This paper intends to clarify the reason for being “zashiki” in present. Results are five subjects as follows; 1) ”zashiki” as traditional room of receiving guests has been changing for family living space. 2) Social relation in housing is decreasing especially on formal style. 3) Reason for selecting on plan-type of housing is superior for LDK-type than “zashiki” plan-type. 4) Although most of residents tend to keep on “zashiki” as receiving guests still now. 5) Dis-coincidence with living and required plan-type causes by duplication of receiving guests and family living needs (especially for bed room needs).
In comparison with Lifetime Homes (Japanese version), two Japanese Guidelines for the settlement of aged persons were studied on the universal degree from the viewpoints of continuous self-supporting life and social participation. The following technological items are listed on the basis of their transferability; 1) The two Japanese guidelines premises the usual existence of assistance or care workers. 2) The additional items are necessary for the Lifetime Homes(Japanese version) owing to the floor finish and thermal environment according with Japanese lifestyle. 3) In spite of new construction or refurbishment of residences on the Guidelines, it is not easy to make ensure the continuous self-supporting life and social participation.
Dhaka is one of the most densely populated cities in the world. It is a city of tenants, a third of which are poor and harshly suffering from housing ills. This study quests for decent shelter for city's poor tenants. Residential land in Dhaka is extremely expensive and short in supply. The proposition of ‘Tenement Apartment (TA)’ as affordable decent shelter for the poor tenants is assessed in this exploratory study based on ‘affordability, cost recovery and replicability’ concepts. The study further assessed conventional construction customs and financing mechanisms of informal providers and finds their potential to implement the proposition.
We analyzed 1204 drawings drawn by school-children. And we get 8 spatial representations in them. Those spatial representations were interested in the object of the drawings. The drawings of "the favorite-things" tend to have the motif-expression and the emphasis-expression. The drawings of "the favorite-acts" and "the one's ideas" have relations with the actualize-expression, the image-expression, the desire-expression and the story-expression. Then the former 2 expression are organized expression, the latter 4 show the contents of the expression. But "the favorite-acts" have relations such organized expression as coexist indoor & outdoor-expression, or coexist plural times-expression. At last the spatial imagination in children's drawings is made effecting on "the favorite -things" , "the favorite-acts" or "the one's ideas". It influences at the time when the spatial imagination is made that teaching children how to draw the theme.
I investigated practice fields of city bands and grasped the state of a room in a performance, and considered problems about safekeeping and import of musical instruments to use for an exercise. It is necessary for depots of musical instrument cases besides performance area. Scale of an exercise room can think about 2.5 square meters per one person. In public cultural facilities and other institutions, it is necessary for safekeeping and an import method of large-sized musical instruments to be considered.
This paper noticed the work space of teachers in primary schools. We grasped how to use spaces by teachers and analyzed whether they can choose proper spaces along their purpose. Main results are as follows; 1) It is cleared that teachers use the spaces against their purpose or secure another spaces themselves. 2) For choosing the proper spaces, the space for teachers own and multipurpose, for teachers' group and relaxation, and for relaxation with residents are needed. 3) It is also important that the ways of space composition for teachers depend on the school scale.
In the modern society, the rate of declining birthrate and growing proportion of elderly people has increased; therefore, a policy that is considerate of children, the elderly people, and handicapped people is necessary in terms of resolving the problem. Recently, they are almost isolated from the aspect of living environment and welfare in Japan. From these circumstances, resources of nursing environment for revitalization of living environment and local environment where parents would prefer to raise their children are needed to be reconsidered. This study has written based on making a comparison on how each city is evaluated as a child care environment. Therefore, both user and nonuser parents of nursery schools and kindergartens with daycare services as well as other nursery services are the main target in this study. Through the researches, an attempt to examine a child care in a supportive environment for parents from the unified viewpoint on city, work, and child care has been made.
The aim of this paper is to clarify characteristics of building complex in the center district of Tokyo in terms of spatial compositions of urban open spaces. Initially, combinations of buildings based on scale, which is defined as total floor area and proportion of a building, are analyzed. Secondly, arrangements of buildings are analyzed, and thirdly the surroundings and the site shapes are analyzed. Finally, 8 spatial types based on 4 fundamental groups, which corresponds to the floor area ratio, are clarified through the above-mentioned characteristics. They represent one aspect of urban open spaces with dispersed buildings in the contemporary Japanese city.
The aim of the study is to investigate the elevation of urban architecture, and to clarify the feeling about the component elements of elevation, such as the outline, proportion, joints, etc. and how to cognize and hold, then transform the tendencies of cognition into computer data for statistical analysis. The object of the research is the various styles of architecture in Tokyo. As a site investigation, we carried out an elevation recollection method experiment. By analyzing the data relating to elevation cognition rates for each object, it was possible to clarify the tendencies of elevation cognition. For example, the cognition of proportion is not influenced by the size of a building when the value of height/width lies between 0.5 and 3.
“Silver Housing(S H)” were promoted by the administrations recently. In this study factors that concerns on relieved living in S H were examined. As a result of this study, it was found that the house equipments, supports from life support adviser and welfare facilities in current S H made the users feel relieved. Especially, it can be found the speciality of life support adviser and the diversity of welfare facilities have been playing important roles in current S H. With the developing of the aged society, construction of new support system for S H users will be next research subject and should be taken into consideration seriously.
The solid angle, which is closely related to the sky amount and sky factor, has been commonly used to assess urban landscapes. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm to calculate the solid angles of urban landscapes based on computational geometry. This algorithm enables us to incorporate the complicated landscapes which consist of multiple nonconvex polygons. Furthermore, using the algorithms, we assess the public space near Shibuya Station in terms of solid angles. In the analysis, we describe how advertising billboards disturb our visibility. We also develop the algorithm to calculate the sky amount and the sky factor, and evaluate both indexes.
This research examines the processes of developments of community gardens in Japan, and discusses about the "publicness" of community gardens as public spaces. Community gardens in Japan were introduced before WWII as one of the forms of urban open space such as Kleingarten in Germany and Allotment in England. In the postwar period, they expanded in quantity as a practical use of the urban unused farmland, and nowadays it is provided from the view of urban environment and rural development. Furthermore, the publicness of Community gardens in Japan is what various subjects intentionally give in its historical transition.
The aim of this paper is to demonstrate a clear and comprehensive framework to understand financial management in piecemeal housing construction. A pragmatic field survey was conducted to attain the objectives in a typical residential area in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. The study reveals that households fall into an invisible debt trap while they access formal finance. They adopt different non-conventional finances to lessen the finance gap. It includes redundant assets, interest free loans and with interest loans*1. Result, however, showed that, for a financial strategy to be successful, it has to made use of both formal and informal finances.
The specialist contractors in China include both the structural trade subcontractors and the equipment specialist contractors. In recent years, a part of the structural trade subcontractors expand the scope of the works from supplying only the labor to supplying both the labor and the material. In this paper, we clarify the state of the art of the specialist subcontractors' behaviors concerned with the scope of the work supplying both the labor and the material. Then we analyze their motive and feasibility to the work supplying both the labor and the material. Finally, we propose the structural trade subcontractors' direction of promotion in the future.
The number of enterprises that offer the Property management business as the real estate investment maket for recent years grows up increases. A corporate number that was 100 companies in 2002 reaches about 450 companies according to the investigation in 2008. This research investigates the amount of the business of the property management business in the real estate for the investment and the actual condition of the work contents. And, the structure of corporate profits of the property management business is clarified and the evaluation approach of the business is examined.
Our study on the lineages of jinguko carpenters revealed the following facts : (1) For the partial repair project of Naiku of the Shrine in 1575, generation changes occurred in the carpenter families which held the titles of thoku and thodai. (2) For the building and rebuilding operations of Geku, the members of most of the carpenter families who had participated in the periodical rebuilding project in 1563 kept their accreditations for daikushiki in the following periods. (3) In 17th century, many of the successions of accreditation for daikushiki between carpenter families were made through trading.
This study aims to analyze the relationship between the names of main rooms and the plans of Minka in Tohoku region, and to define the characters of each room and their regional and historical backgrounds. The names of main rooms are mostly "dei", "zashiki", and "joudan". "Dei" is mainly old style which main room is in the front and has ancient plan without "toko", and decreased with the time. "Joudan" which main room is in the back having mostly "toko", increased as well. "Zashiki", having no "toko" early, added the examples having "toko" afterwards.
At the beginning of the Shouwa era, the Ireko style Noh Theater was popularized in Japan. Ireko Style is the placement of a small edifice within a larger space. Artists were beginning to become familiar with the Ireko style Noh Theater. It was created during the Meji era and also developed at the beginning of the shouwa era and eventually became the “Theater”. There are three examples of Ireko style Noh Theater, which were built at Nagoya, Kanazawa, Fukuoka. The many different aspects of the construction processes used to create these spaces are of particular interest.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the brick industry in modern Japan by statistical data. Main results of this study are as follows. 1. The main factor that increased the amount of brick production rapidly in the middle of the Taisho era was increase of private construction investment. 2. In depression after 1920, the construction investment and the amount of cement production increased, but brick decreased. This change proves that brick construction declined at this time. 3. The number of brick factories and laborer increased in the middle of the Taisho era. But the productivity didn't rise remarkably. Also there were many factories that didn't own engine. 4. The small and middle scale brick factories co-existed with large one. And the brick industry was still labor-intensive in the Taisho era.
The conclusion of this paper is as follows. : We think that it was planned that after a whole scale is first assumed in Long Duc Dien, the edge pillars interval is set as a basic dimension, and the pillars interval was decided by the ratio of the pillars interval or the integral multiples of a unit length. Secondly, we think that the diameter of “mokoshi” pillar is set as a unit length, and the relation of the ratio of the pillars interval and the difference of the pillars interval exists between the each pillars interval when the pillars interval is decided according to a unit length. Thirdly, we think that the section size of Long Duc Dien was decided depending on the proportion coefficient (1/2, 1, √2, 5/3, 2) being multiplied to the pillars interval.
The identification method for the components of the traditional wooden architecture in the Central Vietnam is characterized by the 'Gian-Chái/Dam-Quyet' method that is based on its structure style of column and slanting beam 'Kèo'. Firstly, the joint of column and slanting beam has to fix on the ground before detail making of the slanting beam. Secondly their total view on the architecture consists of the one set of the longitude section and the parts of it. This identification method has been suited to their carpentry process and shows their carpentry production idea that the architectural space is composed by several pairs of the column and slanting beam. Because this method is based on the architecture style and carpentry process, it can be said quite natural or primitive one. On the other hand, the applicability of this method is not as wide as the method in the Middle Age of Japan.
Following aspects are demonstrated in my analysis: 1) Cross church planes of Fischer consist of two kinds of planes of "the longitudinal Greek cross" and "the oval-cross" which put the longitudinal Greek cross and a oval on top of one another, and "the longitudinal Greek cross plane" was the cross-shaped trial that was near on the rectangular plane which the nave width of the cross direction and the relationship of the proportion of the transept produced. 2) By being based on the constitution of Kollegienkirche, the Kirche in Kirchental extends an intersection department, Johannesspitalskirche becomes the long temple form that is near to the rectangular space. Furthermore, the Ursulinenkirche becomes the plane constitution of the long temple form that used the wedge site whole. 3) In "the oval cross", Dreifaltigkeitskirche was succeeded in the Karlskirche in Wien. He gave radial directionality other than a cross by adding four oval chapel motifs of the Kollegienkirche in a central oval wall surface. As a result, this gave rise to the radial direction moreover a cross, included the vertical direction of the centre Dome and enabled to extend the oval space by lightening from every direction.
Shanghai Port is famous as the trade port since 1840s, but even now the construction process of this port is not very clear. So this paper is to make the problem clear by focusing on the construction of the Nippon Yusen Kaisha Hongkew Mail Wharf in 1880s. As known, Hongkew mail wharf was the first wharf of the Modern Japan in Shanghai, and to Japan, WHARF was thought as one of the basic and important conditions of Shanghai Advancement. As a new comer to Shanghai port, Nippon Yusen Kaisha was very difficult to build wharf facilities in Hongkew harbor. In order to place their new pontoons and landing spaces, after leased the waterfront of the Shanghai Japan Consulate which was next to Hongkew Mail wharf, Nippon Yusen Kaisha had to negotiate with the Municipal Council of international settlement. Because Hongkew Mail Wharf located at the North Yangtze Road complex, where Woo Chang road pontoon that used by many Chinese also existed. And the Municipal Council who built the North Yangtze Road did not agree Nippon Yusen Kaisha to place their new facilities opposite the road. Because they thought when Nippon Yusen's facilities placed, the access from Wang Po River to North Yangtze road or Woo Chang Road pontoon will be closed, and results that foreigner boats or Chinese boats can not use the waterfront of Hongkew Harbor. So how did Nippon Yusen Kaisha solute those problems? Here, we focused on the company's negotiation strategy and the arrangement of their new pontoons' proposal to get permission from Municipal Council. Only through these analyzes, it is thought that the construction process of HongKew Mail wharf and the mean of the work carried out by Nippon Yusen Kaisha in Modern Period will be clear.
It is the representative example that the castle walked it with the history of the modern cultural properties protection as a historic spot in the modern times, and it is the example of the park of historic interest in modern times, but there are extremely few places where it may be said that the maintenance was over. This study considered it about the historical park and the change of the use patterns that the change of a preservation and the idea of practical use, the characteristic performed in a castle in the modern times before the full-scale business of "preservation and maintenance about the historic spot" of 1965 enforcing it after the abandoned castle of modern times castle appointed to a history of nation trace. As for the reconstruction maintenance, as for the element of the point such as the building, the space of the circle that used the reconstruction as a garden of the parks moves to the reconstruction of an open space and the building, but suitable correspondence is late by the reason of the use as the park about the tree in the castle. In addition, it is clear to be the obstacle which is covered the scene as the historic spots such as Ishigaki or the building and the tree which became higher, and fail even if it planted a tree by a plan.
The purpose of this study is to examine the social aspects of Korea in the 1930s by analyzing the urban and architectural spaces described in the literatures of two Korean novelists, “Tae-won PARK” and “Sang LEE”. We used the following three methods. First, we classified the architectural terms used in the literatures into 9 categories and analyzed their usage frequency in order to find the trend in architectural style within them. Second, we divided the background stages appearing in the literatures into six distinctive spatial categories based on their architectural usage and analyzed the relation between these spaces and the Korean colonial period. Third, we grouped the architectural terms together with the characters and stories described on each stage into six spatial categories and examined the spatial aspects by those constitutive keywords and then, analyzed the spatial meaning veiled in these spaces. From the spatial images obtained after the analysis, we were able to understand about the structure of modern Korean society in the 1930s.