A risk-based evaluation method for countermeasures against seismic-induced fires was developed considering the influences of uncertain factors governing behaviors of urban fire and evacuation. A risk concept was introduced into the proposed method, where the risk was defined as the probability that the ratio of burnt down buildings or burn death people in an administrative unit exceeds a threshold within a given time period from the earthquake. The risk was calculated by a combination of Monte Carlo simulation and physics-based fire/evacuation simulation, where the following uncertain factors were considered to set fire scenarios: (1) ignition; (2) fire fighting at initial stage; (3) weather; (4) structural damage of a building; (5) initial location of an evacuee; and (6) passage obstruction of a road. In this paper, the risk of Kyoto city was evaluated by the assumption of eight kinds of inland earthquakes to validate the availability of the method. As a result, the effect of the measure which enhances fireproof performance of buildings could be quantified with the decrement of the risk.
The aim of this study is to summarize consciousness of the parents about introducing the hoist system. We conducted a survey of 311 parents of children with physical disabilities. We also asked 48 parents to experience the hoist system to answer whether they changed consciousness about the hoist system. A statistical analysis show that the parents changed preconceptions about the hoist system after they experienced it. The statistical analysis results are as follows. 1. Parents are negative to introduce the hoist system even if their child has become heavier, because they think it easier to lift by themselves than to use the hoist system. 2. Parents think that their bathroom is not large enough to use the hoist system.Many of them need more useful the hoist system in small bathroom. 3. Parents think the hoist system is not effective because they have not used it. After they experienced to use, their impression of the hoist system has changed to be better significantly.
This paper aims to clarify the social activities by the foreign people of Karuizawa in the summer of 1930. First, we investigate several archival data of the years 1911, 1919, 1930 and 1939 in order to situate the summer retreat area in Karuizawa around the year 1930. Through the investigation of these data, we would be able to find out that, while substantial number of villas owned by forigners have been existed, the ones owned by Japanese have increased rapidly and have started to mixed together. Second, by the analysis on the correspondent articles of the newspaper, The Japan Times, in the summer of 1930, we could understand that their summer activities having been started from a series of Chirstian missionaries meetings and the annual meeting of the Federation of Chiristian Missions, that were followed by the Karuizawa Summer Residents' Accociation tennis tournament, its community concerts, and ended with farewell social gatherings. In addition, all of these activities seems to be well structured in order to entertain both foreign and Japanese occupants.
Estimating the number of users and their spatial distribution is necessary in the planning process of public facilities. In the present study, we construct a model based on Nested Logit Model, which is composed of facilities' attraction and users' travel costs, to describe user's choice behavior of facilities. The travel costs are described using variables of the network distance, the means of transportation, the direction of movement, and the number of transfers. As a numerical analysis, validation of the proposed model is achieved by estimating the number of users and their spatial distribution of newly constructed Yokohama City Library.
The objective of this paper is to identify the effects of a private room's arrangement on the mentally handicapped children's interaction. The survey was conducted in one institution, with a private room. Methodologies used were direct observation of the interior details and staff interviews survey. The results are: 1) Private room can be set according to the preference of the children's personality., 2) Children with serious handicap tend to simply arrange their private rooms, with less furniture and interior details. Children with not so serious handicap tend to be more creative and demonstrative of their independence., 3) It is suggested that to empower mentally handicapped children, it is important to have an environment with well-considered interior details and space set-up. From this research, it was found that the use of private rooms is effective in giving mentally handicapped children to live one's own lifestyle.
This paper proposes a methodology for evaluating the extent of visual surveillance possible on elementary schools grounds by measuring the level of three-dimensional visibility of school building windows. A method of measurement using CG models was developed that takes the distance, the angle of the line of sight and effects caused by trees and surrounding buildings into consideration. The level of ‘natural’ surveillance was then evaluated at five elementary schools and results were assessed comparatively. In conclusion, the proposed evaluation method was found to be a useful tool in developing crime prevention plans for elementary schools.
The purpose of this study was verifying the relationship between a psychological stress and postural stability of sense as a design capacity in altitudes. The examinees overlooked outside at high-angle by a VR system. The psychological stress was measured by Electro-Dermal Activity. The design of postural stability of sense was classified into following 3 groups: window with a horizontal handrail, window with a vertical handrail, window with unstable ground. As a result, the psychological stress was decreased with the handrails, although it was increased with unstable ground. These results indicated the attenuation of the psychological stress by corresponding design.
In recent years, it is clarified that autism spectrum disorder person have special senses, and differ from normal senses. This study is therefore intended to clarify confusion between autism spectrum disorder and building environment. The survey was conducted as follows; 1) Analysis of texts written by persons with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome. 2) Interview by documents to some persons with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome. We can be clarified that autism spectrum disorder persons have various type of confusion and barriers against building environment. And the barriers between autism spectrum disorder and living environment are space planning, shapes, color, quality of materials, lighting, acoustic, heating, air-conditioning.
In this paper, a preliminary report is given on an architectural workshop entitled “Extended Cinematics: A Design Process Based on Architectural Interpretations of Narrative Film Structures” that was organized as a design experimentation platform for transforming film into architecture. Then based on structuralist semio-linguistic approaches to film analysis, and using the architectural designs resulted from the experiment, a mapping process that includes Design Derivation Diagrams surveying the transformation of narrative into architecture is introduced. Finally, using data from the latter diagrams, film-specific properties are identified to influence these transformation processes more than the design topics assigned to the participants.
This research deals with the problem of conserving Machiya focusing on its context for later use in a design method. It consists in a study of the actual context of Machiya using physical parameters based on a framework considering Machiya as an inhabitation system. First it explains the theoretical framework for understanding Machiya as such system, and then establishes an approach using semiotic theory of C. S. Peirce in order to distinguish semiotic indicators for parametric analysis corresponding to “Icons” “Indexes” and “Symbols” for testing such categories. An area of historical districts in Kyoto is analyzed using a set of indicators applied to each building in order to represent how such context of Machiya is present in each building by calculating a “contextual score”. It is found that the given theoretical framework is consistent with the results of analysis, showing that when focusing on indexes of systems of inhabitation as indicator instead of physical description (icons), it is possible to address the architectural context of an architectural typology such as Machiya, which can be complemented with clustering or other techniques.
This study aims to consider the issues on waiting room of the pediatrics clinic based on the action research of the case we've designed to renovate O CLINIC in Kita-Hiroshima, Hokkaido. As a result of comparative analysis between before and after the renovation, the following points on the waiting room planning have become clear; 1) compatibility of socio petal and socio fugal by the layout chairs with an angle of 90 degree, 2) adjustment between enough traffic lines from place to place and distances of each places, 3) selectivity on choice of chairs in order to follow with children's activities.
The aim of this study is to clarify the characteristics of indoor and outdoor living spaces in contemporary Japanese courtyard houses. Firstly, furnishings of courtyards, such as floor-materials, sky-coverings and fixtures, are analyzed. Secondly, spatial connections between courtyards and living rooms are analyzed by their sectional arrangements and floor areas. Finally, seven compositional types of furnishing of courtyards and connection with living rooms are suggested. Prevalent types show a tendency of characteristics of small courtyards something like attached outdoor rooms because these courtyards are mainly furnished with artificial floor-materials and connected to adjacent living rooms. Types of the combination of artificial and natural floor-materials emerged in various spatial connections. The type of courtyard furnished with only natural floor-materials is found in the case of combination with living rooms on the upper floor.
The “Old Villa House” is one of the Shanghai-Style Architectures, which was called “Luxury House” in the foreign settlement period of Shanghai, and about 4,000 houses existed in 1949. Since 2003, 225 “Old Villa Houses” were recognized to the “Excellent History Building” by Shanghai municipal government. However, the others which were unrecognized are facing deteriorating and living environmental problems, when two or more families are living in one house. This study aims to consider the sustainability of the residential use and conservation of the “Old Villa House”. According to the survey, the residents are dissatisfied with “actual condition of the building” and “living floor space”, etc. So it is necessary to improve the living environment and to control the density of occupancy of the “Old Villa House” in order to continue people living and building conservation use in the future.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the living environments in proximity to suburban business areas and to compare them to the central district of the Tokyo metropolitan area. Commuting areas that surround 39 suburban business districts have been defined as self-sustaining regions (SSRs). Living environments within these regions and the central Tokyo region have been described and mutually compared on the basis of data from the National Housing and Estate Statistics as well as several other supplementary statistics. Overall, the comparison of living environments reveals that housing affordability and commuting distance were the main problems within central Tokyo, while those two factors did not pose as much of a problem in SSRs. In addition, through cluster analysis using living environmental indicators, we have broken SSRs into three categories and have analyzed their characteristic features. It has been identified that SSRs within each category were closely distributed geographically, forming spatial clusters. From the standpoint of business characteristics, one category had a high ratio of white-collar jobs, which is similar to central Tokyo, while the other two categories had high ratios of blue-collar jobs. Dependency on automobiles for daily transportation was relatively high in all SSR categories when compared to central Tokyo.
Transnational city networks in European area became further diversified. There are wide varieties of purposes and activities. EU Regional Policies also operates urban network programme URBACT II. URBACT II seems to have strategies not only for leading cities but also less-experienced cities. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the characteristics of URBACT II through the case studies Joining Forces. As a result of analysis; 1) URBACT II programme has the strict process to build the appropriate city networks from the application phase. These processes lead to reduce city disparities and empowerment less-experienced cities. 2) URBACT II requires community participation for Local Action Plan. 3) These processes are sustaining sustainability by making the platform for community level and city networks.
Since the late 1980s in European major cities, government, architects, urban planners have gathered to create urban centers to inform public the past, present and future vision of the region in order to promote sustainable urban planning debate among stakeholders. Those centers are 1) set with designed office within historic or modern building in the central part of the region, 2) lead by experts, and 3) participated and funded by multi entities including government, private companies or stakeholders. This paper focuses on urban centers by organizational structure typology, and look through five cases which are Pavillon de L'arsenal, Urban Center Bologna, Architectuurcentrum Amsterdam, New London Architecture, and Urban Center Metropolitano in Turin, to reveal the methods to establish and organize by publicprivate partnership formulation effectively in these municipal regions.
This study aims to clarify the relationship among difference forms and the spatial morphology by a contrast of spatial morphology, through comparing the 6 villages in the island of the Seto Inland Sea. This paper mainly divided into 2 aspects. 1. This study followed previous qualitative analysis, to examine the distribution of the constituent elements of the village and the morphology on the on the boundary and the road, then classified and compared them through qualitative analysis approach. 2. This study summarized five spatial morphologies of village on morphology on macro-layer, and compared their characteristics in same analysis system in order to explore relationship between various morphologies.
The growing interest in customers' participation in unit planning has brought forth recent developments by general contractors in skeleton design for high-rise blocks of condominiums. This paper analyzes the capacity in flexible planning of prevalent skeleton designs of recent years, focusing on the modularity of ‘skeleton-infill architecture’. The analyses has proven that there is an evident trace of modularization and that the modularization has been achieved firstly by adopting flat floor slab systems and then by eliminating cross beams. The way to free planning has thus been paved, but the authors foresee the next stage need for modularizing infill construction.
This study aims to clarify the factors for realization of the repair and extension works by “Kiwanosatoni-tsudou-kai” mainly composed of village inhabitants with the analysis of repair contents and processes, the division of works and repair costs. The factors are as follows. 1)The president of tsudoukai took on the responsibility of acting as a manager. 2) Inhabitants who have techniques and experiences of house repair participated in works of demolition, foundation and timber frame repair. 3) The whole repair costs were reduced because of procuring materials by themselves and setting low of labor cost. 4) The funds were prepared by subsidies and donations.
In this research, we are developing a Facility Evaluation Method with the aim of obtaining the insights required when studying how to improve the satisfaction level among students. By applying this method to six universities we are also verifying its effectiveness. First, we have formed the Facility Evaluation Method using the results obtained from previous research. Specifically, nineteen “Facilities for Evaluation”, such as “lecture rooms” and “library” were established, and then 152 “Evaluation Items” were established to evaluate each facility concerned. The results of analysis using this method are indicated below. As a result of relative analysis of the frequency of use and level of provisioning of each Facility for Evaluation at each university, a total of twelve facilities were identified as “Facilities Requiring Improvement”, that need to be improved as a priority measure. Additionally, in this study we also implemented a relative analysis of the level of importance and satisfaction level for each Evaluation Item at each Facility Requiring Improvement, and clarified a total of twenty-six “Items Requiring Improvement”, items for which improvements are thought to bring significant benefits.
As a result of analyzing buildings with Hutanoki-shigedaruki eaves based on the hypothesis that their design was based on a method called tomesaki, the following conclusions are drawn. 1. The tomesaki method can further be classified into two branch systems, one called kihon-kei (basic system) and the other anbun-gata (dimensioning system based on proportions). There is yet another special system called sowari-gata, in which rafter intervals are made identical. 2. The layout of haitsuke-daruki is related to the width of a hip rafter.
HIKIKOMITARUKI-method seems to have experienced a great deal of transformation due to the publication of the “HITORIKEIKO-SUMIKANEHINAGATA”. 1. The method for KIKUJUTSU in Kobayashi's publication greatly advanced the drawing rafter method. 2. As a result of these changes, a logical method for dimensioning eaves was completed. This method, however, was not generally accepted by the profession even in the Meiji period and after. 3. Contrary to this trend, the logical consistency of the method used in “HITORIKEIKO-SUMIKANEHINAGATA” was accepted by those engaged in the repair of buildings designated as cultural assets.
"Rakuchuezu" was produced in early stages of the Edo period. The farmer residence of two farm villages (Higashishiokouji-mura and Nishikyo-mura) was described in these historical historical records as "Machiya." "Machiya" is generally a name of the residence of urban areas. It guesses that "Machiya" described in the rural farmer residence meant this paper as the building of the town-ized area. And it points out that this appearance had various examples to the historical term "Machiya".
The purpose of this research is in the actual condition elucidation of construction by carpenter Dembei Kitamura of Kyoto. In this paper, the Nakano family residence which carries out the whereabouts to Nagaokakyo-shi, Kyoto is taken up in order to clarify a part of construction by Dembei in detail. It analyzed centering on the "estimate" of the "Nakano family old document" about the actual condition of Dembei's construction in the tearoom of the Nakano family residence, and a material plan. Dembei planned the detailed material plan from the estimated stage, and added change suitably, and expected it to construction implementation.
This study indicated that Okura-syo owned by Kaga domain located in Etty&ucric; Province are to be classified into three types. By analyzing the factors that affect the spatial structures of each type, it was affirmed that domain's agricultural policies such as Nakadashi and Sakujiki giving consideration to farmers resulted to create these types.
This paper clarifies the foundation process and projects of the Kagoshima City Housing Association (KCHA) from 1945 to 1966. We evaluate the importance of KCHA as a working organ for the housing policy, also the characteristics of their architectural works. A commercial union took the initiative in KCHA's foundation, and the revival through the commercial activation, not only by the housing supply, was the particularity of KCHA's performance. Staff of the architectural section of the Kagoshima City Office involved to the advanced design projects, such as shop-houses, apartments, suburban residential developments with detached houses.
To make a thematic explication of Aldo van Eyck's architectural concepts of time, the analysis in this paper consists of three chapters as follows: Chapter 2 explicates the temporal structure of “experience” with reference to his early treatises which depict especially the vital quality in works of modern art. Chapter 3 illustrates some developments of his concept by analyzing his inquries into “place and occasion” in the light of “depth”, “perspective”, and “duration”. At last, in chapter 4, it is inspected in the manuscript how these concepts are to be realized as embodied entities in actual architecture and city.
This paper intends to shed light on the spatial composition of Claremont Garden, one of the most representative English landscape gardens in 18th century. We focused on the garden's creation by Charles Bridgeman with Sir John Vanbrugh and later development by William Kent, and reproduced the original plans based principally on 3 maps. The spatial composition was analyzed by axis, geometrical composition and landform. In conclusion, Bridgeman and Vanbrugh designed the garden based on some axes abstracted from the landform, but some geometrical relationships between them were hidden. Kent disposed of some axes and emphasized both ends of the ridge.
The purpose of this paper is to explore attractions of yamazato (location of leisure activity / romance / secluded life / religion) described in literary works of Heian era. The followings have been obtained as conclusions. (1) yamazato as a place of leisure activity was the place that freed people from capital's daily lives and took them out of the real world and took them to another world. (2) yamazato as a place of romance was just like the world described in a story and released people from the reality of the boring capital. (3) yamazato as a place of secluded life and religion was a place that released people from the reality and this world itself. Yamazato in Heian era was deemed as a place that released people from the reality of the world, which was difficult to live in.
Biwako canal in Kyoto City was constructed in the period from 1885 to 1890 in order to supply water for irrigation systems and develop the utilization of water power, transportation by ship and so on. There were 2 routes on the canal, the one was the route in Ohtoh area beside eastern district of Kamo river for the transportation and later also for hydroelectric power, the other was the route of north-east area of Kyoto for the irrigation. The expropriation performance of the canal was discussed in this paper depended on the maps drawn in the construction and the cadastre on expropriation. The new city planning in the Ohtoh area, especially road networks along the canal was designed, and the canal route was determined to decrease flow rate and to choose the low cost expropriation.
Japan occupied most of Micronesia at the outbreak of World War One and tranformed the island region with substantial migration and urban development under the Nan'yo-cho. This paper examines the urban morphology and functions of Japanese colonial towns and settlements in the Nan'yo-cho's three branch districts (shicho); Ponape (including Kusaie), Yap and Jaluit (Marshalls). As far as the number of Japanese migrants was concerned, excluding population centers on Ponape, the towns and settlements were much smaller as compared to those in the Northern Marianas and Palau. Yet the fundamental features of Japanese colonial settlements were shared with larger towns. The paper also discusses the functions of Japanese colonial outposts in the periphery of the short-lived colonial empire in the Pacific.
This study is to analyze the history of Toyama town, which had been struggled with repeating damages of floods since it was founded, focusing on its geography, land-use and river management. The resulted findings are as follows. 1) The Joganji-River as well as the Jintsu-River flooded the town. 2) Three major measures taken by the rulers to develop their territory made damages more serious. That is, harnessing the Jintsu-River as a castle moat, expanding the town into the bottomlands along the two rivers and making irrigation systems from the Joganji-River, which also could draw the flood water to the town.
The purpose of this research is for women students to master “the education by woods”. This purpose reached, when they designed “the education by woods and a wooden toy”. After work, the questionnaire survey was conducted to them. The result, it turned out that the following aim has been achieved. 1) They acquired the knowledge of the forest. 2) They found a wooden kind and textures. 3) They raised the sense of the design. 4) They acquired cooperativeness and a sense of accomplishment.