This study was focused on community response to Shinkansen railway vibration. Social surveys for housewives in detached houses were carried out along the Tokaido Shinkansen Line in Kanagawa Prefecture. Applying path analysis to the response, we have clarified Shinkansen railway vibration annoyance. The results were as follows: 1)Most of inhabitants within 100 meters from the railway were annoyed by the vibration. 2)Annoyance was directly affected by the irritation, auditory plus visual effects due to the vibration and evaluation to the change of the vibration environment and indirectly influenced by vibration exposure. 3)Noise was also one of factors constituting vibration annoyance.
It is inevitable to take into account some measures to alleviate the influence of the train-induced vibration for utilizing buildings over a railway with quiet indoor environments. In order to develop a floating railway structure some experiments were carried out laying a short railway with an actual carriage. The effect on vibration reduction with several devices altering spring constant was quantitatively examined. It was found that this floating structure is effective on reducing the train-induced vibration. Also, it was discovered that the first natural frequency of the vibration system for train-running can be predicted by the single-degree-of-freedom system in consideration of total mass below the axle spring.
The solar irradiance and illuminance are important as meteorological data to predict indoor environment. However, the data concerning the daylight are not measured at the ordinary meteorological stations. The horizontal global irradiance is normally measured in the meteorological stations in Japan. The luminous efficacy, by which the irradiance can be converted into the illuminance, is essential for obtaining fundamental daylight data for the prediction of the daylit environment. The luminous efficacy has been investigated for a long time in the world. Several considerations have been put forward. But the sufficient theories on the luminous efficacy have not established yet. The relations between the diffuse irradiance and the diffuse illuminance, the direct normal irradiance and the direct normal illuminance, and the horizontal global irradiance and the horizontal global illuminance were examined and discussed based on the data acquired at the measurement of the IDMP station operated by the authors. The results of the examination are stated and the equations newly proposed by the authors on the luminous efficacies are introduced in this paper.
This study describes an experiment using a building which has outside thermal insulation in its exterior walls, through the use of thermal storage via the supply of air through the ceiling plenum. As the differences in total heat load between intermittent cooling/heating and continuous cooling/heating are estimated to be small due to the thermal insulation properties of this building, thermal storage via cooling/heating at night was also experimentally attempted using the existing air-conditioning equipment which was designed for ordinary intermittent cooling/heating. As a result, peak cuts in the heat load, the effective use of electricity at midnight, and improvement in the indoor environment were confirmed by a limited increase in the total heat load.
The hysteresis effects of ad-, de-sorption isotherm of ALC in hygroscopic humidity are analyzed under a periodical thermal and humidity condition in Osaka. The treatment of hysteresis by the independent domain theory and the divided width of the distribution diagram are same as the previous paper. The relative humidity is mostly identical between the nonlinear calculations considering hysteresis and the nonlinear calculations using the only boundary curve, although the water content, K, and v are different between the both calculations. The relative humidity of the linear calculations which use the mean value of κ and υ in the nonlinear calculations are not so different from that of the nonlinear calculations. These show that the nonlinear calculation using the only boundary curve and the linear calculation is useful for the analysis of relative humidity in hygroscopic humidity under periodical thermal and humidity building condition.
Fluctuating air movement has possibility of improving the quality of hot or warm thermal environment. The purpose of the present study is to investigate it by subjective experiment. Conclusions are follows, i) Mean convective heat tranfer coefficient of constant air movement for sitting man is indicated. ii) Physical and phsiolosical effects of fluctuating air movement is indicated by mean convective heat tranfer coefficient for sitting man. iii) Psychological effects of fluctuating air movement is indicated by the relationship between mean body temperature with thermal and comfort sensation, iv) Thermal and comfort sensation of fluctuating air movement is predicted by physical, phsiolosical and psychological effects.thermal comfort
This paper examines the general relationship between energy saving in building facilities and the carbon tax that is taken interest as the economical measure of C0_2 reduction. It presents a mathematical model of energy-saving economics in building facilities as a probability density of initial cost and the energy-saving effect. On the basis of this model, approximate values and a carbon-tax rate obtaind from economic studies are used to analyze how introducing the carbon tax influences the energy-saving effect and increase in initial cost.
In this paper, the simplified model of occupant for evaluating a radiant cooled space was proposed. The model was constructed by combining some kinds of cylindrical and rectangular parts to simulate a shape of the real subject accurately. The geometrical validity of the model was examined. As a result, an effective body surface area which contributes to a radiation and convection heat transfer and an effective radiation area of the real subject agreed well with those of the model. Furthermore, a skin temperature at some typical positions on the body surface and a partial thermal resistance of clothing were defined respectively on the basis of measured values and they were added to the model as thermal properties. Finally, the model was applied to an analysis of thermal environment in the radiant cooled space and a local thermal environment around the model was evaluated quantitatively. The analyzed value of a mean surface temperature on the body agreed well with that on the real subject. The practical validity of the model was verified.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the children's recognition of river space and nature of the region by utilizing their images. The results obtained are as follows. 1. Children are recognizing the river and nature by experiencing activities on river space. 2. Children are recognizing the route to shore by understanding the location of river space. 3. The children's recognition of river space is influenced by the park on the shore and embankment. This study gives suggestions to the preparation of waterside space in considering children's growth.
Authors showed a foundamental theory regarding the estimation of the optimum number of thefixtures in a lavatory of the multipurpose stadium in this paper. The results were shown as follows. 1)The foundamental theory was shown in case that a mother group was restricted, and computed the optimum number by means of this theory. There were non-linear relations between a mother group and arrival rate. 2)The simulation was carried out in the condition that the waiting line was extending. There were non-linear relations between the fixture number and each setting item. 3)The models were consturucted for computing of the optimum number of the fixtures by neural network. 4)By applying these models, the most waiting number of persons was computed for a standard.
Airflow measurements at three different heights, 6 m, 3 m and 1.8 m, above a flat roof of a building were carried out to grasp the vertical heat flux in an urban canopy layer. The heat flux was obtained by the eddy correlation method. The results show that both of sensible and latent heat fluxes at 6 m high are considered to be transported from surroundings of the building. The heat flux at 1.8 m high is regarded to be produced on the surface of building, because no latent heat flux was observed at this point.
In order to research the actual conditions of the urban climate in Nagano City, weather maps were made by drawing with temperature and relative humidity data. The authors obtained the following results: (1) Weather maps were made by drawing at an optional season, time and weather condition. For example, they were constructed at the coldest day and the hottest day, and they were examined for error, too. (2) A similarity in character of temperature in the commercial district in Nagano City andMatsumoto City was confirmed. As a result, the commercial district in these cities was different from the climate of the major city.
We carried out a questionnaire survey for college students, and investigated evaluation on multipul functions of green, cognition of green elements and the relations between these functions and elements. We made new physical environment indices using "kokudo-suuchi-jyoho" ( national land numerical information ) to see differences of the evaluation and the cognition by them. Functions of green were classified into two types; 1)functions which most people regarded as important, and 2)other functions which a small number of people regarded as important. Green elements were classified into three types; Dnatural, 2)rural and 3)artificial. The results showed that wildlife conservation function was connected to various green elements, and that urban residents demanded recreational function from not only artificial green but also natural green located in the distance.
The present study is based on the hyppthethis that the fundamental part of the evaluation in the process doesn't depend on the individual for the construction of the evaluation structure. And proposing to pay attention to "figure" of the urban landscapes, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how colors and forms act as figure of urban landscapes using cluster analysis, paired comparison and principal component analysis. As a result, the following conclusions were obtained. 1. It is confirmed that there reside four main components such as composition, perspective, regurality, and density in psychological dimentions. 2. Fechner's law is much effective to indicate the relationship between physical index and psychological response.
Analysing data reported on sweating, it seemed that thermal sweating rate was proportional to mean skin temperature, provided that the thermal equilibrium had been attained. This paper, first, described about the results of experiments conducted on thermal sweating of subjects under bicycle ergometer exercise, in which the linear relationship between the mean skin temperature and sweating rate was confirmed. Applying this relationship into the heat balance equation, a simple equation for predicting the mean skin temperature was introduced as an index of human response to the thermal environment.
Willam Metrel Vories, a Christian missionary, who arrived in Japan from the United States as a teacher of English in 1905, two years later founded a Christian missionary group called the Omi Mission . In addition to their a Christian misionary work, the Omi Mission established an architectural design company to secure their financial bases. It also went into business importing general merchandise and selling furniture. During the Taisho and the beginning of the Showa Eras it was well known for its activities in various fields. This study reviews various educational enterprises started by the Omi Misson with particular focuses on the Seiyu-en Yochien (Kindergarten of Pure Friends), the Omi Kinro-Jogakko (Omi Work-study Girls School) and the Omi Kasei-juku (Omi School of Home Economics). It also examines the philosophy behind these schools and how they attempted to teach the western style of dwelling amid the waves of modernization and westernization in Japan at the time. The education based on Christian ethics emphasized the western style of dwelling and had an influence on the intellect of Japanese women to aspire after the modern western family as a model.
The purpose of this paper is to find the characteristics of small outdoor space in densely built-up areas in Chiba city. The results are summarized as follows: The small outdoor space can be the place for various daily activities, although it seems to have relatively some restricted functions. And the space in the sense of physical environment is almost built by the inhabitant himself. As the content of building behavior is different depending on the shape of space (namely the narrowness), we got the two kinds of character of the building and their relations.
The objective of this study is to analyze the living space characteristics of fishing villages with boathouses where they have accepted the environment through living of the residents, formed under a climate condition on the coast of Japan Sea. We have selected three typical settlements where the density of housing are different, and investigated them. We found out that they formed the original living space that adapted to a peculiar climate. And we found out relations between boathouse and house from the viewpoint of the environment. It suggests the thought of the plan that matched the coastal zone.
The purpose of this paper is to characterize halls by publicity of halls, the degree of which is evaluated by how often entertainments played in them are placed in "Bunka-jouhou". It is a so-called 'small-scale communication' magazine circulated in Nara-city. We selected Nara city as a typical city in suburbs within commuting area for Osaka-city. By inspecting the applications of hall utilities, we got such information about the utilization of 8 halls in the city as the kinds of entertainment, promoting groups and purpose of the entertainment. The results are summarized as follows. 1) There are difference among performing categories and among promoting groups in playing season, period and time in a day. However, these are not independent but in relation to one another. 2) Halls are classified into 3 types of halls by frequency for entertainment to be placed in "Bunka-jouhou"; very often, often and rare. It means that there are mainly two types of halls: one is opened for many people and the other is limited for some people. 3) The types of public halls are large in size, well-equipped and specialized in management. On the other hands, the types of closed ones are small in size and are used with low fee. People use a suitable hall according to their own object.
The purpose of this study is to consider the phenomenon of reutilization of historic constructions in Milan. This paper is to clarify how the choice of the new functions is influenced by the characteristics of the zone and by the architectural volume. The city's properties are classified according to five functions : "business", "exhibition", "commerce", "education", "library". This research points out that the historic constructions in the city center house mainly public officies and exhibitions for tourists. The farther from the center, the more the historic constructions house educational activities and public officies for the local community. In case of large volumes it is usualy preferred to place different functions.
While strolling along a street, you may feel drawn to the space ahead of you. We have defined such dynamic attractiveness as "anticipation" and intend to elucidate the functional relations between anticipation and the space shape of curved streets. Using a visual simulator, we recorded 135 VTR images of street scale models and asked 16 subjects to estimate their magnitude of anticipation. From this we were able to extract physical factors such as the ratio of invisibility and height/(width)2 and incorporate them to formulate an equation that enables us to calculate the degree of anticipation.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the process of district planning in municipal development planning from a viewpoint of community participation. We analyzed by questionnaire survey to 511 rural municipalities in the country. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The district planning of community participation in rural municipality is generally effective. (2) The district planning of community participation is necessary to the supporting system for interactive learning between a local government and residents. (3) It is important for maintenance of the district planning by community participation to obtain not only financial support but man-power support.
Aerial perspective is one of characteristic phenomenon for Japanese landscape. Especially hazy scenery is impressive and important. However the effect of haze is close related to human perception, so it is too difficult to clear how it can be known. Therefore we propose the way to estimate it using Frequency Space and its contrast sensitivity (CSF). First we try to lead two kinds of formula of the estimation of CSF according to distance from human eyes. Next we examine CSF for several people using a striped pattern in the field. The result of examination is almost same as the estimation from formula-1 as variance. On the contrary it is the same as the estimation from formula-2 as mean of error.
Beijing as a paradigm of grid pattern planning is the latest capital city of China and has strong relevance in the form of the traditional Chinese cities. This paper is based on the studies on one of the historical residential district Cao-yang-men of the old inner city which mainly focus on the historical process of the transformation of the street (Hutong) blocks. We compare the historical maps to check the changes of names and locations of Hutongs, and also make a field survey of the distribution of different facilities and present state of the area to explain the transformation of the traditional Hutongs. This paper discusses the block model and steps of block division.
This paper clarifies the distribution and the building types of temples and shrines called Jibyou and Sindam in Taipei city. Ji mean Buddist temples and Byo mean confucian (taoism) temples in China. But, they also played a role as community facilities in the historical and political context of Taiwan societies which are consisted of migrants. It is said that the formation of the blocks is closely related to the distribution of temples and shrines. The major objectives is to discuss the urban structure of Taipei city focusing on the role of informal relegious facilities. This paper shows the increase of religious facilities are mostly seen in the newly developing suburbs (new town area) and especially Sindan occupy almost all the building types. This kind of facilities are not planned based on the ideas of modern urban planning. We have to learn a lot from the distribution of informal religious facilities for the community design.
This paper presents the usefulness of 'form-purification indices' for zoning preservation districts. Based on the concept of 'form-purification', the historical street-scape are classified into four categories: 'preservation district', 'district to be filled-up by traditional buildings', 'district to be filled-up by traditional streets' and 'district with studded cultural heritage'. The usefulness of the indices were examined through MonteCarlo simulations on a random distribution of traditional forms, and a field survey in the following three preservation districts: Narai, Ohmi-hachiman and Takayama, Japan. Based on the examinations, some alternative zoning and preservation policy are shown for each of the three districts.
This paper deals with the application in Pernes-les-Fontaines of the Zone of Protected Architectural and Urban Heritage(ZPPAUP), which was enacted in 1983 in order to protect the historical landcape. By examining the transformation of the town from 11^<th> century, problems concerning the urban heritage are indicated, and measures are taken in order to arrange the landscape. The area of the ZPPAUP is classified into two zones; namely,the urbanized zone and the landscape zone. In each zone, precise protection rules are introduced to control the urban landscape.
After the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, the number of mid-to-high-rise apartments has been increasing in Nishinomiya. The purpose of this paper is to examine the characteristics of the construction of those apartments and to point out their living environmental issues. There have occurred many social conflicts in the process of constructing the large-scale mid-to-high-rise apartment that tends to be built at the vacant lot by the outside developer. Although the height of the building is the most conflicting issue for the living environmental improvements, the enforcement of height control district is not a perfect measure for the solution of those issues.
This paper focuses on the physical elements found in public-private partitioning of space in residential area. And their psychological effect on the formation of the streetscape image are examined. The results of this study are as follows; 1) People prefer the physical elements which consist of natural elements such as flowers, plants and trees. These elements are useful for streetscape designs and public-private partitioning of space, because they bring people good impressions. 2) The streetscape design involves the important factor to make people active, and its good effect is expected. 3) In residential areas, streetscape designs and public-private partitioning of space have the potential to form a good regional community and image.
This study aims to develop a communication tool which is more simple than townscape models and to reveal that the tool is useful in consensus building on townscape images. On this paper,first,we developed "Machinami-okoshiezu" which got an idea from Okoshiezu that was handed down since Edo period. Secondly, we clarified the characteristics of evaluation for townscape simulation by using a miniature CCD camera and Machinami-okoshiezu. Thirdly, we practiced a simulation workshop that took notice of the characteristics and we made clear of that utility. Finally, we got a conclusion that Machinami-okoshiezu was useful in consensus building on townscape images. And furthermore, we got a problem that must be solved to establish a method of consensus building on townscape images.
This study aims at evaluating factors related to potential reductive capacity of damage in a city or a group of cities by macro-view all over Japan. Potential reductive capacity of damage is classified conscious against earthquake and community. Conscious against earthquake leads to action which is preparation of emergency supplies and fixing the furniture so on and community leads to rescue activity between residents. We are thinking that these two items can reduce damage by the earthquake and are also different all over Japan. As a result, we could clarified the regional characteristics all over Japan by two items and the index evaluated by two items is very important and leads to national measure and micro measure in each city by comparing to another cities.
Nowadays many cities are making Urban Master Plan, but how to combine each participatory method is not established. In this circumstances, it is very important for administration to design a "public participation program" for laying down an Urban Master Plan so that the public participation program shows the objective and opportunity of public participation at each stage of planning process. In this study, we analyze the public participation program for making Urban Master Plan in Kamakura City, clarify the present situation of the program, and suggest important points for designing public participation program. The results are as follows: (1)Public participation program in this case worked well to some degree from the viewpoint of "Collaborative planning"; (2)Participants did not always understand the whole program because of the lack of information, knowledge, and problems of public participation program ; and (3)At the same time, citizens' active and positive participation and administration's flexible management in the workshop approach and the planning committee led to collaborative planning and reflected to improvement of the plan.
This paper discusses harmonization to eliminate technical barriers and its influences on the nature of codes and standards system. By analyzing the EU Construction Products Directive, it identifies such principles concerning harmonized codes and standards system as; characteristics of a construction product may correlate to essential requirements through relationships among characteristics of works, and of parts/elements of them; They and products are managed by their own technical standards, consisting of goal, functions/performances, verifications and solutions; and, the correlation between essential requirements and a product may vary depending on the relationships between such notions included in each system.
The Fujita Residence at Amishima., Osaka built between 1886 and 1915 was an ideal example of the Kindai Wqfu Style in the Kansai region. However, A fire during the War destroyed the greater part of the house; only few part have been remained. The client, Denzaburou Fujita was the founder of fujita combines and a central figure in the Kansai economic world until the War, however, an adapt in the tea ceremony and a person of well cultivated tastes. As the result the Residence at Amishima admirably reflected both the Me style of the upper classes and his tastes. This study is an attempt to reconstruct above architectural outline of the Fujita Residence at Amishima.through using the drawing and the materials Preserved. The master carpenter, concerned the construction of the residence, Heisichi Imais careers and deed brought elucidate too.
The construction of the Galerie des Glaces is a turning point in the Versalles1 history about the relation between Le Brunand architects, the palace's nature and the aesthetic of mirror. The issue of this paper is a iconographical change of its plafond andits influences on the relation between the chateau and the gardens. At first, Apollonian themes were projected, but they werereplaced by Herculean myth, finally, by the histoire du Roi. The first plan that connects with the gardens' subjects as the palaisdu Soleil's keystone was abandoned and the harmony of the composition wasn't achieved.
In this paper, forming part of a comprehensive study on Hans Sedlmayr's theory of church architecture in its historical development from its origins to Gothic, four types of wall systems of Early Christian churches in Late Antique Europe are discussed within the framework of an analytical reading of this art historian's study : "Spatantike Wandsysteme" (Late Antique Wall Systems). Several meaningful concepts as regards the wall systems are clarified in close relation to Sedlmayr's architectural principles of light and body characterized by such concepts as "smooth wall", "thin wall", "floating", "luminous" and "bodiless".
The purpose of the study is to examine the exterior design of verandaed houses in New South Wales of Australia focusing on the elements of exterior design, roof framing, style of ridge, style of pillars of the veranda and so on. Roof framing was classified into 2 types ; Unified type and Separate type. Ridge style was classified into 5 types ; rectangular hipped roof, gable roof, broken hipped roof, bent hipped roof and concealed roof. After the comparative analysis on 41 samples of verandaed houses in New South Wales which were built from 1788 to 1850, it became clear that the Separate-rectangular hipped roof style and the Unifiede-broken hipped roof style holds a majority. Also, there were 32samples whose main facade is formed by single roof. The fact suggests that the Independent:rectangular hipped roof style and the Unified-broken hipped roof style compose one of the distinctive feature of exterior design.