The After School makes activities and learning spaces for many students by using school facilities and other public facilities. This study aims to clarify how to use the space and how to support the student at the service rooms by actual survey for 4 elementary schools of Matsue City. The results are as follows. 1. The service center makes by using special subject room, multiple room and exclusive room. 2. The support staff carefully services for small student groups. The half ratio students play the static activities, and another students play the dynamic activities. 3. In case of using large multiple room or exclusive room, students can use to both of static and dynamic activities that encourage by sufficiently furniture. But special room do not have many flexibility in activity and using time. 4. In case of using 3 multiple rooms, students can divide to groups by each activities or grades.
The author argues in the way of ideographic analysis concerning visual human images as interfaces between person and environment, that is compared with the way of nomothetic analysis which pursues objectivity and universality. The function of affective meaning is reconfirmed here, and the purpose of the study could be to pursue the aspect of the variety, multi-layering, and transaction of affective meaning. Analytical description of the scene was done in an environmental situation which could be said as a socio-ecological event. Then it is observed that the quality of the informations which belong to the affective meaning in the visual human images changes through perceptual cycles, and that it does not only control the person to person relationships and behavior settings at the spot but also gives non-ignorable influences to spatial arrangements and its architectural planning and design, as an important example of interface.
Urban search and rescue operations are necessary to save victims trapped under rubble in structural collapse disasters. At confined-space-rescue sites, severe spatial and environmental conditions often hinder operations. To better prepare for disasters, we focused on the influence of space restrictions to (1) implement surveys on responders' body sizes through questionnaires and anthropometric measurements and (2) conduct an experiment on body movements in restricted spaces. Based on the results, threshold values at which rescue activity methods change were obtained, and are proposed as indices for effective training settings.
This research aims to clarify that the impression and space-volume sensuousness of a room are influenced by the aperture edge between ceiling and wall surface. We made on experiment of the impression evaluation using the reduced scale model in order to quantify psychophysical quantities for space. As a result, space-volume sensuousness is bigger than the case of no aperture edge. The wider the aperture edge, the bigger space-volume sensuousness. But on the other hand, we will be uncomfortable. We need to use properly dependent on the intended purpose of space.
The aim of this study is to clarify the characteristics of indoor and outdoor living spaces in contemporary Japanese courtyard houses. Firstly, sectional patterns as expanse of height direction of living rooms are analyzed. Secondly, visual openness between living rooms and courtyards are analyzed by elevation diagrams of courtyards. Finally, nine compositional types of wall surfaces enclosing courtyards as seen from living rooms are suggested. Prevalent types show a tendency of characteristics of enclosing courtyards are basically closed in the horizontal direction from living rooms, and various openness in the vertical or crossing direction are combined.
This paper aim to clarify the situation of the individualization and the isolation in suburban area among residents in the view point of recreational life, as it had already occurred in cities. It makes clear as follows. 1. The recreational activities are tended to be done in houses, districts far from the village and not to be done in the village area. 2. The recreational life individualization is observed. 70% of villagers, 70% of old residents and 60 % of full-time farmers, are mainly spend recreational life alone or with their families. 3. The widespread of recreational life individualization are caused by that i) residents think family matters are superior to joining the society, meeting with friends. ii) the stress of labor condition promote having recreational time alone or with the family. iii) younger generations are lack of friend in the village area.
The Modern age of Japan that started from the Meiji Restoration has important meaning in the history of development of wilderness reclamation and the formation of farm villages. This study clarifies the spatial characteristics, the formation, and the transition of the development of farm villages based on document investigation and field surveys through comparative analysis of a typical case that developed in the Modern Age in Hokkaido, Tohoku and the North Kanto region. It was an especially big discovery to be able to confirm the method of development of the farm villages in the Modern Age in Hokkaido, Tohoku and the North Kanto region that had been thought to be have developed previously through a different route and that there are a lot of simultaneities and common planning principles.
This paper aims to clarify the progress and evaluate the current conditions of rural tourism initiatives with concern on the relation between cultural landscape and village tour activity. The result are as follows : 1) In 2010, there existed 9 village tours routes in which 10 villages around the Borobudur Temple were involved ;2) The process of rural tourism initiatives became clarified, 4 types of beginning stage are found ;3) Local guides already took part in initiating village tour in the 90s, but the rural tourism initiatives mostly started to prevail after 2003 ;4)The villages' attractiveness and potentials used for rural tourism are part of landscape elements. In addition, rural tourism initiatives in Borobudur Sub-district are the result of collaboration between villagers, local NPOs and tourist guides. In this way, rural tourism initiatives in each village are different in term of progress and conditions, but each village has the community initiative.
This paper studies residential environment planning considering historical townscape preservation by analyzing two aspects based on surveys in Kanazawa City as a case study. 1. Residential problems and planning themes are clarified based on surveys of designated district where special treatments are needed for prevention work against fire spreading and acceptability of residents to planning tools is also analyzed based on the questionnaire survey. 2. Effectiveness and applicability of relating planning tools for rehabilitating those problems are analyzed through case studies in a district where the designation of “Preservation District of Traditional Buildings and Environment” are studied.
Due to rapid urbanization, the reconstruction status of 187 villages of the six center areas in Xi'an has been studied. Also, the method of reconstruction of an urban village named Xihejia village and the changes in village life before and after reconstruction have been revealed and studied, from which the following results can be obtained. 1. In the 187 villages of the six center areas in Xi'an, 35% are already reconstructed and the reconstruction speed was very fast. 2. By implementing "Village self-reconstruction" approach, the villagers of Xihejia village received not only double housing compensation but also new jobs. 3. The reconstruction of Xihejia village brought the changes in management system, household registration, occupation and income of villagers, living situation of villagers, family relationships and so on.
This research clarifies the restructuring mechanism of basin area by the following 2 process: 1. Formation process of industrial district within basin area 2. Formation process of social network (business network and personal network As a result, it is found that 1) industrial district is formed centralizing area that gravitateswood and man power, and that social network have been created centralizing this area. 2)business networks and personal networks are dependent on each other,and business networks are highly influenced by external factors andexist on a shortterm basis. However, personal networks are notinfluenced by external factors a nd exist on a long-term basis. From these results, it is clarified that there is a core within basin area, and by weaving personal networks again, business networks are newly created, and mechanism of basin area isrestructured.
Now (16 years later after Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake), the Land readjustment project is finished. Along with Infrastructure was completed. The rate of population recovery is 51%-124%. But damaged areas (especially low rise area, Nagata and Hyogo Ward) now have a lot of vacant space. This study aims to evaluate the building reconstruction in the readjustment area and clearly which groups returned based on building use and tenure. All occupants were surveyed in Misuga West district, which had experienced land readjustment. The main points results as follows: 1. 27.4% of former residents and shop and factory which buildings were damaged were able to return. When the earthquake happened, 80.0% of them wanted to come back. 2. Tenant occupants can't rebuild without support from some other organization. 3. 79.7% of occupants who returned town built private temporary houses. 4. After earthquake 16 years later, 47.9% of people are former occupants, which means 52.1% came into the area after the earthquake. Community make-up and the pattern of roads and blocks changed at high speed. For the community, the population recovery is important but who is returning is more important .For a community to recover, it is important that residents are not displaced during reconstruction.
The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami caused the great deal of damage to Aceh in Indonesia. In April 2009, the recovery control agency “BRR” was dissolved, and most of urban infrastructure related to the recovery were constructed in the damaged areas. In this paper, the authors compare regional differences among them using population data, estimated recovery values, and post-tsunami urban master plan. Also, they examine the regional recovery process by the way of building recovery curves for permanent housings and temporary housings.
Recently the “Landscape Law” supports the implementation of local city's urban design plan. Though for consensus making between the government and the stakeholders, there have been few visual tools to communicate together on the existing and new urban design. This research deals with a new analytical and generative methodology for townscape renovation and the verification of the effectiveness of the subsidy program based on Design Code. By analyzing and visualizing the distribution of the groups of similar housing types with mathematical graphs, this study clearly shows the chronological changes of the urban fabrics and how to control them
In this study, we clarify that the development permit system has been operated for landscape management method. As a result, we find the followings. •Obuse Town leads the development to consider the landscape by Ordinance 3411. In this approach, the main theme of the discussion is the demarcation of the area to guide development. •Yokohama City, Ritto City and Iida City have enacted ordinance of development permission standard for landscape. These technical standards are set up to ensure the quality of landscape. However, there are issues in these case studies.
The purpose of this article is to evaluate accessibility of the residents in Iwate prefecture to gas stations and to analyze the effects of their closedown. Road distances between the residents and gas stations were calculated on GIS network analysis. The results show that the distances of half of residents to the nearest gas station are less than 1km, and that 18000 people travel over 10km to the nearest one. In conclusion, the effects of closedown of gas stations in the mountain area are greater than those in Kitakami Basin in terms of travel distances.
The ratio of final inspection of "Item (1) buildings" is about 80%. This paper examine the trends in detail, and clarify the total ratio of "alternation of use" and "cancelation of construction" which both escape from final inspection, and finally consider the way to raise the ratio into 100%. We found first that the ratio vary significantly by prefectures, secondly that previous non final inspection ratio of Kansai region in 2009 was 11.5%, finally that tracking in detail the cases which do not notify the final inspection is effective to raise the ratio into 100%.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the impression and the value about building cleaning service as mentally-disabled persons' employment. The questionnaire was conducted for special needs school teachers across the nation. As the result of the multivariate analysis, while "Age" and "Information amount to evaluate company" in respondent's attributes were seen a high correlation to value of the building cleaning service, the relations between them were analyzed in detail. In addition, the ease with which mentally-disabled persons were able to work was estimated such as the meaning of multi-employment, the important point to work easily and so on. And the current state of the mentally deficient person who had worked there was defined according to the questionnaire by the only respondents who had offered job guidance about cleaning service.
A large amount of infrastructures and public facilities were built with high economic growth in Japan. A lot of municipalities have had a large amount of public facilities since that time. Those huge amounts of public facilities have become deteriorated for several decades and have need of efficient management. However, the problem is that municipalities don't know how to start the facilities management. Further, it is a problem that they have recognized the facilities management as work only of the maintenance department. This study investigates organizational structures and process of construction, improvement, repair of each municipality to propose an efficient organizational structures and management process. The following three are the key problems for the facilities management efficiency improvement. (1) Unification and sharing of information related to facilities (2) Regular building deterioration check (3) Making of the communications between departments Moreover, it is also important to advance making of the gross quantity reduction and the appropriate relocation of facilities.
In the Edo Period, the principal actor of noh was able to perform with financial assistance from the Shognate for once in his life. The Noh Theater was so spacious as to accommodate 2000 to 10000 audiences for 15 consecutive days, including the Daimyos and the citizens from the whole area of Edo. In exploring four examples, an attempt is made to clarify the ancient Noh Theater venue as symbolical cases.
Using case studies of otaya and oyado, two types of early-modern boarding facilities, in the districts of Takaoka and Imaisurugi, this paper examines the nature of lodgings in which daimyo stayed and rested in the Kanazawa fiefdom during the Edo Period. In the early part of the Edo Period in both Takaoka and Imaisurugi, otaya opened as lodgings for Kanazawa clan lords and oyado opened as lodgings for Daishoji clan lords. By the 1720s, otaya had deteriorated to such an extent that the Kanazawa had them done away with and came to use the oyado of the Daishoji. The Takaoka oyado was composed of two parts, spaces for both daimyo and for the buildings residents. In contrast, the otaya of both cities only contained space to accommodate daimyo. In this way, the otaya were similar to the lodging facilities called Ocha-ya and used by daimyo.
We reexamined the keep of Matsue castle based on the restoration documents in 1950-1955. The results as follows; 1. There is possibility of the different construction background between the basement to 2nd floor and the 3rd to 5th floor, because of age, technique and two kinds of Banzuke. 2. There are 96 pillars reaching two layers, called Tohshibashira. The Tohshibashira of 5th floor were shaved all sides. 3. The 40 percent pillars from 1st to 4th floor are covered with boards, called Tsutsumiita. They were added behind. The restoration staffs tried to remove them but stopped.
During Edo-Era inspectors were sent throughout Japan several times. In 1838 inspectors were sent to Kumamoto-Han and used Ocha-yas for stay and rest. Through the examination of historical materials such as plans, following results were ascertained; 1)Plan of Ocha-ya was not similar to plan of town house, private house and Okyaku-ya in Kumamoto-Han. 2)Though town house, private house and Okyaku-ya was used as a residence, Ocha-ya was not used as a residence. 3)Ocha-ya had two approachs, a way to Genkan and a way through supecial gate such as Onari-Mon.
This paper discusses carpenters' trade rights at Kamowakeikazuchi Shrine from the following three points of view: 1. A carpenter acquired a trade right, after he was reported to Kamowakeikazuchi Shrine and was allowed to work by Kamowakeikazuchi Shrine. 2. A carpenter maintained a trade right, because he worked gratis some time in a year, and paid a tax every year for Kamowakeikazuchi Shrine. 3. A carpenter forfeited a trade right, if he neglected his obligation; behaved illegally or dishonestly; or disturbed administration of Kamowakeikazuchi Shrine. These were because they were under the control of Kamowakeikazuchi Shrine.
In about 540 B.C., the Greek engineer Eupalinos dug a tunnel over 1 km long through a mountain to bring water from a spring on its far side into the city of Samos on the Greek island of the same name. The tunnel was dug from both ends to meet in the middle. Since the tunnel was rediscovered in the nineteenth century, there have been several investigations. The present article reports a new measurement of the tunnel using modern instruments and a reinvestigation of the construction strategy. The new measurements confirm the professionalism of the original design; the two ends of the tunnel start accurately in direction and slope. The tunnel from the northern end deviates from the line but makes correcting turns. The tunnels meet with a difference in height of only 64 cm. This accuracy shows that there would have been continual measurement and reassessment of the progress of the tunnels. The instruments of the time that are known to us would not have been sufficient for these tasks. New measurements and observations demonstrate the skill and talent of Eupalinos in managing this project.
This paper is a part of the analysis which derives Schindler's ‘Principle and Method of Spatial Composition’ from his architectural writings. By analyzing contents, types and transformation in the writings, following points were derived. 1. ‘Principle and Method of Spatial Composition’ is composed of following five themes: principle, elements of composition, composition of rooms, construction method, and composition of plane. 2. In early period, he mainly investigated the principle, elements of composition, and composition of rooms. 3. In “Schindler Shelters,” he began to focus on the construction method, and this tendency was enforced and generated in the final period.
The aim of this study is to clarify the expression of measure comparing quantity in contemporary architecture. This expression is making comparison with the difference of quantity in each part of space in architecture by arrangement of building elements like a roof, wall, floor and ceiling. In this study, architectural plan and section are analyzed as several types of graph to examine the relationship between arrangement of building elements and measure. As a result, 12 types are defined by the combination of several types of graph. Finally, the form is revealed that the expression of measurement comparing the quantity bring the diversity and complexity to the network of identity and difference by arrangement of building elements in contemporary architecture.
The Marunouchi is representative office district in Japan. It began to be constructed when the Mitsubishi financial clique had received public land disposed of in 1890s. This district was developed by the Mitsubishi, largest landowner in this area. The character of this development can be observed from the view point of change of its land. In this research, focused on the transaction type and the business partner to which the land right was transferred, the interrelation between the change of the land and the developmental strategy of the Mitsubishi will be clarified.