960's by the authority's policy because of decrepitude of tiny buildings.
This study aims to propose the method to analyze the actual condition of the blocks with the various mid-to-high-rise buildings and complex buildings at the width of the frontal road, by the use of "The Three-dimensional Use Diagram". The conclusions are as follows. 1.The thirty-three blocks in the built-up area can be classified into 6-types by analyzing the street pattern and the site condition, the density of mid-to-high-rise buildings, and the three-dimensional land use. 2.The two typical types of them is clarified. The one is the block with large area abutting on a trunk line, and the other is the block with large area abutting on minor streets.
This study aims at clarifying the factors which the residents cooperate to formulate better landscape from the living environment management point of view at the detached houses area. As a result, availability of building agreement and district planning system are the key to encourage residents' motivation for formulating landscape. The residents'attitude on formulating better landscape depends on their interest in the landscape, participation in the local events and their appreciation on existing landscape.
Deterioration of condominium buildings and facilities will become social problems, and reconstruction will be necessary in the future. Consensus among all unit owners of condominium is need to realize reconstruction, but consensus building is very difficult. Therefore, it is important to establish the method of consensus. In this study, I investigated 13 cases of reconstruction and examined the process and mechanism of consensus building. Following points are analyzed : 1) processes of the consensus building ; 2) issues on the process ; 3) mechanism of consensus building ; 4) roles of leading group.
This paper presents two methods targeting leased office buildings. The first method aims to establish an overall budget framework for renovation planning. For maximum renovation and limited renovation, the method uses trends in demand for leased office buildings to estimate the expected value of rate of return and risk for the period up to the next renovation plan, and uses portfolio theory to optimize the scale of investment in renovation for social degradation. The second method is used for technologies aiming to correct social degradation, and provides an economic evaluation by converting the uncertain depreciation effect of sustaining costs to a certainty equivalence.
This study analyzes the maintenance cost of rented houses owned by Osaka Prefecture Housing Corporation with the aim to examine the relations between the maintenance cost and the provisions for maintenance. The analytic objects are 34,802 cases carried out from 1952 to 1995. I classified the cases into fundamental repairs and additional ones according to the significance to tenant. Main points are summarized as follows. 1. The cost of general repairs of old house tends to be expensive. And the difference of the cost of general repairs between houses becomes large. 2. The costs of planned maintenance don't differ between old and new houses. And they reach considerable amount in an early time after building. 3. The improvement cost of old house amounts much. 4. For about 15 years after building, the provisions for maintenance are enough, but 15 years later they are insufficient. 5. The unexpected maintenance cost will be needed for the old houses. The financial resources for the maintenance must be ensured.
SHIBATA castle is located in the north-eastern part of NIIGATA prefecture. Feudallord HIDEKATSU MIZOGUCHI began the construction of the castle on flat land in 1602. The castle compound was in a very advantageous position from the standpoint of defense, because three sides were surrounded by marshland. On the other hand the ground of the compound itself was soft, so it must have been difficult to decide whether that particular location was suitable for the costruction of the castle or not. This study is to clarify the reason why SHIBATA castle, which was built on soft ground, exists as it did, by analyzing geology of the castle, thereby to show the appropriateness of the selection of that particular location.
This is a study on the evoluting process of the details mainly as to the "Roh-Haiden" in Yamaguchi and Shimane Prefectures. The results are as follows ; 1. The Roh-Haiden (tower gate) is most characteristic to be made up the wooden stage. 2. As to the features of the ornamental details, Roh-Haiden is found largely. 3. This style was presumed to decline in the latter Muromachi era, but revived in the middle Edo era, which was succeeded to in the last Edo era.
Quite a number of Zushi were remarkable in Japanese medieval times. This paper tried to make clear the type of Zushi in this period on the base of conclusion of preceding paper - "Zushi in Asuka and Nara periods." From the investigation, there were "Kuden" style and the eclectic style of "Tengai" and "Chobou" inherited from the previous age. Besides a new eclectic style of these two styles, and another new style introduced from China - "Sangeshoyo Zushi" appeared in this period.
This study intends to establish the method of the estimation of the ring type settlement area of Jomon-period, from its partially excavated site. The results of the estimations made with this method are presented as data. Based on the principle of the centripetal composition of the settlement, methods of estimation would be as follows. In the case of a settlement located on a wide-stretch of land, area shall be defined by a circle, whereas with narrow and elongate land, by ellipse, and with narrow and pointed land, by oval shape. What has been discovered with this method of estimation is that, the widest settlement is over 1.7ha in area.
This paper will clarify the basic size for the vertical section of I Baha Bahi in Patan, which has excellent design and is a typical pattern of the Buddhist monastery architecture, according to actual survey results and will discuss the design dimensions for the vertical section. Buddhist monastery I Baha Bahi is a minute building which was built based on dimensional design even to details of wood carving. For the vertical section dimensions, cubit which is about 420.6mm is used as a unit, and the basic size for verticality is 5.5 cubits. Height is decided by the basic size and bisection of the basic size as well. A rectangle of 5.5 cubits high and 10 cubits wide is piled up for each story with a half cubit thick of floor between rectangles. An existing wooden framework and exterior walls of I Baha Bahi were reconstructed in the mid-17th century on the brick foundation, which was laid when the monastery was founded initially. It is considered that dimensional design was made for the vertical section by taking advantage of building dimensions one size smaller than those of a traditional unit of hat which had been used for the royal buildings.
Of the many Buddhist monasteries to be found in the Kathmandu Valley, I Baha Bahi in Patan stands out as being an important architectural heritage. Among existing records relating is one which indicates it was founded in 1427. This article presents a reconstruction of the floor plan of I Baha Bahi based on a pre-restoration survey and on information gleaned in the course of the subsequent repairs and restoration work carried out. On the building. It was possible to draw several conclusions and these may be summarized as follows: I Baha Bahi is a quadrangle architecture. At one time, each wing was furni shed with a peristyle facing the courtyard to the rear of which was a corridor. The floor plan of I Baha Bahi as described here replicates that of the Cha Bahi in Kathmandu. However, at a later date the partition wall creating the corridor around the courtyard in I Baha Bahi was removed and replaced by lattice screens fitted into the intervals between the pillars forming the peristyle. The function of the rooms on the ground flooralso underwent a change: previously used as living quarters for resident priests, they came to be used to enshrine a pantheon of Buddhist images.
In 1737 and 1738, the Academie discussed the proportion of coupled Ionic columns in the different situations. The most important criterion was the regular disposition of modillions below the cornice, but it was proved that the interval of modillions should vary; 15 parties (1 partie = 1/12 module) in case of coupled Ionic columns with coupled pilasters behind them on the corner of building, 13 parties 1/5 for those above coupled Doric columns with different columnar intervals, 14 parties for those without any restriction, 13 parties 1/6 for those with dentils. The Academie could not find any universal dimension of the interval of modillions that should be applicable to any situation. The Academie found rather the impossibility of an universal proportion on this field.
In this second paper about "A study on the trend of architectural thought through Weimar's spirit", I make clear the development of architectural classicism in Weimar. Generally, the development is divided into three periods. In the short, the first period is early classicism (1775-86), the second is mid (1788-1805) and the third is late (1816-45). After all importantly, architectural classicism in Weimar, that is one of the variety of classicism in Germany, is connected with thought of Humanism. The most important architect is Clemens Wenzeslaus Coudray, who was respected by that great poet J.W.v.Goethe.
The intention of this paper is to make a thematic explication of the way of realizing an integrity of inseparable elements in the House. The analysis of the form in the Morris House by Kahn will be in two parts : Part 1 illustrates the modifications of form over the three versions, that is the units system A, the units system B and three-parts system. Part 2 analyzes the meaning of the process of form modification in three ontological aspects. The meaning of the Form of the Morris House is analyzed through three diagrams derived from Kahn's sketches.
It is one of the difficult studies that needs broad knowledge and long experiences only specialists have to analyze the original shape of historic ruins. To support these studies, there are strong needs for a tool to share specialists' knowledge as well as to perform systematic inference. It is an objective of this paper to discuss a knowledge system the authors developed to support spatial analysis of excavated ruins. Taking an analysis on a plan of Islamic houses in Tunis as the case, the authors showed that computerized knowledge system that works with a high speed personal computer could support such work as described above.