It is essential to fireproof wooden buildings that could spread fires within blocks of buildings in order to prevent widespread fires and fire whirlwinds caused by an earthquake. Although fireproofing requires joint rebuilding projects that will consolidate lots without road access, conventional large scale redevelopments cannot match (1) the intentions of land owners to create a people-friendly townscape, (2) site conditions that are small, irregular, and specific, and (3) careful financial planning tailored to the needs of various residents including the aged. Our study proves that cooperative methods of rebuilding may effectively function to meet the requirements with professional support and land consolidation under these conditions. A detailed simulation of specific sites in areas densely crowded with wooden buildings in Tokyo indicates that the cooperative method of rebuilding improves the benefits to every stakeholder and ensures project profitability. Further analysis has identified the determinants of project feasibility and confirmed that the method works more effectively for sites with higher land prices and a higher areal ratio of land without road access.
By focusing on the changes that can be made to houses to establish a point from which bereaved families can return to their communities, with the aim of clarifying the course of house restoration from a nursing to a living environment, we conducted a questionnaire survey of affected families, and a case-based survey to understand the space available in their homes after undertaking the long-term at-home care for an ALS patient. 1) After the death of an ALS patient, the way in which a house is restored can be roughly classified into four types, namely, restoration, partial restoration, reconstruction, and no change. Most bereaved families undertook reconstruction. This trend was more frequently seen in urban LDK-type houses. 2) Family members, who had lost their spouses after long-term at-home care, showed a marked tendency to use a living room or habitable room adjacent to the living room as the room for Buddhist rituals or to display photos of their deceased spouse. Consequently, we can conclude that the home environment is such that the location relationship remains unchanged even after the death. After the death of an ALS patient is formed by subconsciousness to a residence, the length of the recuperation period and relationship with how to live and people who passed away.
In this research, we explore and clarify a traditional life phase of the Hanok (Korean-style house) by looking into an autobiographical novel called “The House with a Sunken Courtyard”. The novel describes a family and a society according to a life style in the Hanok during the postwar period (Around 1950s). Through this novel, we are able to prove a life phase of the Hanok which cannot be verified by the current building structure. Moreover, we investigate a relationship between the house and the yard by focusing on some characteristics of the inner and outer spatial structure which has been selectively carried on to the Hanok.
This study aims to search for sound environment as children's learning field. We investigated sound environment at free playing scene in the kindergarten focused on interaction between children·nursery teacher and playing space. The results were as follows: (1) Differ from children's age (behavior, the interaction with nursery teacher or environment) influenced sound environment, (2) There are characteristics of sound environment adapted to how large playing spaces are and which these spaces are indoors or outdoors, (3) Activity sound is mixed if many different playing groups played same space, so sometimes such situation causes noisy sound environment, (4) Setting equipment by nursery teacher that means selection of toy or space partition have a great influence on sound environment of whole of playing space.
This paper investigates parent-and-child spatial usages and parents attention to their children in a regional parenting support facility. The positions of all parents and children with parents' head directions were mapped every 5 minutes, trajectories of 10 families were traced, and questionnaire for parents were conducted. The investigation reveals that spatial usage and attention strongly depends on parent-and-child distances. When a parent and child was close to each other, they preferred to stay together on rugs and parent's attention was relatively scattered. The amount of parents' communication time measured by the traced survey was shorter than their perception.
In recent years, citizen participation in public facilities has spread nationwide. The same citizens who will use the facility upon completion participate in its planning process in the expectation of creating a facility that the local public will feel a certain intimacy towards. However, while the significance of citizen participation in the planning stage is evaluated, it has not been evaluated in terms of the effect of the nature of citizen participation during the planning phase, on the sustainability of citizen participation from the planning into the operational stages of the building process. This study is intended to provide effective knowledge on the requirements necessary to create sustained citizen participation into the management phase of public facilities.
This paper aims to show an analytical method of cognitive map that is expressive of the interactions between architectural/urban space and human beings, considering Human-Environment System design method as follows: 1) Propose an architectural sign model of cognitive map based on C.S.Peirce's concept of semiosis, 2) Create GIS database of architectural signs on sketch map around university area drawn by its students, 3) Assess the co-occurrency among those signs using the database of step 2, 4) Consider the probability of drawing the targeted architectural sign on sketch map via a logistic regression analysis using the results of step 3.
An experiment was performed to clarify effects of intermittent daylight exposure in a resting-space on arousal level and task-performance in work place. Daylight flowing into the resting-space was controlled with window-blinds. Results indicated, 1) during two working sessions, 11:00-12:00 and 16:00-17:00, the arousal levels analyzed from the frequency of blink burst significantly decreases at the circadian condition more than the non-circadian condition. 2)At some working sessions of the circadian condition, the ratio of correct answer for “Arithmetic”, one of computer tasks, significantly decreases after the resting time more than the one before the resting time.
FSB construction system was introduced to the damaged areas in Iwate Prefecture as a new building technology for wooden housing after the great East Japan earthquake. This case study clarifies how the new building technology was improved and established by design document surveys and hearing investigations. FSB construction system was adopted by local builders to construct temporary houses, restored houses and so on. The characteristic of FSB construction system is timber wall panel connecting square timbers, called FSB panel. There are 7 types of FSB panel in total through six technological improvements.
This report aims to illustrate how Japanese architects extrapolated a design theme from roof garden model through analyzing text and actual composition of contemporary Japanese houses with such model as it appeared in architectural publications. Initially, two aspects of the roof garden concept were extracted from explanatory text by architect themselves, and each scheme was then subjected to a “KJ-method” analysis (originated by KAWAKITA Jiro); one is the architect's intention in adopting roof garden, the other is the architect's distinct view of the spatial character on roof garden. Secondly, the actual composition of each house was assessed with regard to vertical and horizontal positioning of the roof garden. Finally, the mediation between each architect's thinking and the final composition has been plotted in terms of this dual classification.
This study aims to illustrate thought on local society from the point of view of space composition in design theories on Public museum by contemporary Japanese architects after the Second World War. Firstly, the contents each design theory on Public Museum were analyzed, and several descriptions of “The thought on local society” were extracted. Next, the meaning of these comments was analyzed by applying the method created by Jiro Kawakita. Then, there were drawn a relationship diagram and 9 groups of meaning were found. Next, those meanings were divided into two different types; “Phenomenon value and Physical value” and “Universality and Locality”. Secondly, the contents each design theory were analyzed again, and several descriptions of “The areas of relationship with local society” were extracted. And the space compositions were analyzed. Finally, Between “The thought on local society” and “The areas of relationship with local society” were analyzed. Then, 3 Patterns were found. Further, the change of that relationship in terms of time was considered.
This paper aims at clarifying the process of formation and transformation of house types in San Francisco area, in the old quarter of Cadiz. Authors did intensive fieldwork in the year 2009 to investigate the current condition of extant buildings, compiling a database for 83 heritage properties registered as architectural heritage by the local authorities. Historical records and planning documents have been used to trace back the origins of these types and their transformation through a time span of 400 years based on the fieldwork on their current situation. As a result, these types can be understood with respect to their main elements pertaining building morphology.
Conversion of parking lots due to the introduction of car sharing to the existing housing complex, is effective for securing the facility site in order to solve the problem of housing complex are facing. In this study, "use intention of car sharing", "usage status of car sharing" and "usage status of private cars" were investigated on the household in Otokoyama housing complex. As a result it was estimated that 124 cars of private cars is reduced and land of 1,680m2 is possible conversion along with the spread of car sharing. Conversion of parking lots by car sharing is expected in the future.
Resident agreement complementing a present legal system settles the peculiar problem of region, and it is possible to correspond to resident needs finely. After making the present situation of the agreements about landscape design clear in Nagano-prefecture JAPAN, this paper indicates the way of institutional design in future. As a result, three kinds of style was picked out from the prescriptive contents of an agreement; the shape control type, life environment type, area resources type. And the difference was admitted about the landscape quality, an agreement area and resident consensus building between these types.
This paper concerns the UNESCO World Cultural Registrations of Iwami Ginzan, Hiraizumi, and Kamakura, locations selected for analyses because of their concrete application processes beginning from their registration through to the final recommendations. In my initial analyses, I compared the contents of the recommendations from the applying countries with the contents and examinations from the recommendations by the ICOMOS. Focusing on differences between the characteristic Japanese and international issues that appear to be of elevated concern to the World Heritage Convention of the ICOMOS, my analyses highlighted the problems related to the evaluation and verification of the outstanding universal value. Based on the results from these combined studies, I proceeded to examine the future issues of concern for World Heritage Registration
This paper examines the design review (DR) system of City of San Jose focusing on single-family houses. The results were as follows: 1) The DR system is included in the process of issuing the Land Use and Development Permit. Single-Family Houses Permits only undergo DR when there is a large impact on surrounding areas. 2) Below 1.2% of all building permits for single-family houses undergo DR. 3) Two sets of guidelines exist for DR in Residential Design Guideline and Single-Family Design Guideline. 4) Public hearings appear to bring confirmation and publicity. 5) The system of Preliminary Review and public participation appears to be effective for legitimating DR.
In recent years there is a strong interest in identifying and utilizing the local landscape or lifescape elements within planning and design. One method to identify these local characteristics is the Machizukuri Oral History Survey method. This method primarily focuses on gathering the memories of the local residents, living within a particular region and identifies the communal values relating to space, people, things and events. Although this method is effective, there can be a limit in collecting large amount of data due to time and human resource constraints. Thus in order to reduce the burden of the researcher or investigator, many interactive digital archives, allowing the documentation and visualization of local based historical data, utilizing the latest technology have been developed over the years. Currently many of these digital archives mainly utilize point-based geographic data sets, due to its nature in spatial accuracy. But on the other hand, since these systems do not utilize line-based or area-based geographic data sets, it can be argued that there may be a limited capacity in collecting a variety of data and information relating to the spatial widespread or extension of seen in a regional area. The purpose of this research is to identify the informational attributes, which can be obtained though the utilization of diverse geo-tag features (point-based, line-based, area-based) when gathering local historic data.
The study of the wood supply for building the detached guest room of the Ikenaga's house in Hashimoto of 1920 is researched the original building document and clarified as follows; For the building, the wood supplier made estimation next to the carpenter. This is same as the building of Kimura's house in 1914. According to the purchase record of building material, Ikenaga took the carpenter to Osaka and purchased some rare wooden materials. I can place the buying of the wood in Osaka by the Ikenagas as the beginning in this area with the opening to traffic of the railroad.
The Kanagawa Prefectural Office Building was designed by the local government official engineers and completed in 1928. And this design was based on the plan which Karo Obi got the first prize of design competition held in 1926. 1 So far, this building has been often mentioned as the first Imperial Crown Style (TEIKAN-YOSHIKI) which expresses Japanese nationalism. 2 By the comparative study between Obi's application plan to the competition and the great architect Frank Lloyd Wright's works, there exist several undeniable commons. 3 Karo Obi graduated architecture course of the Nagoya Technical College in 1921, and his graduate qualifying design obviously imitated one of Wright's masterpieces, the Midway Gardens in Chicago. 4 Owing to my study about design of the Kanagawa Prefectural Office Building, composition, shape of tower roof, statue of Buddha on the tower, decorative cantilevers, and other decorations, they show a strong influence of Frank Lloyd Wright's works, especially the Midway Gardens and the Imperial Hotel. 5 As a result, the Kanagawa Prefectural Office Building never stands for any ideologies such as nationalism, but simple homage architecture for Frank Lloyd Wright.
In this paper, we attempted to classify the architectural style of brick shrines at the Sambor Prei Kuk monuments that is located in the central area of Cambodia and is recognized as the largest architectural complex in the Pre-Angkor period. A total of 28 brick shrines which are relatively well conserved in this group of monuments were selected and analyzed from several points of view; form of plan, interior form and layout of the pedestal in main chamber, form and roofing structure of antechamber, form of elevation, and form of corbel arch roofing of main chamber. As a result of above analysis, it was clarified that the variety of the architectural forms are mixed and irregularly arranged in this group of monuments. Diversified style of brick shrines in the Pre-Angkor disappeared after the commencement of Angkor period in the 9th century. Architectural style of brick shrines was standardized in the Angkor period; thereafter the main construction material for the major structures in temple complex shifted from brick to sandstone in the beginning of the 11th century. The peak of brick architectures was reached in the Pre-Angkor period, and it was the most outstanding expression through design, structure, and construction technique in the shrines at the Sambor Prei Kuk.
The leading foreign engineers and architects who were working around Shanghai during 19th century established "The Shanghai Society of Engineers and Architects (SSEA)" in 1901 to contribute to the development of modern engineering in China. The society official name changed from SSEA to "The Engineering Society of China (ESC)" in 1913 via "The Engineering Society of Shanghai (ESS)" in 1912. The activities of this society continued until 1940. Many foreign engineers belonged to this society. But the activities of this Society, the constitution of society's members and profile of members are not clear yet. This article argues the constitution of members who belong to this society through analysis of occupation and working place of the members of society.